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UTC / History / HIST 2010 / What is john quincy adams best known for?

What is john quincy adams best known for?

What is john quincy adams best known for?

Description

School: University of Tennessee - Chattanooga
Department: History
Course: American History until 1865
Professor: Stephen harrison
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: United, States, and history
Cost: 50
Name: United States History Final Study Guide
Description: These notes cover the identification terms likely to show up on the test.
Uploaded: 05/01/2017
9 Pages 119 Views 2 Unlocks
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Identification: 8pts 


What is john quincy adams best known for?



Nullification crisis 

Who: Andrew Jackson (P)

What: threat to nullify the tariff of 1828

When, where: 1832, South 

Carolina

Why: the tariff increased tax of 

imported goods of wool and iron making  the southerners upset because while the  north manufactured their own goods, the  south did not making the tariff more  beneficial to the north and more harmful to  the south. South Carolina was among the  most upset coining the tariff as “the tariff of abomination” and was alone; fight between  state sovereignty and federal government  control

How: many southern legislatures  threatened to nullify the act. John C.  Calhoun (VP) supported the nullification  while Jackson opposed it. A new tariff was  enacted lowering the price, but SC nullified  it anyways­leading Jackson to enact the  Force Bill. Calhoun (with Henry Clay) then  made a new tariff even lower. SC accepted  Calhoun’s tariff and nullified the Force Bill. Missouri Compromise 


What is andrew jackson best known for?



Who: Henry Clay

What: divided the Louisiana 

Purchase territory between slave/free When, where: 1820, 36 degrees,  30’ (between AR and MO)

Why: south requested Missouri  We also discuss several other topics like How does one define “self-actualization?’

lands to be considered slave state, but the  north complained that would make the  free/slave states unbalanced; defined lines  between north and south and fight on  whether slavery should expand

How: the compromise took 

Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a  free while deciding the Louisiana Territory  would be split between slave and free. “Corrupt Bargain” If you want to learn more check out What did tennessee williams struggle with?

Who: Henry Clay and John 

Quincy Adams

What: Adams won The House 

election over Andrew Jackson while Clay  was suspected to have bribed them and once Adams was elected, he made Clay the  Secretary of State.


What is martin van buren most famous for?



When, where: 1824 presidential  election, Congress

Why: Clay hated Jackson having lost to him in the previous  election and wanted to keep the presidency from him; showed early  signs of corruption in the federal government and ruined Adam’s  reputation allowing Jackson to win the next election Don't forget about the age old question of What are asteroids and comets?

How: In the election, Jackson won the popular vote, but  majority wasn’t reached since there was no federalist candidate and 5  democratic –republican candidates. This meant the vote went to the  house where Clay held significant power being the speaker of the  house.

Era of Good Feelings 

Who: James Monroe

What: only one political party 

When, where: 1815 to 1825,

Why: the war of 1812 had just ended giving relief and pride  in Americans, dissolved Federalist Party and led to the second two  party system, panic of 1819 (Hartford convention to discuss war and  federal government increased power), McCulloch v. Maryland  (allowed congress implied powers and state actions cannot impeded  valid federal government exercises of power), and Missouri Crisis  caused end of era. Don't forget about the age old question of How are pre-test loops conducted?

How: political bitterness declined with dissolve of Federalist  Party, enacted national bank and protective tariff on manufacturers  while many hoped for political reconciliation

John Quincy Adams 

Who: 6th President

What: Monroe Doctrine, election of 1824, election of 1828,  anti­slavery, corrupt bargain

When, where: 1824­1828, Massachusetts  Don't forget about the age old question of How can unusual levels of exposure in preganancy affect later behaviors of child?

Why: federalist, opposed slavery

How: see notes on topics listed under “What”

Monroe Doctrine 

Who: James Monroe

What: opposed any European colonies in the Americas and  declared United States would not interferer with European affairs When, where: December 1823, Congress We also discuss several other topics like What are the major steps in sales force management?

Why: Spain desired full control over South America

How:

Henry Clay’s American System 

Who: Henry Clay

What: proposal for a protective tariff, national bank, and  internal improvements in order to make internal improvements during  Henry Clay’s run for president in 1824

When, where: 1824

Why: inspired the Whig party in 1830s and 40s

How:

Andrew Jackson 

∙ Panic of 1819

o Americans movement west caused a land  boom, financed by speculative buying and  easy credit

o Second bank of the united states foreclosed  on bad loans, causing panic of 1819, which  led to six years of depression

3

 Hurt urban  

workers suffering

from the decline  

in trade and  

manufacturing  

failures

 Manufacturing  

pressed for  

higher protective

tariffs, angering  

southerners

o Shaped Andrew Jackson o Blame Monroe  

administration

o Looks like southerners  

are suffering more  

because they want less  

tariffs and northerners  

want more

Election of 1824 

∙ End of the era of good feelings ∙ 4 candidates ran for the  presidency

∙ Andrew Jackson had the most  popular votes and most  

electoral, but not majority

∙ MARTIN VANBUREN first  professional politician

∙ Make people like him

Trail of Tears 

Who: Cherokee Indians

What: forced removal of Indians  in 1838 and 1839 from what turned into  Oklahoma, 15,000 were forced to march  and 4,000 died on the way due to lack of  food, shelter, and water.

Cherokee Nation v. Georgia 

∙ Indian Removal

∙ Jackson embraces policy of  Indian cession of lands and  removal west of Mississippi  River

∙ “5 civilized tribes” of the south  were most affected

∙ Even though the Cherokee had  adopted white ways and  

accepted white culture, Jackson pressed for their removal

∙ Worcester V. Georgia: Cherokee won, but Jackson  defied the supreme court rulings

∙ Cherokee removal called “Trial of Tears” ∙ Removal Act of 1830 was strongly opposed by  northerners

∙ Challenged in Cherokee nation v. Georgia and  Worcester V. Georgia  

Bank War 

∙ Chartered in 1816, second bank of U.S was quasi-private  institution

∙ Second bank acted as currency stabilizer

o Encouraging the growth of strong and stable  financial interest

o Curbing less stable and irresponsible ones

∙ Eastern merchants found bank useful

∙ Western farmers and speculators feared the bank  represented a moneyed elite

∙ Jackson vetoed bill when clay and Webster pushed for  early re-chartering

o Says bank is only for rich peoples benefit

Martin Van Buren 

∙ Popular president/Strong Executive

∙ Jackson symbolized the personal advancement that  the frontier offered

∙ King mob

∙ Inauguration address and subsequent reception  turned in a raucous party at the white house ∙ Jackson democrats were the first national party

∙ Cabinet was chosen for political reasons ∙ Decision made by “kitchen cabinet” largely ignoring  his cabinet. Only martin van buren “the little  magician” was in both

The American System of Manufacturing 

∙ American system of manufacturing based on  interchangeable parts

∙ Started from rifles

∙ Eli Whitney, Simeon north, and john hall ∙ Standardization spread into other areas like sewing  machines

∙ Americans could’ve mass-produced copies,  indistinguishable from originals

∙ Lowers price, increases production

4

∙ Mill Systems

∙ Francis Lowell studied British  spinning machine

∙ Helped build first integrated  cotton mill near Boston in 1814 o Gets access to mills  

pretending to be  

mindless, secret  

photographic memory  

∙ Drove smaller competitors out ∙ Lowell’s successors soon built  an entire town to house the  new enterprise

∙ “Family mills,” where entire  families would work and pool  wages

∙ Divisions of labor that set up a  hierarchy of pay

∙ Strict schedules and with fines  and penalties

∙ Industrialization means more  people to run and work  

factories; cheap, uneducated,  limited options,  

desperatewomen (fired if  cannot work)

Women try to unionize, but get fired and  replaced

Putting Out System 

∙ Early 19th Century merchants  “put out” raw goods to artisans ∙ Artisans (often with families)  produced finished product

∙ Merchant sold to larger  markets

∙ Commercial revolution: mass  produce, cheaper

∙ Gives farmers more income  and demand; younger people  have more options; undermines artisans

Cotton gin 

Who: Eli Whitney

What: machine used to separate 

the seeds from the cotton increasing the  efficiency and speed of cotton picking 

When, where: 1793, most popular on southern plantations Why: cotton picking was slow and painful due to the sorting  and cleaning; eventually lead to the expansion of slavery in the 19th century

How: Many plantation owners needed people to run the  machines and used slaves to do it

Nat Turner 

∙ Nat Turner’s Rebellion

∙ Nat Turner led the most famous slave revolt in  Southampton County, Virginia in 1831

∙ Used religious imagery to lead slaves as they killed  55 whites

∙ Primarily freed slaves

∙ More slaves joined (not much momentum because  of lack of communication and distance)

∙ Reinforced white southerners fear of slave  insurrection

∙ Virginia nearly voted for gradual emancipation soon  afterwards

∙ 3 votes from ending slavery

∙ Gain more control over slaves

o Illegal to teach slaves to read

o All need a pass (even if they are free)

∙ Only large-scale slave rebellion in America

The Alamo/Sam Houston/Santa Ana 

Who: Santa Ana and Stephen Austin

What: Battle of The Alamo in the war for Texas 

independence, 

When, where: 1836, San Antonio, Texas

Why: Santa Ana’s army invaded San Antonio where Texans  (Stephen Austin and his followers) held off the army until they ran out of ammo and were overrun by the Mexican army; fight over slavery  because Mexico had banned slavery but American settlers were in  Texas with their slaves

How: increased motivation to win the fight for independence Sam Houston 

Who: leader in Texan army

What: Defeated Mexican General Antonio Lopez at San  Jacinto for Texan independence and voted president in 1836 and 1841  and senator of Texas after statehood in 1845.

When, where: 1836, Texas

Why: forced Santa Ana to recognize Texan independence How: 

Santa Ana 

∙ Texas Revolt

∙ War in 1835

∙ Army overwhelmed Americans at Alamo 5

∙ Sent small group to buy them  24 hours (buys 13 days until  run out of ammunition)

o Texan heroes

∙ San Jacinto River,

∙ Big victory for Sam Houston’s  forces

o Large militia

o Try to ware Mexicans  

out and fallout into san  

Jacinto valley

o Houston took vote on  

what to do and  

attacked, luckily army  

scatters

o Soon captured Santa  

Anna

 Forced treaty for  

Texas’  

independence

Wilmot Proviso 

Who: David Wilmot

What: ban on slavery in the new  territories, but failed

When, where:

Why:

How:

Compromise of 1850 

Who: Henry Clay

What: admitted California as free  state with stronger fugitive law while  delaying slave laws in new Mexico and  Utah territories

When, where: California

Why: the Omnibus bill was 

proposed earlier by Clay to make California a state, create New Mexico, abolish slave  trade in D.C with a non­interference with  slave trace in U.S, and a stricter fugitive  slave law; but the compromise broke it  down into 5 different bills

How:

Fugitive Slave Law 

Who: North

What: gave federal government 

power to cases with runaway slaves and  demanded citizens to search for fugitive  slaves

When, where: 1850, North and 

South

Why: angered the north because it  meant though the slaves were freed in the 

north, any slave in the north could be tried and sentenced back to  slavery as a slave

How: no African Americans could speak in trial or claim  freedom, so many were kidnapped as slaves and treated as slaves  without acknowledgement of their freedom

Kansas­Nebraska Act 

 1854, Stephen Douglas pushed bill to open Kansas  territory

∙ Popular sovereignty

o Who gets to vote

Know­Nothing Party/John Tyler 

∙ Bank had democratically less funds so it called in  commercial loans, causing recession

∙ Jackson’s opponents founded an opposition party— Whigs

∙ Whigs lost 1836 election to Buren because they  couldn’t unite behind candidate

∙ Death of bank led to speculation and panic of 1837 ∙ Van Buren is blamed “martin van ruin”

∙ Hardship of depression gave Whig party its  opportunity

∙ Whigs and democrats

∙ Two actual national parties with genuine differences  in how the country should progress

∙ The Whigs believed in government advance of  capitalism. Often initiated beneficiaries

∙ Campaigned of 1840

∙ Whigs -- Henry Harrison as humble man happy to  live in a log cabinet

∙ First campaign slogan: Tippecanoe an Tyler too ∙ Included southerner john Tyler as VP for regional  balance

∙ 80% turnout

∙ Snatching defeat

∙ Harrison died a month after inauguration ∙ VP John Tyler assumed office

∙ Tyler didn’t support the Whig program. He vetoed: ∙ New bank of U.S

∙ Tariffs

∙ Internal improvements

∙ Eventually parties revert back to regional lines Dred Scott 

6

∙ Scott and wife were slaves  taken by owner to Illinois. Sued for freedom

∙ Ruled

∙ Congress cannot ban slavery in territories

∙ Scott’s long-term residence in  free territory didn’t make free ∙ Blacks were not U.S citizens ∙ Chief justice roger B. Taney  said it is too clear for dispute  that enslaved weren’t intended to be included and formed no  part of people who made  

declaration

∙ Southerners victorious;  northern whites and blacks are  upset because that means  every state is a slave state

John Brown 

∙ Raided federal arsenal at  Harper’s ferry in an  

unsuccessful effort to instigate  a slave revolt

∙ Get guns and get slave army to overwhelm (Nat Turner)

∙ Get gun and kill your masters  (southern fears)

∙ Leaves communication lines  up, so everyone knows what he is doing and what his goal is ∙ Surrounded the next day

Bleeding Kansas 

∙ Two groups in Kansas sending  letters to support and deny  slavery in state

∙ John Brown anti-slavery  slaughters small town due to  pro-slavery beliefs

∙ Many more fights between  sides

∙ 1852-1854 news on open warfare

Harriet Tubman 

∙ Brazen, escapes slavery and goes back in 1 year,  begging for money “I need money for this LOL”  ∙ Pulled out 300-400 slaves

∙ Works in union; spy behind enemy lines ∙ First woman to lead  

Frederick Douglass 

Who: freed slave

What: 

When, where:

Why:

How:

Abraham Lincoln 

∙ 1864 election

∙ Republicans divided

∙ Democrats nominated general George McClellan  ∙ Proclaimed war a failure

∙ copperhead

∙ Sherman captured Atlanta on September 1 ∙ Showed war was successful (how thoroughly he  captured Chattanooga and Atlanta)

∙ Rallied support behind Lincoln

∙ Lincoln was 55% of vote

∙ Saw it as mandate for his policy of unconditional  surrender

∙ Second inaugural address was odd in that he did not charge winning, but said we’re going to move on  and bring the south back in (sad instead of  triumphant)

∙ Gettysburg addressranks 3rd most important  document

∙ Speaks in less than 5 minutes written on the back of an envelope; make sure all that died is not in  vainthe experiment that our founding fathers  started does not end in failure; ensure government  does not perish (war about democracy; to see if a  democracy can survive in the modern world

Stephen Douglas 

∙ Kansas-Nebraska Act

∙ 1854, Stephen Douglas pushed bill to open Kansas  territory

∙ Popular sovereignty

o Who gets to vote

Ulysses S Grant 

7

∙ Grants and Sherman ∙ After victories, Lincoln appoints grant general in chief

∙ Developed scorched earth plan to bring war home to southern  public

∙ Virginia, Grant encouraged  slaves to run away while he  destroyed anything that could  be used by enemy

∙ Sherman captured Atlanta,  then destroyed everything in  his path on his march to the  sea

∙ Sherman also issued a special  order (trying to burn Georgia to the groundburned everything to destroy everything the south could use) Lasting mark on  Georgia for a very long time  (civil war) really ends war, but  south still doesn’t surrender

∙ Final battles in Virginia 1864- 1865

∙ Grant continues frontal assault  policy

∙ Fought war of attrition pushing  on despite defeats

∙ Union could replace fallen  soldiers while Lee couldn’t ∙ Confederacy short of men so  conscripted slaves

∙ Lee surrendered and people  stop fighting at Appomattox  courthouse

∙ Reason war lingers is April 16,  1865 Lincoln gets shot and  lives for 12hrs longer; Booth  thinks Lincoln launched war on  south and is a criminal against  south, part of conspiracy  

group, but others failed

∙ Lincoln was prepared to bring  south back in kindly, but  

replacements weren’t nice ∙ Shiloh and War of Mississippi o Battle in west initially  

battle for Mississippi  

river (take Mississippi because railroads took  too long)

o U.S.S Grant (graduated last in class, but  turns out to be really good) captured forts  along TN river systems

o April he defeated confederate troops at  Shiloh (operation anaconda is in effect)

o Followed in Memphis

o Union took new Orleans

o Only Vicksburg stood in way of control

Jefferson Davis 

∙ Succession

∙ North looked to compromise

∙ Willing to allow south to go in peace

∙ Prevent succession of upper south

∙ Confederate states of America

∙ Jefferson Davis, moderate, chosen as president o Davis tried to portray succession as legal and peaceful

o Avoid confrontation with north

Fort Sumter 

∙ Flashpoint

∙ Two forts in south in union hands: Sumter in  Charleston and Pinckney in Florida

∙ Possession of forts was question of sovereignty ∙ Catch 22 for Lincoln

o Union cant defend and couldn’t resupply  without force

∙ Uneasy cease fire until

o Federal troops shift from fort Moultrie to  Sumter

o Lincoln announce intention to send food to  forts

o Confederate forced attacked Sumter prior to  arrival

∙ War greeted on both sides

∙ Men enlisted and women prepared supplies

King Cotton 

Who: South and Britain

What: during the civil war, the south wanted Britain and  France to help them, so they banned exports of cotton to the countries  hoping they would help

When, where: Civil War, South

Why: Britain and France depended on Southern exports of  raw goods for their manufactured goods, but Britain had been  stockpiling cotton foreseeing this occurrence. That being said, Britain 

8

wanted to step in but was waiting for the  right time. Unfortunately the war then  escalated to a war on slavery and Britain  could no longer step in.

How: it didn’t work and 

eventually the civil war ended with the  confederacy staying in the union and rid of  slavery

USS Monitor 

∙ Naval war

∙ Union had huge advantage in  ships and shipbuilding

∙ Blockaded south

∙ Seized southern ports except  Charleston and Wilmington ∙ Ironclads revolutionized naval  warfare

∙ First USS Monitor v. CSS  Virginia

∙ CSS ironclad ship in Norfolk  shipyard, try to sink it and  destroy it so confederacy  

cannot use it; originally marry  Mack: confederacy renames it  and saves it adding iron plating to it

∙ Normal steam engine ship with  iron on it; slow movement but  must move ship to shoot

o Initially it works, but  

union built USS Monitor

 Monitor is low in  

water, two guns  

that move 360  

(better), iron  

cladding

 Becomes best  

ship in the world;

first time U.S  

takes  

technological  

lead in  

shipbuilding

∙ Draw with CSS Virginia  captured when Union took  Norfolk

∙ South couldn’t compete ship  for ship, so focused on  

privateer-ing and raiding Union  shipping

Antietam/Bull Run/Robert E. Lee 

∙ Politics of emancipation

∙ Free slaves was military necessity

∙ Following union victory at Antietam, Lincoln issued  emancipation proclamation

∙ Britain and France cannot support slavery side ∙ Upping stakes of war

∙ Declared January 1863, slaves in confederate  control were freed

∙ Propaganda

∙ No slaves freed immediately

∙ Eventually, abolitionists pushed republicans to  support thirteenth amendment (permanently  outlawed slavery)

∙ War in Northern Virginia (battle of bull run) ∙ Bull run demonstrated harsh truths of war to north ∙ South wins hard victory

∙ Spectators gathered to watch, eventually overran by confederates

∙ Spring 1862, new union commander George  McClellan, planned march along Virginia’s James  Peninsula toward Richmond

∙ Robert E. Lee mounted a successful counterattack  driving McClellan back

∙ Consistently had less men, but still pushed  McClellan back; congress trying to say slavery is not goal. If Richmond is taken then resolution without  losing south is still in effect, but when he loses he  realizes this is going to take a long time

∙ Davis ordered an invasion of Maryland that was  stopped in September at Antietam

∙ Lee didn’t want to; bloodiest single say of war; north wins barely and pushes lee back

∙ Enough for Lincoln to issue emancipation  proclamation

∙ Final union thrust also ended in December at  Fredericksburg

∙ Bull run demonstrated harsh truths of war to north ∙ South wins hard victory

∙ Spectators gathered to watch, eventually overran by confederates

∙ Spring 1862, new union commander George  McClellan, planned march along Virginia’s James  Peninsula toward Richmond

9

∙ Robert E. Lee mounted a  successful counterattack  

driving McClellan back

∙ Consistently had less men, but  still pushed McClellan back;  congress trying to say slavery  is not goal. If Richmond is  

taken then resolution without  losing south is still in effect, but when he loses he realizes this  is going to take a long time ∙ Chancellorsville

∙ May 1863, Robert E. Lee  defeated army twice his size,  driving union back offensive.

∙ McClellan isn’t as good as Lee,  Union has to withdraw all the  way to Pennsylvania (puts  union on defensive) 

Saratoga (big victory means  France and Britain)

Gettysburg 

∙ July 1 to 3 1863

∙ Accidental (both sides want  food and one group from each  side run into each other)

∙ Lee attacks into Pennsylvania ∙ Stopped by union forces led by  George Meade

∙ Lee never mounted another  offensive

∙ Union has better position;  attacks right, left fail, middle  and union have good ground.  

∙ Last major charge is picket’s  charge (picket from Virginia  while others were from north  Carolina) lee sends charge in  even though the know it will  fail; lee loses Meade

o wins and lee retreats

∙ Turning point (practically ended war by beating south people,  money, guns)

Thirteenth Amendment 

∙ Free slaves was military  necessity

∙ Following union victory at Antietam, Lincoln issued  emancipation proclamation

∙ Britain and France cannot support slavery side ∙ Upping stakes of war

∙ Declared January 1863, slaves in confederate  control were freed

o Propaganda

∙ No slaves freed immediately

∙ Eventually, abolitionists pushed republicans to  support thirteenth amendment (permanently  outlawed slavery)

Constitutional Union Party 

∙ Election of 1860

∙ 4 candidates

∙ Democrats split over proposed slave code ∙ Stephen Douglas won the nomination

∙ Popular, but he’s from Illinois free state so  southerners nominated Breckinridge

∙ Forget candidate and nominate third for everyone to come together on

o Neither candidates drop, so too split

∙ Southern and border state Whigs created the  constitutional union party and nomination john bell ∙ Republicans nominated Lincoln (moderate) ∙ Breckinridge and Lincoln represented extreme  positions on slavery in territories

∙ Douglas and bell try middle ground

∙ Lincoln swept north, received about 40% of  nationwide pop. Vote

∙ Votes are all north, so south feels they are  outnumbered by abolitionists in the north

Vicksburg 

∙ July 4 1863

∙ Grant completed his siege of Vicksburg ∙ Cut off Texas

∙ Ended war, but no one knew it was  

Emancipation Proclamation 

Who: Abraham Lincoln

What: preliminary proclamation to free slaves in 

confederacy  (1862) and allow them to join the union army When, where: 1863, Union

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Why: The north wanted more 

soldiers than the south and the south would  not let the slaves fight. The slaves hated the  slaveholders and the union knew the slaves  would fight against the confederacy for 

their freedom

Sherman’s Special Field Order 15 ∙ After victories, Lincoln  appoints grant general in chief ∙ Developed scorched earth plan to bring war home to southern  public

∙ Virginia, Grant encouraged  slaves to run away while he  destroyed anything that could  be used by enemy

∙ Sherman captured Atlanta,  then destroyed everything in  his path on his march to the  sea

∙ Sherman also issued a special  order (trying to burn Georgia to the groundburned everything to destroy everything the south could use) Lasting mark on  Georgia for a very long time  (civil war) really ends war, but  south still doesn’t surrender

Black codes 

Who: South and Congress

What: codes in southern states 

were passed to limit freed slaves’ rights, but congress passed the Civil Rights Act of  1866 to nullify those codes along with the  fourteenth amendment

When, where: 1865­1866, South Why/how: South wanted to limit  the freed slaves’ rights, but congress was  opposed to this since the slaves were freed  and had no reason to be limited; highlighted the still existing racism and the power of  the federal government over the states Tenure of Office Act

Who:

What:

When, where:

Why:

How:

Fifteenth Amendment 

Who: freed slaves

What: gave all freed slaves the rights of citizenship and  reiterated the Civil Rights Act of 1866

When, where: 1868, Congress

Why: Southern states tried to limit the rights of the freed  slaves in the black codes

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