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CSU / Psychology / PSY 260 / What is the ability to reason logically about direct experiences and p

What is the ability to reason logically about direct experiences and p

What is the ability to reason logically about direct experiences and p

Description

School: Colorado State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Child Psychology
Professor: Gingerich
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: PSY260, childpsych, Psychology, Science, Studyguide, final, notes, ChildPsychology, and exam
Cost: 50
Name: PSY 260 Study Guide for Final Exam
Description: This study guide/notes section includes material that will be covered on the final exam. Key terms are highlighted, and concepts are typed word for word what the professor had in class lectures.
Uploaded: 05/01/2017
7 Pages 302 Views 0 Unlocks
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CHAPTER 12

4/21/17

Concrete Operational Stage

  • Concrete operational thought – the ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perception; posited by Piaget
  • With the word “operational” Piaget was observing the onset of productive thinking
  • “Concrete” refers to situations grounded in actual experience
  • Theoretically, education is easier once children arrive at this stage
  • Classification

  • Classification – the logical principle that things can be organized into groups/categories/classes according to a shared characteristic
  • Are there more bears or toys? Is there more bacon or meat?
  • Preoperational children struggle
  • Seriation

  • Seriation – the concept that things can be arranged in a logical series like sequences of numbers or the alphabet
  • Understanding that seriation is important for application of these sequences or lists
  • Let’s imagine a child in Wonka’s chocolate factory
  • Piaget Takeaways

  • Concrete operational thought ability is correlated to math success, including understanding of
  • Classification (20s, 30s, etc.)
  •  Seriation (81 comes after 68)
  • Conservation (7+3=10 and 3+7=10)
  • Reversibility (if 4/20=80, then 80/20=4)
  • Once again, Piaget was incorrect in thinking that logic develops in sudden stage­like shifts, but the demonstrated how school-age children understand and apply categories in more complex ways
  • Children rise to the expectations that are held of them
  • Some studies have shown that children who are young for their year in school year have greater achievement scores than children almost the same age that are one grade back
  • Instruction and social interaction probably work together for this effect
  • Children are always learning
  • 3 main sources of cognitive activity are
  • Families
  • Preschool programs
  • First Grade curriculum
  • Receiving all 3 of those types of simulation overrides SES
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    Evidence for Vygotsky Internationally

  • Children in Varsani, India have remarkable spatial orientation skills as a result of their language.
  • Children from cultures where children observe and guide other children performed better on a new task than children from cultures where instruction is emphasized
  • Takeaway: while Piaget observed universal changes, Vygotsky discovered the important effects of culture on learning/cog development
  • Information Processing

  • Information processing – a framework of theories that all examine how minds work before to a response to something
  • All assume that, given a large body of information, people
  • Seek relevant units of information
  • Analyze those units
  • Express conclusions in a way that other people can understand
  • IP unearthed the importance of repeated experiences as the building blocks of learning, as they forge brain connections and pathways
  • Robert Siegler:
  • His research helped determine that children accrue understanding over time
  • Found that number line tasks are predictive of math achievement internationally and that Chinese children are better at number line tasks than U.S.
  • Also found that comparing magnitude was predictive of achievement
  • We also discuss several other topics like Descriptive Analysis: What to describe?
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    Don't forget about the age old question of What are the steps of landscape design? What happens at each step?

    IP and Knowledge

  • IP perspective on learning helped uncover how a knowledge base – a body of knowledge in a particular area – makes it easier to understand related new information
  • Having a broad knowledge base not only assists retention, but also improves the ability to judge what is true and what is worth retaining
  • What helps growth of the knowledge base?
  • Past experience
  • Current opportunity
  • Personal motivation
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