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SDSU / Engineering / COMM 103 / How does perception occur?

How does perception occur?

How does perception occur?


School: San Diego State University
Department: Engineering
Course: Oral Communication
Professor: M. rapp
Term: Fall 2016
Cost: 50
Name: Final SG - Comm
Description: study guide for the final on Saturday, May 6, 2017
Uploaded: 04/30/2017
8 Pages 116 Views 6 Unlocks

Rachel Willis

What is perception?

Comm 103 – Study Guide 2

Chapter 3

∙ perception – the process of making meaning from  environmental experiences

∙ perception is a process

o selection

o organization

o interpretation

∙ What influences our perceptions?

o cultures/co-cultures

o stereotypes: a generalization about a group or  category of people that is applied to individual  members of that group

o primary and recency effets

o perceptual sets: a person’s predisposition to  perceive only what he or she wants or expects to  perceive

∙ two common attribution errors

o self-serving bias – the tendency to attribute one’s successes to stable internal causes and one’s  

What is the process of perception?

failures to unstable external causes Don't forget about the age old question of What is the robber's cave experiment?

o fundamental attribution error – the tendency to  attribute others’ behaviors to internal rather than  external causes

∙ how we perceive ourselves

o self-concept – the set of perceptions a person has  about who he or she is; aka. identity

o identity – the set of perceptions a person has  about who he or she is; aka. self-concept

∙ managing our image

o image management – the process of projecting  one’s desired public image If you want to learn more check out What are the complications of iron toxicity?


Rachel Willis

o facework – the behaviors people use to establish  and maintain their desired public image with others o face needs – important components of one’s  desired public image

What influences our perceptions?

 fellowship face – the need to be liked and  

accepted by others

 autonomy face – the need to avoid being  

imposed on by others

 competence face – the need to be respected  and viewed as competent and intelligent

Chapter 5

∙ nonverbal characteristics – behaviors and  characteristics that convey meaning without the use of  words

∙ all aspects of communication other than words ∙ nonverbal communication behaviors accompany words ∙ nonverbal communication behaviors convey meaning on  their own If you want to learn more check out What is the usage of opportunity cost?

∙ 6 Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication o present in most communication contexts

 email/text uses emojis

o often conveys more information than verbal  communication

o usually believed over verbal communication

o primary means of expressing emotion

o it metacommunicates

 smile on your face tells friend that you are  


o it serves multiple functions

 manages conversations, maintains  


∙ facial displays

o communicates more information than any other  nonverbal We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between this course and a sociology of law or a law and society course?


Rachel Willis

o particularly important in three arenas

 identity

 attractiveness

 emotions

∙ anger, happiness, fear, surprise, disgust,  


∙ eye behaviors – oculesics

o used to communicate intimacy or interest

o to express power, dominance, and control

∙ the study of body movement is known as kinesics  (walking, posture)

o the study of arm and hand movements =  


∙ haptics – the study of touch

o affectionate touch – hug, kiss, hold hands

o caregiving touch – haircut, trainer, dentist

o power and control touch – police, parents

o aggressive touch – punch, slap, kick

o ritualistic touch – hand shake, high 5 If you want to learn more check out What is the basis for the court's decision that states can regulate child pornography?

∙ volcalics – aspects of the voice that convey meaning o pitch

o inflection

o volume

o rate

o filler words

o pronunciation

Chapter 6

∙ listening – active process of making meaning out of  another person’s spoken message

o active process, not automatic

o more than just hearing: the sensory process of  receiving of perceiving sounds

∙ importance of listening

o college students spend 50% of their day listening o improves quality of relationships!


Rachel Willis

o #1 rated skill by employers

∙ HURIER model

o Hearing – physically receive sound

o Understanding – comprehend the message

o Remembering – store it in memory

o Interpreting – assign it meaning

o Evaluating – judge the message and sender

o Responding – verbal/nonverbal

∙ Types of Listening

o informational listening

 goal = to learn, acquire new knowledge

o critical listening Don't forget about the age old question of After many generations of random mating, the population would be expected to consist of what?

 goal = to evaluate or analyze information

o empathic listening

 goal = trying to identify with another by  

understanding and experiencing their  


∙ Common Barriers to Effective Listening

o glazing over

o rebuttal tendency

o closed-mindedness

o competitive interrupting

∙ to become a better critical listener

o be a skeptic: attitude of doubt or belief

o evaluate a speaker’s credibility

o understand probability (vs possibility)

∙ to become a better empathic listener

o listen nonjudgmentally

o acknowledge feelings  

o communicate support nonverbally

Chapter 7

∙ we form social relationships because we need to  belong

∙ social relationships bring rewards


Rachel Willis

o emotional rewards: support, encouragement,  happiness

o material rewards: share resources ($, food, car,  shelter)

o health rewards: positive relationships = good  wellbeing

∙ social relationships carry costs

o time investment

o emotional investment: support, frustration

o material investment: vacation, night out

o physical/health investment: help move, clean out  garage

∙ social exchange theory – we seek relationships in  which benefits outweigh costs 

o comparison level – our realistic expectation of  what we want and think we deserve from a  


o comparison level for alternatives – our  

assessment of how our current relationship  

compares to our other options

∙ equity theory

o over-benefited – receiving more from the  

relationship that you are giving

o under-benefited – giving more to the relationship  than you are receiving

∙ relational maintenance behaviors theory

o positivity: being friendly and cheerful

o openness: willingness to discuss relationship o assurances: stress faithfulness and commitment o social networks: groups of family and friends o sharing tasks: equal contributions

1. In male-male friendships, the relationship is  strengthened by ______.

a. talking and sharing together

b. making eye contact

c. hugging and touching


Rachel Willis

d. doing an activity 

2. What do you value most in a friendship?

a. time

b. honesty

c. support

d. loyalty

e. other?

3. Can two people just be friends if one of them is  physically attracted to the other friend?

a. yes

b. no

c. unsure

Chapter 8

∙ intimate relationships require deep commitment o emotional commitment: responsible for other’s  feelings

o social commitment: spend time together, share, be  kind

o legal commitment: parents raise a child; married  couple

o financial commitment: provide for another, travel,  gifts

∙ intimate relationships foster interdependence ∙ intimate relationships require continuous investment ∙ intimate relationships spark dialectical tensions

o dialectical tensions are conflicts between two  important but opposing needs

 autonomy/connection

 novelty/predictability

 openness/closeness

1. Sally’s boss at work is Heather. Sally likes Heather and  hopes they can be friends. Why is their friendship likely  to be more complicated than Sally’s friendships with her  co-workers?

a. Their relationship violates the norm of reciprocity 6

Rachel Willis

b. Their relationship includes a power difference c. Their relationship is based on equity theory

d. Their relationship is a social exchange

Chapter 15

∙ persuasion – an attempt to motivate others through  communication to adopt or to maintain a specific  manner of thinking or doing

∙ we must influence others

o beliefs: true/false, accurate/inaccurate

o opinions: good/bad

o actions: behaviors

∙ three forms of rhetorical proof

o ethos – most powerful

o pathos

o logos

 inductive reasoning

 deductive reasoning

∙ Organizing Persuasive Messages

o establish that a problem exists and is serious o describe the causes of the problem

o explain that your proposed solution is possible,  practical, and effective

 provide the class with an action step that we  can take after your speech

Chapter 17

∙ types of media

o print media

o sound media

o image media

o electronic and social media

∙ uses and gratifications

o people use media to fulfill:

 need for information

 need for personal identity


Rachel Willis

 need for social integration

 need for entertainment

∙ agenda-setting: there are gatekeepers

o decide what to report, air, inform

o reporters, editors, advertisers

o tell us what to think about (not what to think) 8

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