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UA / History / HY 102 / Concentration camp refers to what?

Concentration camp refers to what?

Concentration camp refers to what?

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: History
Course: Western Civilization from 1648
Professor: Janek wasserman
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: history and HY102
Cost: 50
Name: HY102 Final Exam Study Guide
Description: Study Guide for the final exam. Just like the last two, this does not have completely written out answers for the essay questions, but ideas on how to formulate responses and tons of relative notes to help out with that formation. Please contact me if you have any questions!
Uploaded: 05/01/2017
18 Pages 25 Views 8 Unlocks
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Exam Overview: The midterm for this class will take place on Friday, May 5 from 11:30am to 2pm. It will consist of two parts: six (6) short answer identifications and one (1) essay. The first part will be worth 48% (eight points per short answer) and the second 52%. There will not be any surprises on the exam if you study. Both sections will require knowledge of the lectures and the readings.


Concentration camp refers to what?



Short Answers: You will be given nine (9) terms, and you will complete six (6). You will be expected to identify and then clarify their significance for the study of our subject. These answers should be about a paragraph in length (3 or 4 sentences). The significance is the most important part of these answers. Please be as concrete as possible.

1. Concentration Camp We also discuss several other topics like Depression treatment refers to what?

a. Armenian Genocide (1915-1918)

i. Over 1 million dead; 25 concentration camps

b. Concentration camps are where people are sent to work, and then may be killed; these are more notorious than the Death Camps because people lived to talk about them.

2. Death Camp

a. Establishment of killing centers in Poland

i. Different from concentration camps


Armenian genocide refers to what?



1. Gas vans to gas chambers We also discuss several other topics like Who is galen clavio?

2. Auschwitz, Belzec, Chelmo, Majdanek, Sobibor, Treblinka

b. Approximately 3.5 million victims

c. People are sent here for the sole reason of being killed

3. Iron Curtain

a. Emergence of Iron Curtain

i. Coalition government in Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria,

Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and East Germany formed

ii. Formation of Eastern Bloc

iii. “From sterin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent.”- Winston Churchill

4. Berlin Airlift If you want to learn more check out What is the complement rule equation?

a. Berlin Airlift (1948-49)

b. Soviet forces blockaded rail, road, and water access to Allied-controlled areas of Berlin. The United States and United Kingdom responded by airlifting food and fuel to Berlin from Allied airbases in western Germany. 


Death camp means what?



We also discuss several other topics like Who later became the most famous member of the plumbers?
Don't forget about the age old question of In geology, what is lava viscosity?

5. Warsaw Pact

a. Warsaw Pact (1955)

b. A collective defence treaty among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War. We also discuss several other topics like What is the neural substrates of learning?

6. Mao Zedong

a. Chinese Revolution (1949)

i. Pre World War II civil war put on hold during war against Japan

ii. Mao Zedong and communist insurgents drive Chinese Nationalists into exile and take control of the Chinese government.

iii. People’s Republic of China emerges

iv. Zedong wanted to provide education and healthcare to masses. Maoists vs Marxists- extended to countryside. Peasant uprising led by Mao.

7. Indian National Congress

a. Decolonization of India (1947)

i. First and largest British colony to win independence

ii. Efforts of Indian Nation Congress

1. Urge for Britain to “quit India”

2. Organize non-violent forms of protest such as going on strike,

refusing to pay taxes, boycotting import taxes.

iii. Efforts of labor part in Britain

1. Elected in 1945 with pro-Indian independence platform

2. Partition of 1947 and the creation of 2 independent dominions of

Pakistan and India

8. Perestroika

a. Gorbachev and the Era of Reform

i. Changing the guard in USSR

1. Glasnost (openness)

a. Elections, freedom of speech

2. Perestroika (economic restructuring)

a. Mixed economy

b. End of cooperative production

9. Prague Spring

a. The Prague Spring was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II. It began on 5 January 1968, when reformist Alexander Dubček was elected First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, and continued until 21 August 1968 when the Soviet Union and other members of the Warsaw Pact invaded the country to halt the reforms. 

b. The Prague Spring reforms were a strong attempt by Dubček to grant additional rights to the citizens of Czechoslovakia in an act of partial decentralization of the economy and democratization. The freedoms granted included a loosening of restrictions on the media, speech and travel. 

10. Berlin Wall

a. Berlin and East Germany

i. Berlin divided into 4 Allied territories

ii. Berlin Airlift (1948-49)

iii. Reparation payments and economic crises

1. 58,000 illegally migrate from East to West Germany in March of

1953

b. The Berlin Wall (1961-89)

11. Algerian War

a. War between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France. An important decolonization war, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, and the use of torture by both sides. The conflict also became a civil war between loyalist Algerians supporting a French Algeria and their Algerian nationalist counterparts. 

12. Dien Bien Phu

a. The Battle of Dien Bien Phu was the climactic confrontation of the First Indochina War between the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps and Viet Minh communist-nationalist revolutionaries. It was, from the French view before the event, a set piece battle to draw out the Vietnamese and destroy them with superior firepower. The battle occurred between March and May 1954 and culminated in a comprehensive French defeat that influenced negotiations underway at Geneva among several nations over the future of Indochina. 13. European Common Market

a. On March 25, 1957, France, West Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg sign a treaty in Rome establishing the European Economic Community (EEC), also known as the Common Market. The EEC, which came into operation in January 1958, was a major step in Europe’s movement toward economic and political union.

14. Mohandas Gandhi

a. Activity in South Africa and India

b. Hiha Swaraj (1909)- People are master of their own souls

c. Leader of Indian National Congress (1920)

d. Organized thousands for the 241-mile salt march (1930)

15. Lech Walesa

a. Poland, 1980s

i. Solidarity and worker strikes

1. Higher wages, independent unions

2. Self organization, self determination, self government

3. Lech Walesa, hero to much of Europe

b. A retired Polish politician and labor activist. He co-founded and headed Solidarity, the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland from 1990 to 1995. 

16. Truman Doctrine

a. Cold War Diplomacy

i. Truman Doctrine (1947)

1. Pledge to support resistance of “free people” to communism

2. Marshall plan (1948)

a. Pledges $13 billion of US aid over 4 years

3. Formation of NATO (1949)

4. Warsaw Pact (1955

17. Marshal Tito

a. Communism and Postcommunism

i. Tito-Stalin Split

1. Relative autonomy of Yugoslav state

ii. Relative stability of Yugoslavia

1. Liberalization and federalism

iii. Death of Tito and collapse of communism

1. Think Austria-Hungary, 1918

b. A Yugoslav revolutionary and statesman, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980. During World War II he was the leader of the Partisans, often regarded as the most effective resistance movement in occupied Europe. While his presidency has been criticized as authoritarian, and concerns about the repression of political opponents have been raised, some historians consider him a benevolent dictator. He was a popular public figure both in Yugoslavia and abroad.Viewed as a unifying symbol,his internal policies maintained the peaceful coexistence of the nations of the Yugoslav federation. 

18. Marshall Plan

a. Cold War Diplomacy

i. Truman Doctrine (1947)

1. Pledge to support resistance of “free people” to communism

2. Marshall plan (1948)

a. Pledges $13 billion of US aid over 4 years

3. Formation of NATO (1949)

4. Warsaw Pact (1955

b. The Marshall Plan was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II. The plan was in operation for four years beginning April 8, 1948. The goals of the United States were to rebuild war-devastated regions, remove trade barriers, modernize industry, make Europe prosperous once more, and prevent the spread of communism. The Marshall Plan required a lessening of interstate barriers, a dropping of many regulations, and encouraged an increase in productivity, labour union membership, as well as the adoption of modern business procedures. 19. Mikhail Gorbachev

a. Gorbachev and the Era of Reform

i. Changing the guard in USSR

1. Glasnost (openness)

a. Elections, freedom of speech

2. Perestroika (economic restructuring)

a. Mixed economy

b. End of cooperative production

b. Collapse of USSR

i. Eclipse of Gorbachev and rise of Yeltsin

1. Splintering of the Soviet Union

2. 1991 failed military coup

3. December 8, 1991: “The USSR… is ceasing to exist”

20. Partition of India

a. Decolonization of India (1947)

i. First and largest British colony to win independence

ii. Efforts of Indian Nation Congress

1. Urge for Britain to “quit India”

2. Organize non-violent forms of protest such as going on strike,

refusing to pay taxes, boycotting import taxes.

b. Efforts of labor part in Britain

i. Elected in 1945 with pro-Indian independence platform

ii. Partition of 1947 and the creation of 2 independent dominions of Pakistan and India

c. Partition of India

i. 2 nation theory- religion trumps language, ethnicity, etc.

ii. Rudolff Lire

1. 2 independent nations of India and Pakistan (east and west created) 2. Chittagong Hill ceded to Pakistan despite a 97% Buddhist

population

21. The Atomium

a. The Atomium is a building in Brussels originally constructed for Expo 58, the 1958 Brussels World's Fair. Designed by the engineer André Waterkeyn and architects André and Jean Polak, its nine stainless steel clad spheres are connected so that the whole forms the shape of a unit cell of an iron crystal magnified 165 billion times. 

b. In the 1950s, faith in scientific progress was great, and a structure depicting atoms was chosen to embody this. 

22. Détente

a. Détente is the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation. This lessening of tensions along with domestic reform in the Soviet Union worked together to achieve the end of socialism in Eastern Europe and eventually the Soviet Union all together. 

b. The term is most often used in reference to a period of general easing of the geo-political tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States, it was the distinct lessening of the Cold War. It began in 1969, as a foreign policy of U.S. presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford called détente; a "thawing out" or "un-freezing" at a period roughly in the middle of the Cold War, in efforts to avoid the collision of nuclear risks. Policymakers promoted for greater dialogue, regular summit meetings, and negotiation over arms control and other bilateral agreements.

23. Tet Offensive

a. Vietnam

i. Colonialism, imperialism, and the cold war.

ii. Part of French Indo-China.

iii. Vietnam is freed, but unacceptable because they might go communist. iv. North Vietnamese launched Tet Offensive, and catch Americans off guard.

1. Devastating for moral in US and sunk opinion of war.

v. My Lai Massacre, March 1968- AMerican Army opens fire, kills 800 civilians to clear a village: war crimes.

1. Undermines American “goodness”.

b. The Tet Offensive was one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968, by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese People's Army of Vietnam against the forces of the South Vietnamese Army of the Republic of Vietnam, the United States Armed Forces, and their allies. It was a campaign of surprise attacks against military and civilian command and control centers throughout South Vietnam. 

24. Salt March

a. Mohandas Gandhi

i. Activity in South Africa and India

ii. Hiha Swaraj (1909)- People are master of their own souls

iii. Leader of Indian National Congress (1920)

iv. Organized thousands for the 241-mile salt march (1930)

b. The Salt March, which took place from March to April 1930 in India, was an act of civil disobedience led by Mohandas Gandhi to protest British rule in India. During the march, thousands of Indians followed Gandhi from his religious retreat near Ahmedabad to the Arabian Sea coast, a distance of some 240 miles. The march resulted in the arrest of nearly 60,000 people, including Gandhi himself. India finally was granted its independence in 1947.

25. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

a. Cold War Diplomacy

i. Truman Doctrine (1947)

1. Pledge to support resistance of “free people” to communism

2. Marshall plan (1948)

a. Pledges $13 billion of US aid over 4 years

3. Formation of NATO (1949)

4. Warsaw Pact (1955

b. An intergovernmental military alliance between several North American and European states based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. 

26. Rudi Dutschke

a. Berlin

i. Germans are unsettled by cold war and being front and center.

ii. Upset at allyship with America.

iii. APO March, 1968.

iv. Protest things not being democratic enough. In solidarity with what’s going on around the world. Rudi Dutschke and the Socialist Student Union at the International Vietnam Congress.

v. February, 1968- Central Organization.

b. The most prominent spokesperson of the German student movement of the 1960s. He advocated a "long march through the institutions of power" to create radical change from within government and society by becoming an integral part of the machinery. He survived an assassination attempt by Josef Bachmann in 1968, but died 12 years later from health problems caused by his injuries. 

27. French General Strike of 1968

a. Paris- May 1968

i. Student sit in, May 1968.

ii. Students are upset at authoritarianism and conservatism of universities and government. Want universities to be for students.

iii. Protest on dress/conduct codes.

iv. Students are joined by high school teachers, high school students, and workers. They all go on strike 11 million people.

v. 25% of the French population is not working. This goes on for 2 weeks. vi. Unions aren’t involved, it’s spontaneous action of 11 million people. 28. De-Stalinization

a. De-Stalinization consisted of a series of political reforms in the Soviet Union after the death of long-time leader Joseph Stalin in 1953, and the ascension of Nikita Khrushchev to power. 

b. The reforms consisted of changing or removing key institutions that helped Stalin hold power: the cult of personality that surrounded him, the Stalinist political system, and the Gulag labour-camp system, all of which had been created and 

dominated by him. Stalin was succeeded by a collective leadership after his death in March 1953. 

c. Contemporary historians regard the beginning of de-Stalinization as a significant turning point in the history of the Soviet Union. It began during the Khrushchev Thaw. However, it subsided during the Brezhnev period and remained so until the mid-1980s, when it accelerated once again due to policies of perestroika and glasnost under Mikhail Gorbachev. 

29. Arms Race

a. Soviet Union tests first atomic bomb (1949)

b. US and Soviet Union test hydrogen “super” bombs (1953)

c. Intercontinental missiles (1957)

i. Minimum travel range of 3,400 miles

d. An arms race denotes a rapid, competitive increase in the quantity or quality of instruments of military or naval power by rival states in peacetime. What it

connotes is a game with a logic of its own. Typically, in popular depictions of arms races, the political calculations that start and regulate the pace of the game remain obscure.

30. Non-Aligned Movement

a. The organization was founded in Belgrade in 1961. Leaders were prominent advocates of a middle course for states in the developing world between the Western and Eastern Blocs during the Cold War. 

31. Yalta Conference

a. Post war divisions: East and West

i. Yalta Conference (1945)

1. Western Powers will stay out of eastern Europe

2. Poland to be overseen by Soviet Union

b. The Yalta Conference, held from February 7 to 11, 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Europe's postwar reorganization. The three states were represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Premier Joseph Stalin, respectively. 

c. The goal of the conference was to shape a post-war peace that represented not just a collective security order but a plan to give self-determination to the liberated peoples of post-Nazi Europe. 

32. Vietnam War

a. Vietnam

i. Colonialism, imperialism, and the cold war.

ii. Part of French Indo-China.

iii. Vietnam is freed, but unacceptable because they might go communist. iv. North Vietnamese launched Tet Offensive, and catch Americans off guard.

1. Devastating for moral in US and sunk opinion of war.

v. My Lai Massacre, March 1968- AMerican Army opens fire, kills 800 civilians to clear a village: war crimes.

1. Undermines American “goodness”.

b. War between South and North Vietnamese, with interference by US over the potential communist government that could spring up in newly freed Vietnam. 33. Alexander Dubcek

a. Prague

i. “Socialism with a human face”- Alexander Dubcek.

ii. Milan Kundera

iii. Red Army invasion, August 1968 and throws Dubcek out of government iv. Jan Palach set himself on fire in protest.

v. Loads go to his funeral in January, 1969.

b. Alexander Dubček was a Slovak politician and, briefly, leader of Czechoslovakia (1968–1969). He attempted to reform the communist regime during the Prague Spring but he was forced to resign following the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia. 

34. Civil Rights Movement

a. USA

i. War, protest, violence, elections

ii. Assassination of Martin Luther King Junior

iii. Assassination of Robert Kennedy, June 1969

1. More centrist and leaning leftward, wanted to pull out of Vietnam.

2. Was in running for presidency when killed

b. The Civil Rights Movement is a term that encompasses the strategies, groups, and social movements in the United States whose goals were to end racial segregation and discrimination against African Americans and to secure legal recognition and federal protection of the citizenship rights enumerated in the Constitution and 

federal law. (1954-1968) 

c. The movement was characterized by major campaigns of civil resistance. Between 1955 and 1968, acts of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience produced crisis situations and productive dialogues between activists and government authorities. Federal, state, and local governments, businesses, and communities often had to respond immediately to these situations, which highlighted the inequities faced by African Americans. 

35. Charles de Gaulle

a. A French general and statesman. He was the leader of Free France (1940–44) and the head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic (1944–46). In 1958, he founded the Fifth Republic and was elected as the 18th President of 

France, a position he held until his resignation in 1969. He was the dominant figure of France during the Cold War era and his memory continues to influence French politics. 

b. In the context of the Cold War, de Gaulle initiated his "Politics of Grandeur", asserting that France as a major power should not rely on other countries, such as the US, for its national security and prosperity. To this end, de Gaulle pursued a policy of "national independence" which led him to withdraw from NATO's military integrated command and to launch an independent nuclear development program that made France the fourth nuclear power. He restored cordial Franco-German relations to create a European counterweight between the Anglo-American and Soviet spheres of influence. However, he opposed any development of a supranational Europe, favouring a Europe of sovereign nations. De Gaulle openly criticised the US intervention in Vietnam and the "exorbitant privilege" of the US dollar. In his later years, his support for an independent Quebec and his two vetoes against Britain's entry into the European Community generated considerable controversy. 

36. Srebrenica

a. July 11-13, 1995

b. Massacre of 8,300 Bosnians by Serbs; Ethnic cleansing

c. Rape Camps

d. Western complacency

i. Yielding of the “safe area” to Serbs by UN

e. The Srebrenica massacre was the July 1995 genocide of Muslim Bosniaks, mainly men and boys, in and around the town of Srebrenica during the Bosnian War.

f. The killings were perpetrated by units of the Bosnian Serb Army of Republika Srpska. In April 1993 the United Nations (UN) had declared the besieged enclave of Srebrenica—in the Drina Valley of northeastern Bosnia—a "safe area" under UN protection. However, in July 1995, Dutchbat soldiers in Srebrenica failed to prevent the town's capture— and the subsequent massacre.

Essay: Two of the following three essays will appear on the exam. You only have to do one. Your essay will be assessed on its argument, clarity of thought and organization, and its use of information from both lecture and readings. An essay that does not refer to primary sources will be inadequate. ​You do not have to quote from the books we have read; you merely have to reference them.

1. In 1992, political theorist Francis Fukuyama published The End of History and the Last Man, in which he argued that the end of the Cold War not only signaled a victory for western liberal Democracy, but an endpoint of human history. Throughout the semester you have studied major episodes in which liberal Democracy was both criticized and defended (the French Revolution, Marx’s Manifesto, the rise of Fascism, the Cold War, etc.). For this essay, utilized the knowledge you have gained over the course of the semester to illustrate how Fukuyama could come to such a conclusion. Discuss periods/events in which liberal Democracy prevailed against competing ideologies. Discuss periods/events in which liberal Democracy was challenged. Ultimately, present major periods/events which illustrate the development of liberal Democracy over time and its significance to the study of Western Civilization since 1648.

a. So I go through some periods where liberalism or democracy were prominent in history, but I think the main thing to remember is that liberalism didn’t always equal a democracy, and that democracies haven’t always won. There have been moments where monarchies and communism have won, and after those fell democracies took root in countries. However, seeing the change of democracy it important to the study of Western Civ since 1648 because the struggle for/against democracy was at the root of a lot of major conflicts, and as it’s changed so have various countries acceptance of democracy until we got to the configuration of democratic countries that we have today.

b. The Second French Revolution

i. Export of revolution and new thoughts on politics: birth of liberalism as a concept

c. The Restoration (1815-1830)

i. Resistance to Restoration

1. Nationalist rebellion

a. Liberalism and nationalism united

i. Liberation is tied to a care for the country

ii. Decembrist Revolt

1. After the death of a Tzar, two candidates vie for power, one is

conservative the other is liberal.

2. The conservative one wins, and there are revolts in 1825

d. Revolutions of 1848

i. Liberalism

1. Not today’s liberals

a. Not democrats

2. Influence the Scottish Enlightenment

ii. Political, economic, and philosophical

iii. Birth of the Economist

1. Pro-business, pro-free trade, pro-capitalism

iv. Weaker on the continent; links with nationalism

1. Commitments to civil liberties, freedom of expression

v. Focus on individual autonomy

e. Liberalism

i. Post Great Depression, people have no faith in liberalism or democracy because of how it didn’t work in America, so the lack of faith leads to a rise in authoritarianism and fascism which allows for the emergence of Hitler and WW2.

f. Lack of trust in democracy leads to people voting Hitler into power, post Great Depression.The Great Depression in the interwar period lead to a lack of faith in democracy and people pouring their trust into Fascism. Then, people supported Hitler because he talked about getting them back their money and land that had been stolen, and everyone bought into it.

a. Authoritarianism was more appealing in Germany, Italy, Spain, and Russia because of economic heartbreak and issues with Post-WW1 treaties.

b. Communism doesn't work in Russia and Russian controlled countries, so they end up undergoing liberalization and becoming democracies.

2. The end of the Second World War saw the emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as the world’s two “superpowers,” and a “cold war” between the two divided Europe. Discuss the economic, political, and military integration in Western and Eastern Europe as a result of the Cold War.

a. I have listed some things that happened in the cold war, and then everything after Mohandas Gandhi was after the Cold War, in the Sixties. The main point is that a lot of places were revolted and there was a lot of civil unrest and countries trying to fix themselves. Economies were generally not doing too hot, and people were

politically on edge, and military forces were more advanced due to the arms race. b. Emergence of Iron Curtain

i. Coalition government in Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria,

Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and East Germany formed

ii. Formation of Eastern Bloc

iii. “From sterin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent.”- Winston Churchill

c. Eastern Bloc is a buffer between Soviet Union and Western Powers. Eastern Bloc

is communist or linked to the Soviets.

d. Berlin and East Germany

i. Berlin divided into 4 Allied territories

ii. Berlin Airlift (1948-49)

iii. Reparation payments and economic crises

1. 58,000 illegally migrate from East to West Germany in March of 1953

iv. The Berlin Wall (1961-89)

e. Soviet Union tests first atomic bomb (1949)

f. US and Soviet Union test hydrogen “super” bombs (1953)

g. Intercontinental missiles (1957)

i. Minimum travel range of 3,400 miles

h. Decolonization of India (1947)

i. First and largest British colony to win independence

ii. Efforts of Indian Nation Congress

1. Urge for Britain to “quit India”

2. Organize non-violent forms of protest such as going on strike, refusing to pay taxes, boycotting import taxes.

iii. Efforts of labor part in Britain

1. Elected in 1945 with pro-Indian independence platform

2. Partition of 1947 and the creation of 2 independent dominions of Pakistan and India

i. Partition of India

i. 2 nation theory- religion trumps language, ethnicity, etc.

ii. Rudolff Lire

1. 2 independent nations of India and Pakistan (east and west created) 2. Chittagong Hill ceded to Pakistan despite a 97% Buddhist

population

j. Decolonization of Congo

i. Dozens killed in Leopoldville Riots ( 1959)

ii. Immediate withdrawal in 1960

iii. “... left crumbling railways and fewer than two dozen indigenous people with college educations.”

iv. Lumumba elected Prime Minister and Kasavubu elected President k. Mohandas Gandhi

i. Activity in South Africa and India

ii. Hiha Swaraj (1909)- People are master of their own souls

iii. Leader of Indian National Congress (1920)

iv. Organized thousands for the 241-mile salt march (1930)

l. Paris- May 1968

i. Student sit in, May 1968.

ii. Students are upset at authoritarianism and conservatism of universities and government. Want universities to be for students.

iii. Protest on dress/conduct codes.

iv. Students are joined by high school teachers, high school students, and workers. They all go on strike 11 million people.

v. 25% of the French population is not working. This goes on for 2 weeks. vi. Unions aren’t involved, it’s spontaneous action of 11 million people. m. Berlin

i. Germans are unsettled by cold war and being front and center. ii. Upset at allyship with America.

iii. APO March, 1968.

iv. Protest things not being democratic enough. In solidarity with what’s going on around the world. Rudi Dutschke and the Socialist Student Union at the International Vietnam Congress.

v. February, 1968- Central Organization.

n. Vietnam

i. Colonialism, imperialism, and the cold war.

ii. Part of French Indo-China.

iii. Vietnam is freed, but unacceptable because they might go communist. iv. North Vietnamese launched Tet Offensive, and catch Americans off guard.

1. Devastating for moral in US and sunk opinion of war.

v. My Lai Massacre, March 1968- AMerican Army opens fire, kills 800 civilians to clear a village: war crimes.

1. Undermines American “goodness”.

o. USA

i. War, protest, violence, elections

ii. Assassination of Robert Kennedy, June 1969

1. More centrist and leaning leftward, wanted to pull out of Vietnam. 2. Was in running for presidency when killed

p. Chicago

i. Democratic National Convention

ii. 10,000 protestors, but loads of police: goes global.

iii. The world is watching- televised.

iv. Democratic party can’t get it together and Nixon wins the election. q. Prague

i. “Socialism with a human face”- Alexander Dubcek.

ii. Milan Kundera.

iii. Red Army invasion, August 1968 and throws Dubcek out of government iv. Jan Palach set himself on fire in protest.

v. Loads go to his funeral in January, 1969.

3. The riots throughout Europe in 1968 are comparable in many respects to the Revolutions of 1848. Assess the validity of this view. Be sure to incorporate specific national parallels, motives, individuals, and events. How did political powers-that-be compare in their respective responses to these two epochal movements? What were the successes and failures of these two movements respectively?

a. The first section is notes on the revolutions of 1848 and the second is on the revolts in 1968. When looking at 1848, be sure to mention that all

revolutions were stopped by conservative powers at the time, the motives being that the economy was bad as a motivator, and that the result was extreme nationalism and countries breaking apart and reunifying. 1968 was revolting against the USSR mainly, with the motivating factor being increased freedom, and the places where revolution occurred usually won.

b. Unrest and Revolution

i. More than just ideas and ideology

ii. Bad harvest, famine, and unrest

iii. 1848

1. Sicily in January; France in February

2. Liberal reforms and national workshops

a. Putting people back to work

iv. Conservative backlash by middle class and landholders

1. June Days and Louis-Napoleon

c. Giuseppe Mazzini

i. 1805-1872

ii. Italian Revolution

d. Revolution in Southern Europe

i. Liberal (and radical) phase, then backlash

1. Inability to reconcile nationalism and liberalism, liberalism and

socialism

2. Lack of national unity

e. Italy: revolts throughout, Habsburgs ousted

i. Pope? King? Federation? Habsburgs and Louis-Napoleon?

1. Question of who will be in charge

2. Habsburgs and order restored with help of Louis-Napoleon

f. Central European Revolutions

i. Germany

1. Small, only german people option

2. Large, all lands with germans in them option

3. Limits of liberalism; minority question

ii. Hungary: revolts forced out Metternich

1. Magyar minority and national tensions

2. Habsburgs regrouped with Russian aid

g. 1849

i. All revolutions brutally suppressed

h. France

i. Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte

1. Crowned in 1852

2. Successful At deceiving people and getting things for France 3. Popular with middle and upper classes

i. New Bonapartism

i. Curious hodgepodge: Economic liberalism, authoritative, imperialist ambitions

ii. Modernization

1. New roads, public works, expos, and finance

2. Walter Benjamin, “Hausmann or the Barricades”

j. Imperial Ambition and the Crimean War

i. Balance of Power politics

1. Napoleon III driving imperial conflicts

ii. Crimean War: first of its kind

1. Railways, telegraphs, photographs, Nightingale, trenches iii. Consequences

1. End of serfdom: a fair deal?

k. Nation Building/Imperial dissolution: Italy

i. Risorgimento and French Meddling

1. Camillo Cavour, Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia

2. War with Austria in 1859

3. Other states join in 1860

4. Garibaldi and the Kingdom of Italy

ii. How unified was it?

l. German unification: Blood and Iron

i. Prussian domination of the project

1. Bismarck (1815-1898) an architect

ii. Cooperation of the liberals through conquest

iii. Wars:

1. Denmark (1864), Austria (1866), France (1870),

a. Proclamation of German Empire at Versailles, in January

of 1871.

m. Paris- May 1968

i. Student sit in, May 1968.

ii. Students are upset at authoritarianism and conservatism of universities and government. Want universities to be for students.

iii. Protest on dress/conduct codes.

iv. Students are joined by high school teachers, high school students, and workers. They all go on strike 11 million people.

v. 25% of the French population is not working. This goes on for 2 weeks. vi. Unions aren’t involved, it’s spontaneous action of 11 million people. n. Berlin

i. Germans are unsettled by cold war and being front and center. ii. Upset at allyship with America.

iii. APO March, 1968.

iv. Protest things not being democratic enough. In solidarity with what’s going on around the world. Rudi Dutschke and the Socialist Student Union at the International Vietnam Congress.

v. February, 1968- Central Organization.

o. Prague

i. “Socialism with a human face”- Alexander Dubcek.

ii. Milan Kundera.

iii. Red Army invasion, August 1968 and throws Dubcek out of government iv. Jan Palach set himself on fire in protest.

v. Loads go to his funeral in January, 1969.

p. 1970s Discontent

i. Stagnated worldwide economy

1. Inflation, spiking oil and fuel costs

a. “Stay inflation”

2. In East, slow growth and lack of consumer goods

3. Low wages and little autonomy

ii. Simmering social unrest

1. Memories of 1956 and 1968

q. Poland, 1980s

i. Solidarity and worker strikes

1. Higher wages, independent unions

2. Self organization, self determination, self government

3. Lech Walesa, hero to much of Europe

ii. Re-establishment of order under Jaruzelski

r. Gorbachev and the Era of Reform

i. Changing the guard in USSR

1. Glasnost (openness)

a. Elections, freedom of speech

2. Perestroika (economic restructuring)

a. Mixed economy

b. End of cooperative production

s. Too little: Protest in the Baltics

i. Demonstrations in Riga (1986), Tallinn (1987)

1. Calls for independence (1988/89)

2. Transition (1990)

ii. Reestablishment of Baltic languages

t. Too late: the dam breaks

i. Poland: Solidarity returns, promise of free elections

1. Citizens Committee winds

ii. Hungary: resignation of Kadar

1. Purging of old guard, dismantling security fence

iii. Czechoslovakia: Velvet Revolution

1. Student protests, repression, mass demonstration leading to Civic Forum and Vaclav Havel

u. 1989: The Wall Falls

i. Resignation of Horecker

1. Opening of border to Czechoslovakia

2. Days later, wall comes down

v. March 1990 Reunification VOte

i. October reunification

w. Collapse of USSR

i. Eclipse of Gorbachev and rise of Yeltsin

1. Splintering of the Soviet Union

2. 1991 failed military coup

ii. December 8, 1991: “The USSR… is ceasing to exist”

x. Francis Fukuyama

i. “The End of History” (1992)

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