GY202: The Water Planet
Final Study Guide
Wetlands (Lecture 15, supplementary reading)
Describe three benefits that wetlands provide to society.
Habitats for fish
Describe three settings in which wetlands are found.
Flood Plains low lying area like a swamp that collects water,
Isolated Depression land where water is collecting for a long amount of time, low lying terrain so that water will central and collect there
Basins with Streams streams flow through the basin, the basin has deep and spread out area so some water gets caught and stays.
somewhere with a lot of water
something that prevents water from draining (clay)
Urban Hydrology (Lecture 16, supplementary reading)
Describe three ways in which urban development alters hydrological processes and water resources.
Pollution and runoff (urban run off)
Combine sewer overflow
Channel river/ concrete dam (modification of channel)
Flood risk (increase of flood risk, larger impermeable surface area, less water permeating the surface, more water traveling across surface as overland flow)
Describe three steps that can be taken to mitigate urban flooding.
moving buildings to high ground above flood level
elevating buildings/houses so that flood water will go under it
building walls to keep water from reaching land/building/neighborhoods 4. Detention and Retention Ponds
-improve water quality
-improve channel stability
also keeping people aware of flood consequences
WaterQuality Parameters (Chapter 7, Lecture 17)
Explain the Hjulstrom curve and describe its importance for suspended loading in a river. The relationship between water velocity, sediment and erosion. Faster water moves the faster particles are broken down.
If you want to learn more check out what are Benefits of Freedom of Expression?
Grainy slows down flow and is deposited
Continue to be transported when they are fine sediment because so light
*Graph that has size on x axis and velocity on y axis. Shows relationship between flow velocity and grain size*
Discuss the importance of the BOD5 test in the assessment of overall water quality for a river.
Biochemical oxygen demand water quality test that is commonly done, waste water plants do it on discharging water
Measures amount of organic water in a sample, take sample of water and let it sit in a dish for 5 days bacteria grows amount population grows and takes oxygen out of the water. measure the dissolves oxygen content before and after, difference tells you how much microbial activity there has been, how much organic matter
Describe the many ways that surface water and groundwater can become contaminated.
o Landfill: pollution can runoff and into nearby rivers/streams
o Septic tank: unfiltered sewage in the water
o Factory wells, spills, emissions
o Truck fuel spill: run off goes into surface water
o Leaking gas station tank: Underground so it does straight into groundwater
Sketch a plume of contamination, showing how it relates to the source of contamination and the direction of groundwater flow. We also discuss several other topics like how the Egyptian hieroglyphic system was used to represent numbers?
Contamination flows with groundwater down the slope of the water table in general, wells should be placed uphill of septic tanks
Measurement (Chapter 7, Lecture 18)
Describe three elements of a waterquality sampling strategy that should be included in order to ensure that samples are representative.
Get samples from different areas, different times may be different seasonally or after storming events
For water, take samples from top and middle and bottom v important for lakes Use different tests, proxy indicator tests
Compare the advantages and disadvantages of two different types of waterquality measurement techniques. We also discuss several other topics like What are the differences between civil and criminal cases?
Measures the Total Dissolved Solids. The water is filtered through filtered paper, weighed then put into an oven then weighed again when dry.
Advantages: very accurate results of the total dissolved solids in the water Disadvantages: Laboratory technique not field experiment, only analyzes one element or one group of elements at a time, time consuming
Go out into field and collect samples from different depths, and locations Advantage: simple/straight forward, beneficial for a narrow focused sample Disadvantage: Have to go out in field, not a precise measuring tool
Proxy Measures of Water Quality (Chapter 7, Lecture 19)
Compare and contrast the direct measurement of water quality parameters to the use of proxy measures for the overall assessment of water quality in a river. (lecture 19)
sediment: long sediment on stream bed accumulated over a period of years can see long term advantage is you can see the long term overall water quality
see if lake bed or slow moving rivers, soil is horizontal layers, can take a sample and see changes over time
some types of pollution that don’t exist free flowing in water but they are in the sediment so you can see the pollution
No sensitive species, tells you there is no species but it does not tell you why there are non Not specific, especially in case of biological indicators.
Explain the major causes of enhanced (cultural) eutrophication in a river system and describe the measures that may be taken to prevent it occurring. If you want to learn more check out What is Gross Anatomy?
Adding excessive nutrients
Fertilizers, waste water
Excessive plant growth, plants use up a lot of oxygen and over grow
Applying irrigation water directly to plant roots so large amounts don’t run off Better waste water treatment
Controlling Water Quality (Chapter 7, Lecture 20)
Explain how residence time of water in a watershed can influence the water quality response to land use change.
Residence time: amount of time that water spends in a particular place
RT in rivers in short bc always moving, Ideally water will flush out contamination quickly RT in lake is longer bc not really any outlets, contaminated water will stay longer, longer term water quality problems Don't forget about the age old question of Who is Benjamin Franklin?
Eutrophication is more of a problem in lakes than quicker moving rivers (not getting freshwater to flush everything out)
River short RT, more resilient to pollution
Lakes long RT, less resilient to pollution
Explain the difference between point and nonpoint (diffuse) source pollution and how each can be controlled.
Can be controlled by cutting off the source of the pollution
can be controlled by runoff control
Water Supply and Demand (Lecture 21, supplementary readings)
Give three examples of how water supply can be increased.
1. Dams water is stored
2. Aquifer storage/recover Overflow of water is pushed to the aquifer during the storm season for storage and recovered from aquifer during dry season
3. Desalination Seawater is desalinized and turned into tap water
Give three examples of how water demand can be reduced.
Water conservation can reduce the demand for water
1. Replacing faucets with watersense models saves up to 700 gallons per year 2. Replacing toilets with highefficiency ones using less water
3. Prewashing dishes in the sink before putting in the dishwasher can save 20 gallons of water per cycle
Water Security (Lecture 22, supplementary reading)
Explain what water security is and why it is important.
Water security is reliable access to water of sufficient quantity and quality for basic human needs. It is a balance of water services and water supply services to all that interacts with it. Without water security there is lack of water which leads… Don't forget about the age old question of What is incentives?
o Water related diseases
o Less income
o Overall food/water insecurity
Describe an example of a conflict over water.
A country in the middle east is experiencing problems with energy shortages so it will build a hydroelectric dam. The dam will create irrigation problems for a country to the west, so that country is imposed tariffs and travel restrictions on the country creating the dam
Water Resource Management (Chapter 8, Lecture 23)
Discuss how the principles of Integrated Water Resource Management can be applied to the management of a watershed.
Understanding what water resources are available and the water needs of communities. Requirements measurements of flows, groundwater levels, etc. and water usage (e.g. metering of take).
-They can be applied to a watershed because it regulates resource use with human interaction and using water most efficiently.
Describe the record of discharge for the Colorado River and explain why the river’s discharge is overallocated.
There is a water shortage, the river dries up before it reaches the sea which has caused tensions between America and Mexico.
The river is overallocated because the US’s use of the water results in Mexico either not receiving any water, or the water they do receive has extreme amounts of salt and pollution. The river used to be a vast wetland but now is a dry flat salt bed. The US agreed to limit the salinity of water flowing into Mexico
Hydrology and Change (Chapter 8, Lecture 24)
Explain the way that humaninduced climate change may affect the hydrological regime for a region.
Heighten coastal flooding, river flows, decrease glacier and snow cover
The Greenhouse Effect
Emissions given off by cars/aerosols/greenhouse gases affect the ozone layer Global warming: warms the earth, temperatures increase
Assess the role of landuse change as a major variable in forcing change in hydrological regimes.
If there is a lot of deforestation then there is a wider area for stream flow If there is an increase in vegetation coverage then that could lead to water loss o Land Drainage
Improves flashy response in river
Greater risk of flood
Saltrich water evaporates from soil and leaves build up of salt compounds on surface soil
Driven by hydrological factors; water quality and evaporation rate
Compare and contrast the impact of urbanization to the impact of landuse change on general hydrology.
Problems with urbanization is increasing
o Effects any water source it drains in to
o Pollution effects water quality
o Rainfall in urban areas is higher
Discuss the major issues facing water resource managers over the next fifty years in Alabama.
1. Drought (climate change)
3. Interstate river programs
Alabama is affected by what is happening in other states