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what is olericulture

what is olericulture

Description

School: Colorado State University
Department: Horticulture Technology
Course: Horticultural Science
Professor: Harrison hughes
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: landscapeplants, plantpests, olericulture, pomology, turfgrass, lawn, plants, Marketing, and harvest
Cost: 50
Name: HORT 100 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
Description: This is the study guide given to us, but filled out. **This only contains material from the weeks after the midterm (weeks 10-15)**
Uploaded: 05/01/2017
16 Pages 186 Views 1 Unlocks
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FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Week 10- Landscape Plants, Dr. Klett (Jim.Klett@colostate.edu) // Landscape Design, Zach  Johnson (Z.Johnson@colostate.edu)  ∙ What are the environmental characteristics that affect the growth of trees, shrubs, and  herbaceous plants? o light, moisture, wind, soil ∙ Choose trees /shrubs in good shape (disease free) for lumber, shade, aesthetic ∙ Discuss the proper planting of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants o Trees/shrubs ▪ plant in spring; plant bare root trees in shade; mulch 2-4” thick at tree  base o Herbaceous plants ▪ When planting, make the hole just big enough for the roots to spread out ∙ What are the steps of landscape design? What happens at each step? o Step 1: site analysis ▪ Slopes? What kind of views? Positive/negative aspects? o Step 2: develop a program ▪ Set of ?s you ask the owner what they want to do w/ the space o Step 3: create preliminary plan o Step 4: create final plan Week 11- Plant Pests, Dr. Koski (Tony.Koski@colostate.edu)  ∙ horticultural pest : An organism that conflicts with profit, health, or convenience ∙ most important causes of pest problems are  ∙ Integrated Pest Management (IPM) o Minimize the indiscriminate (and often ineffective) use of pesticides ▪ “softer” approach to pest management ▪ Goal is NOT to completely eradicate the pest or to eradicate pesticides  that aren’t natural/organic  ∙ Know why identification of both the host plant and the pest are essential to diagnosing  and managing horticultural pest problems o Host ID important bc helps with diagnosing what the pest might be o Pest ID important to allow selection of effective management tactics ∙ Sign v symptom o Sign : the actual pest itself causing the problem o Symptom : how the plant reacts to the sign ∙ Know the 5 basic concepts for/approaches to the management of any horticultural pest o Biological (predators, diseases) o Cultural (water, fertilizer, light) o Mechanical(cultivation, burning)FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE o Chemical(pesticides, growth regulators – synthetic or natural) o Genetic (resistance via breeding, GMOs) o Regulatory (quarantines, laws, eradication)Understand what a pesticide is ∙ Pesticide : any substance intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any  pest Week 12- Olericulture, Dr. Uchanski (Mark.Uchanski@colostate.edu)  ∙ Explain how vegetable production benefits you and society o Veggie diet reduces risk of disease o The pigments in veggies are good to eat ∙ Discuss the differences among field, tunnel, and greenhouse vegetable production o Field ▪ Most common; limited availability to control environment bc crops fully  exposed to weather, soil, pests, disease o Tunnel ▪ Semi-enclosed (creating a microclimate); covered by clear plastic;  protected from wind rain, some pests but no heater o Greenhouse ▪ Completely climate controlled; plants often grow hydroponically ∙ List the basic steps to successful vegetable production  o Step 1: study the market (be prepared to meet requirements) o Step 2: produce high quality products efficiently o Step 3: package appropriately & deliver on time o Step 4: innovating to meet new product demand ∙ Name the three Es of sustainability  o Environment (minimize negative impact on planet)FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE o Economics (make profit) o Equity (social equity, aka, not doing anything harmful to others)  ∙ Identify members of three vegetable families: Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae  o Brassicaceae ▪ Cabbages, cauliflowers, brussel sprouts, radishes, broccoli, kale ▪ “cole crops” o Cucurbitaceae ▪ Pumpkin, squash, winter squash, gourd ▪ “cucurbits” o Solanaceae ▪ Potatoes, chili peppers, rhubard ▪ “deadly nightshades” ∙ What is olericulture? o Science of vegetable growing ∙ What are the three specific benefits of eating highly pigmented vegetables as discussed  in class?  o 1) reduces risk of disease o 2) natural source of vitamins, fiber, energy, minerals o 3) pigments in veggies fight cancer, retard effects of aging & heart disease ∙ True or false: Melons are included in olericulture. o TRUE! ∙ What is the definition of a horticultural crop?  o Enjoyed directly w/ minimal processing (ex. sweet corn) ∙ What is an example of an agronomic crop? o Can’t be eaten directly, must be processed (ex. field dent corn) ∙ What is blanching as it relates to sweet corn?  o A brief dip in boiling water to stop the conversion of sugar to starch in sweet corn ∙ What percent of the crops grown in the US are certified organic?  o Only 2% ∙ What are key characteristics of cert. organic veg. prod?  o Requires payment/extensive documentation of production practices o “promotes & enhances biodiversity, biological cycles, soil biological activity” ∙ True or false: Asparagus has separate male and female plants (which is preferred).  o TRUE, and we want the male plants ∙ Bell peppers have separate male and female plants. o FALSE ∙ What is the compound in asparagus that makes your urine smell funny?  o mercaptan ∙ How do we get white asparagus? FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE o By blanching, aka, covering the plant with soil so it isn’t exposed to sunlight and it  doesn’t produce chlorophyll ∙ Asparagus is a(n) a.) annual, b.) biennial, c.) perennial crop. ∙ What is the primary plant part you are eating when you consume Brussels sprouts?  o Axillary buds ∙ Difference between a carving pumpkin and a horticultural canning pumpkin?  o Carving pumpkin????not to be eaten; hort canning pumpkin????for pies ∙ Name a New World vegetable crop o Tomatoes, corn, peppers, squash, potatoes ∙ What is the difference between a warm season and a cool season vegetable crop?  o Warm: plant when day time temperatures average between 65° and 95°; need  12-14 hours of daylight ▪ Tomato, corn, beans, peppers, squash o Cool: prefer temperatures between 55° and 75° F ▪ Spinach, cabbage, peas, radishes ∙ What is the botanical structure you are eating when you consume a potato?  o Tuber ∙ What is a seed potato?  o Chunks of potato w/ an eye planted into the ground; asexual propagation ∙ What is solanine? o Too much makes you sick (veggies in the “deadly nightshade” family contain this) ∙ Where is the capsaicin of a hot pepper located?  o placenta ∙ What is a Scoville Heat Unit?  o A way to measure how spicy something is, based on taste ∙ What is the edible part of a rhubarb plant (i.e. what part can you safely eat and not get  sick)? o The petioles, NOT the leaves (leaves contain oxalic acid) Week 13- Pomology, Dr. Minas (Ioannis.Minas@colostate.edu)  ∙ Site selection criteria o Determine climate o Grow crops that are suitable for that climate ∙ Frost protection techniques o Wind machine, propane heater,  ∙ Criteria of cultivar selection  ∙ What is dormancy and which are the dormancy types  ∙ Cross-pollinated and self-pollinated species  ∙ Why we thin fruit and thinning techniques FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE o Overabundance of fruit can break shoots or limbs o If fruit loads are not thinned effectively, floral bud initiation for next year’s crop  will likely be decreased (alternate bearing) ∙ Why we train and prune fruit-trees o develop strong trunk & balanced scaffold system of branches o regulate fruit production o remove dead, broken, interfering branches o improve light penetration inside the canopy and lower parts of the tree to  improve yield & quality o maintain vigor/production of fruiting wood o facilitate insect & disease control by opening the tree, increasing penetration of  spray materials  o limit tree size & shape ∙ Harvest indexes  o Soluble Solids Concentration (SSC) – plums, cherries, apples kiwifruit ▪ Main volume of soluble solids = sugars o Titratable acidity – citrus, pomegranate ▪ Organic acids reduce as fruit ripens ∙ Climacteric vs non-climacteric fruit o Climacteric : Fruits that can be harvested and ripened off the maternal plant ▪ Apple, apricot, avocado, guava, banana, mango, pear, papaya o Non-climacteric : Fruits that are not capable of continuing their ripening process  once removed from the maternal plant ▪ Blackberry, cherry, grape, grapefruit, lemon, orange Week 14- Turfgrass and Lawns, Dr. Qian (Yaling.Qian@colostate.edu)  ∙ What are the benefits of turfgrass? o Reduces wind/soil erosion/runoff o Modifies temp. (feels coolers than gravel, pavements, etc.) o Reduces glare/noise pollution ∙ Be able to discuss how turf is established (seeding, sodding, sprigging, plugging)  o Seeding ▪ Most common method of seed propagation; low costFINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE o Sodding ▪ Cut est. turf into thin layers and grow it in strips; roll it out like a carpet o Plugging ▪ For species w/ rhizomes & stolons o Sprigging ▪ Harvest stolon & rhizomeFINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE ∙ What are the different types of turfgrass grown in Colorado? What are the benefits and limitations of each?  o Kentucky Blue Grass Advantages Disadvantages High turf quality Slow to est. from seed Sod forming Poor shade tolerance Good traffic tolerance/recuperative ability  (bc produces rhizomes) Thatch problem Slow shoot growth rate Needs irrigation/fertilizer


∙ What are the environmental characteristics that affect the growth of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants?



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o Tall Fescue Advantages Disadvantages Good shade/salt tolerance Must be mowed frequently Drought/heat tolerant on sites w/ deep  soil Leaf shredding more common Few disease/insect problems Heavy use produces worn areas

High water use

∙ How is turfgrass managed? Know the different management practices- how and why is  each performed? o Soil preparation ▪ Remove debris, produce a root zone to grow healthy roots o Seeding ▪ Different species have different seeding rates (germinate faster in warm  weather) o Sodding ▪ Expensive, but you get instant turf o Plugging o SpriggingFINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE o Mowing ▪ Frequency, clipping return or removal, type of mower, etc. ▪ Management intensity increases as moving height decreases Week 15- Post Harvest Handling and Marketing, Dr. Jayanty (Sastry.Jayanty@colostate.edu)  ∙ Discuss the basic principles of harvesting horticultural food crops o Care must be taken to not damage the product (or it’ll lose value) o Know when to harvest ▪ Based on shape and color ∙ Describe how quality of food crops changes after harvest o Their size, color, & taste change ∙ Identify strategies to maintain food crop quality after harvest o They can be harvested early so that they ripen while in shipment o They can be dipped in treatment to last longer o They can be placed in water while waiting to be treated ∙ Explain how the production of crops is linked with consumption through marketing and  transport o Market standards = size, color, shape; consumer quality = safety, nutritional  quality  o If crop is perishable, refrigeration/heating systems used during transitFINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Week 10- Landscape Plants, Dr. Klett (Jim.Klett@colostate.edu) // Landscape Design, Zach  Johnson (Z.Johnson@colostate.edu)  ∙ What are the environmental characteristics that affect the growth of trees, shrubs, and  herbaceous plants? o light, moisture, wind, soil ∙ Choose trees /shrubs in good shape (disease free) for lumber, shade, aesthetic ∙ Discuss the proper planting of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants o Trees/shrubs ▪ plant in spring; plant bare root trees in shade; mulch 2-4” thick at tree  base o Herbaceous plants ▪ When planting, make the hole just big enough for the roots to spread out ∙ What are the steps of landscape design? What happens at each step? o Step 1: site analysis ▪ Slopes? What kind of views? Positive/negative aspects? o Step 2: develop a program ▪ Set of ?s you ask the owner what they want to do w/ the space o Step 3: create preliminary plan o Step 4: create final plan Week 11- Plant Pests, Dr. Koski (Tony.Koski@colostate.edu)  ∙ horticultural pest : An organism that conflicts with profit, health, or convenience ∙ most important causes of pest problems are  ∙ Integrated Pest Management (IPM) o Minimize the indiscriminate (and often ineffective) use of pesticides ▪ “softer” approach to pest management ▪ Goal is NOT to completely eradicate the pest or to eradicate pesticides  that aren’t natural/organic  ∙ Know why identification of both the host plant and the pest are essential to diagnosing  and managing horticultural pest problems o Host ID important bc helps with diagnosing what the pest might be o Pest ID important to allow selection of effective management tactics ∙ Sign v symptom o Sign : the actual pest itself causing the problem o Symptom : how the plant reacts to the sign ∙ Know the 5 basic concepts for/approaches to the management of any horticultural pest o Biological (predators, diseases) o Cultural (water, fertilizer, light) o Mechanical(cultivation, burning)FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE o Chemical(pesticides, growth regulators – synthetic or natural) o Genetic (resistance via breeding, GMOs) o Regulatory (quarantines, laws, eradication)Understand what a pesticide is ∙ Pesticide : any substance intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any  pest Week 12- Olericulture, Dr. Uchanski (Mark.Uchanski@colostate.edu)  ∙ Explain how vegetable production benefits you and society o Veggie diet reduces risk of disease o The pigments in veggies are good to eat ∙ Discuss the differences among field, tunnel, and greenhouse vegetable production o Field ▪ Most common; limited availability to control environment bc crops fully  exposed to weather, soil, pests, disease o Tunnel ▪ Semi-enclosed (creating a microclimate); covered by clear plastic;  protected from wind rain, some pests but no heater o Greenhouse ▪ Completely climate controlled; plants often grow hydroponically ∙ List the basic steps to successful vegetable production  o Step 1: study the market (be prepared to meet requirements) o Step 2: produce high quality products efficiently o Step 3: package appropriately & deliver on time o Step 4: innovating to meet new product demand ∙ Name the three Es of sustainability  o Environment (minimize negative impact on planet)FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE o Economics (make profit) o Equity (social equity, aka, not doing anything harmful to others)  ∙ Identify members of three vegetable families: Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae  o Brassicaceae ▪ Cabbages, cauliflowers, brussel sprouts, radishes, broccoli, kale ▪ “cole crops” o Cucurbitaceae ▪ Pumpkin, squash, winter squash, gourd ▪ “cucurbits” o Solanaceae ▪ Potatoes, chili peppers, rhubard ▪ “deadly nightshades” ∙ What is olericulture? o Science of vegetable growing ∙ What are the three specific benefits of eating highly pigmented vegetables as discussed  in class?  o 1) reduces risk of disease o 2) natural source of vitamins, fiber, energy, minerals o 3) pigments in veggies fight cancer, retard effects of aging & heart disease ∙ True or false: Melons are included in olericulture. o TRUE! ∙ What is the definition of a horticultural crop?  o Enjoyed directly w/ minimal processing (ex. sweet corn) ∙ What is an example of an agronomic crop? o Can’t be eaten directly, must be processed (ex. field dent corn) ∙ What is blanching as it relates to sweet corn?  o A brief dip in boiling water to stop the conversion of sugar to starch in sweet corn ∙ What percent of the crops grown in the US are certified organic?  o Only 2% ∙ What are key characteristics of cert. organic veg. prod?  o Requires payment/extensive documentation of production practices o “promotes & enhances biodiversity, biological cycles, soil biological activity” ∙ True or false: Asparagus has separate male and female plants (which is preferred).  o TRUE, and we want the male plants ∙ Bell peppers have separate male and female plants. o FALSE ∙ What is the compound in asparagus that makes your urine smell funny?  o mercaptan ∙ How do we get white asparagus? FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE o By blanching, aka, covering the plant with soil so it isn’t exposed to sunlight and it  doesn’t produce chlorophyll ∙ Asparagus is a(n) a.) annual, b.) biennial, c.) perennial crop. ∙ What is the primary plant part you are eating when you consume Brussels sprouts?  o Axillary buds ∙ Difference between a carving pumpkin and a horticultural canning pumpkin?  o Carving pumpkin????not to be eaten; hort canning pumpkin????for pies ∙ Name a New World vegetable crop o Tomatoes, corn, peppers, squash, potatoes ∙ What is the difference between a warm season and a cool season vegetable crop?  o Warm: plant when day time temperatures average between 65° and 95°; need  12-14 hours of daylight ▪ Tomato, corn, beans, peppers, squash o Cool: prefer temperatures between 55° and 75° F ▪ Spinach, cabbage, peas, radishes ∙ What is the botanical structure you are eating when you consume a potato?  o Tuber ∙ What is a seed potato?  o Chunks of potato w/ an eye planted into the ground; asexual propagation ∙ What is solanine? o Too much makes you sick (veggies in the “deadly nightshade” family contain this) ∙ Where is the capsaicin of a hot pepper located?  o placenta ∙ What is a Scoville Heat Unit?  o A way to measure how spicy something is, based on taste ∙ What is the edible part of a rhubarb plant (i.e. what part can you safely eat and not get  sick)? o The petioles, NOT the leaves (leaves contain oxalic acid) Week 13- Pomology, Dr. Minas (Ioannis.Minas@colostate.edu)  ∙ Site selection criteria o Determine climate o Grow crops that are suitable for that climate ∙ Frost protection techniques o Wind machine, propane heater,  ∙ Criteria of cultivar selection  ∙ What is dormancy and which are the dormancy types  ∙ Cross-pollinated and self-pollinated species  ∙ Why we thin fruit and thinning techniques FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE o Overabundance of fruit can break shoots or limbs o If fruit loads are not thinned effectively, floral bud initiation for next year’s crop  will likely be decreased (alternate bearing) ∙ Why we train and prune fruit-trees o develop strong trunk & balanced scaffold system of branches o regulate fruit production o remove dead, broken, interfering branches o improve light penetration inside the canopy and lower parts of the tree to  improve yield & quality o maintain vigor/production of fruiting wood o facilitate insect & disease control by opening the tree, increasing penetration of  spray materials  o limit tree size & shape ∙ Harvest indexes  o Soluble Solids Concentration (SSC) – plums, cherries, apples kiwifruit ▪ Main volume of soluble solids = sugars o Titratable acidity – citrus, pomegranate ▪ Organic acids reduce as fruit ripens ∙ Climacteric vs non-climacteric fruit o Climacteric : Fruits that can be harvested and ripened off the maternal plant ▪ Apple, apricot, avocado, guava, banana, mango, pear, papaya o Non-climacteric : Fruits that are not capable of continuing their ripening process  once removed from the maternal plant ▪ Blackberry, cherry, grape, grapefruit, lemon, orange Week 14- Turfgrass and Lawns, Dr. Qian (Yaling.Qian@colostate.edu)  ∙ What are the benefits of turfgrass? o Reduces wind/soil erosion/runoff o Modifies temp. (feels coolers than gravel, pavements, etc.) o Reduces glare/noise pollution ∙ Be able to discuss how turf is established (seeding, sodding, sprigging, plugging)  o Seeding ▪ Most common method of seed propagation; low costFINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE o Sodding ▪ Cut est. turf into thin layers and grow it in strips; roll it out like a carpet o Plugging ▪ For species w/ rhizomes & stolons o Sprigging ▪ Harvest stolon & rhizomeFINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE ∙ What are the different types of turfgrass grown in Colorado? What are the benefits and limitations of each?  o Kentucky Blue Grass Advantages Disadvantages High turf quality Slow to est. from seed Sod forming Poor shade tolerance Good traffic tolerance/recuperative ability  (bc produces rhizomes) Thatch problem Slow shoot growth rate Needs irrigation/fertilizer


What happens at each step?




▪ When planting, make the hole just big enough for the roots to spread out ∙ What are the steps of landscape design?



We also discuss several other topics like calculus 3 temple university

o Tall Fescue Advantages Disadvantages Good shade/salt tolerance Must be mowed frequently Drought/heat tolerant on sites w/ deep  soil Leaf shredding more common Few disease/insect problems Heavy use produces worn areas

High water use

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Don't forget about the age old question of increasing marginal opportunity cost implies that
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∙ How is turfgrass managed? Know the different management practices- how and why is  each performed? o Soil preparation ▪ Remove debris, produce a root zone to grow healthy roots o Seeding ▪ Different species have different seeding rates (germinate faster in warm  weather) o Sodding ▪ Expensive, but you get instant turf o Plugging o SpriggingFINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE o Mowing ▪ Frequency, clipping return or removal, type of mower, etc. ▪ Management intensity increases as moving height decreases Week 15- Post Harvest Handling and Marketing, Dr. Jayanty (Sastry.Jayanty@colostate.edu)  ∙ Discuss the basic principles of harvesting horticultural food crops o Care must be taken to not damage the product (or it’ll lose value) o Know when to harvest ▪ Based on shape and color ∙ Describe how quality of food crops changes after harvest o Their size, color, & taste change ∙ Identify strategies to maintain food crop quality after harvest o They can be harvested early so that they ripen while in shipment o They can be dipped in treatment to last longer o They can be placed in water while waiting to be treated ∙ Explain how the production of crops is linked with consumption through marketing and  transport o Market standards = size, color, shape; consumer quality = safety, nutritional  quality  o If crop is perishable, refrigeration/heating systems used during transit
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