Geology Final Exam Review IMPORTANT TERMS TO KNOW Mechanical weathering: physical disintegration of rockWe also discuss several other topics like distinguish between prezygotic and postzygotic isolating mechanisms
Don't forget about the age old question of bio 141 drexel
We also discuss several other topics like even when the agents in an agency relationship are independent contractors, they are legally protected under minimum-wage and overtime-compensation laws.
If you want to learn more check out applied technology study guide
Don't forget about the age old question of a brand new website should not choose target keyword phrases based on
Don't forget about the age old question of bartholin gland asexual reproduction
s Detrital/clastic sedimentary rock: composed of cemented fragments of pre-existing rocks - Tells us something about the environment of deposition Pressure release: rocks that are deeply buried are under stress, once stress is released, due to uplift and erosion, the rocks will crack Rock bursts: sudden and violent pressure release ruptures bedrock Freeze/thaw: expansion and cracking due to diurnal freeze-thaw cycles Crack propagation: stresses concentrate at crack tip, promoting further cracking Abrasion: rocks bumping into one another in rivers, streams, glaciers, deserts, and shorelines - 2 affects: o abrades channel o abrades particles dissolution: rock material dissolves leaving no residue, everything ends up in solution transport: how particles reach a site of deposition - in a fluid medium: water, ice, and wind roundness: measure of roundness of sedimentary particles deposition: process in which sediments, soil, and rocks are added to a landform or land mass sorting: size distribution of grains due to selective transport deflation: wind lifts and removes finer, loose material lithification: process of consolidating sediments - includes compaction and cementation compaction: decreases pore space in the sediments cementation: generally a type of quartz or calcite - relates to chemical weathering stratification: layers in sedimentary rock, called beds, strata, etc law of original horizontality: sediments will always be laid down horizontally due to gravity law of superposition: the oldest is on the bottom in an undisturbed piece of sediment turbidites: graded beds fining upwards - bigger, heavier particles settle at the bottom loading: gravity pulls features downward bedforms: structures that form on the bed of a stream, river, desert, etc foliation: layers, becomes coarser grained with temperature trace fossils: evidence of living things (worm burrows/ trilobite paths) polymorphs: same chemical formula, different crystal structure protolith: original rock that has undergone metamorphismcontact metamorphism: touching the hotness, does not generate foliation, pressure is not involved regional metamorphism: pressure and temperature, well foliated dynamic metamorphism: pressure related, impact features, fault zones differentiation: small scale migration of cations into bands migmatites: mixtures of igneous and metamorphic rocks angle of repose: maximum slope where unconsolidated material becomes stable asthenosphere: relatively soft, plastic, flowing zone within the upper mantle beneath the lithosphere axial surface: surface connecting all of the fold axes, a mirror plane body waves: earthquake waves that pass through the interior of earth, generally travel the fastest and include both s and p waves deformation: a change in shape and/or volume, can be seen in glacial ice dilation: volume change distortion: shape change at constant volume epicenter: the point of earth’s surface directly above the point where an earthquake occurs fissure eruptions: lava spews out from a fracture, low viscosity flood basalts: area of volcanic activity that has covered the land in large amounts of lava hydrostatic stress: stress that comes from all directions hypocenter: the point within earth where an earthquake takes place intergranular flow: grains rotate and slide past one another lithosphere: rigid, rocky portion of the crust and uppermost mantle pahoehoe: lava with ropey texture, easier to walk on, forms when basaltic lava flows cease flowing and solidify simultaneously physiography: topography directly reflects underlying bedrock and its structure ground water: lied beneath the ground surface, filling pores in sediments and sedimentary rocks and fractures in other rock types, represents .6% of the hydrosphere, resupplied by slow infiltration of precipitation, generally cleaner than surface water, accessed by wells porosity: the percentage of rock or sediment that consists of voids or opening, holes and needed to have ground water, measurement of a rocks ability to hold water, loose sand has 30-50% porosity, compacted sandstone may have only 10-20% porosity permeability: the capacity of a rock to transmit fluid through pores and fractures, holes connected along ground water to flow through, inter connectedness of pore spaces, most sandstones and conglomerates are porous and permeable, granites, schists, unfractered limestones are impermeable water table: where fluid pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure, water level at surface of most lakes and rivers corresponds to local water table, water table follows the topgraphy unsaturated zone: no watersaturated zone: when all pores are completely filled with water spring: when/where the water table intersects the surface groundwater movement: movement of groundwater through powers and fractures is relatively slow, flow velocities in cavernous limestones can be much higher, flows from areas of high pressure to low pressure due to gravity, flow velocity depends on slope of water table and the permeability of the rock or sediments hydraulic head: reason its forced out of low pressure areas from the extreme high pressure wells: a deep hole dug or drilled into the ground to obtain water from an aquifer, for wells in unconfined aquifers, water level before pumping is the water table, water table can be lowered by pumping, a process known as drawdown, water may rise to a level above the top of a confined aquifer, producing an artesian well groundwater/surface water interactions: gaining streams, humid regions, wet season (losing streams), humid regions, smaller streams, dry season, arid regions(dry stream bed) aquifers: body of saturated rock or sediment through which water can move easily, sandstone, conglomerate, well-jointed limestone, sand and gravel, highly fractured volcanic rock aquitards: rock/sediment that retards ground water flow due to low porosity and/or permeability, shale, clay, unfractured crystalline rocks, forms in fractured igneous rock, porosity and permeability are low, wells are different to locate, yield is low, often limits development ground water contamination: infiltrating water may bring contaminants down to the water table, including but not limited to: - pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, mercury and gold mining, landfill pollutants, heavy metals, acid mine drainage, oil and gasoline, etc - groundwater that is contaminated can be extremely difficult and expensive to clean up and in some cases impossible glacial max: most recent glacial max peaked 18,000 years ago and is considered to have ended 10,000 Bp, max extent of Pleistocene glaciation was 1/3 of land surface, current extent of glaciation is about 10% of land surfaces Antarctica: actually 2 continents and when the ice melts It will become an east and west Antarctica Accumulation zone: where snow accumulates, start getting neve and glacial ice Line of equilibrium: where accumulation zone ends and ablation zone starts Ablation zone: sad, melting part of glacier Movement of glacier: when glaciers move the top comes down then melts and retreats under itself Erosion by glaciers: volume and speed determine amount of erosion, erodes slightly more effectively than water, carry larger particles (boulders), abrasion, plucking, continental glaciers remove all soil, plants, and small hills, make a valley go from a V shape to a U shape Plucking: glacier moving large chunks of rocks Transportation by glaciers: will move materials of all sizes, from glacial flour (pulverized rock) to massive boulders, slow transport, water in, on, and under glaciers moves much sediment as well Deposition by glaciers: drift is any material deposited by glaciers or their meltwater, till is that unsorted material that is deposited directly by ice, moraines are linear features deposited at bottom or along sides of glaciers, glacial erratics are enormous boulders transported and deposited by glaciers, often far from their source region Moraines: a mass of rocks and sediment carried down and deposited by a glacier, typically as ridges at its edges or extremity Continental glaciers or ice sheets: only 2 true ice sheets exist today: Greenland and Antarctica, where they meet the sea they can form ice sheets, vary in thickness from hundreds of feet to two miles deep, scour away all soil and vegetation and dramatically reshape the landscape and ecology of large regions, much change occurs in the periglacial environments Fjords: U shaped glacial trough, has to be filled with sea water Uniformitarianism: the assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now have always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere in the universe, gives us time, the present is the key to the past, James Putin, won out over catastrophism Catastrophism: 6,000 years, the theory that the earth has been affected in the past by sudden, short lived, violent events, possibly worldwide in scope, we do have catastrophes, everything that happened has taken place before Relative age dating: a relative guess, assumption - superposition - cross-cutting relations - inclusion - unconformities principle of cross cutting relations: cutter is younger than the cuttee, the other rock had to exist before it could be cut across principle of inclusion: rock bodies are younger than inclusions within them, piece of older rock is completely surrounded by younger rock angular unconformity: an unconformity formed above folded and tilted rocks - look for angles nonconformity: developed above igneous and metamorphic rocks, change in rock type, something erodes and new rocks settle on top, ex: grand canyon disconformity: developed in horizontal strata, you have certain layers and some get eroded away and new layers come on top for example: - 4,3,2,1 then 4 and 3 layers get eroded away and then you have 6,5,2,1, very hard to confirm in nature, hard to find radiometric isotope age dating: absolute datesradioactivity: spontaneous decay of the nuclei of unstable atoms (parents) to produce stable new atoms (daughters), parents decay into stable daughters assumption: rate of decay is not affected by chemical or physical factors half-life: the time required for half of the nuclei of radioactive elements to decay - carbon 14 dating starts at death of object, object has to be organic, its half life is 5,730 years which is short and is only good for dating material that are <70,000 years old zircon: common as an accessory mineral in igneous rocks, main tool we use to date rocks combinations of absolute and relative age dates: 1. Dating sediments, a. bentonite: ash fall deposits , use ash and lava to age them - sedimentary rocks have no radioactive isotopes correlations: process of relating a rock sequence in one place to another sequence in some distance place on the basis of lithology and fossil assemblage - rocks from one place match a sequence from another - need to go to multiple sites - same fossils= same time - William Strata Smith came up with the idea of correlation and made the first geologic map ever of the UK Principle of floral and faunal succession: observed changes in life become more complex and form a definite, recognizable order throughout geological history, the changes of evolution are important to know if its old or young and this also age dates the rocks Geologic time scale: time units related to the rock column: - In order of longest to shortest: eoneraperiodepoch - Eon subdivided into era, era subdivided into period, period subdivided into epoch - New epoch just started called Anthropocene, our fault/sad a new one started Magnitude: actual measure of the energy generated by an earthquake Intensity: measure of damage produced by an earthquake Liquefaction: process of changing soil and unconsolidated sediments into a watery mixture immediately following an earthquake 1. Hot, liquid rock beneath the Earth’s surface is termed… ∙ Magma 2. Which of the following is not a mineral (Petroleum, Ice, Cubic zirconium)? ∙ Petroleum and cubic zirconium 3. Cleavage in minerals refers to… ∙ Tendency to break along planes of weakness4. The silica tetrahedron that forms the backbone of all silicate minerals is composed of silicon and what other element? ∙ Oxygen 5. In silicate minerals, tetrahedral may be coordinated to form.. ∙ Long-one dimensional chains ∙ Extensive two dimensional sheets ∙ Massive three dimensional frameworks 6. ______ is a mineral property defined by the density of the mineral sample divided by the density of water ∙ specific gravity 7. Trace amounts of impurity in a mineral can commonly produce significant differences in ________ ∙ Color 8. Which of the following minerals is softest (quartz, talc, calcite, fluorite)? Hardest? ∙ Talc is the softest ∙ Quartz is the hardest 9. The difference between lava and magma is that… ∙ Magma is found beneath the earth’s surface, whereas lava has reached the surface 10. A blob-like igneous rock body that has cooled beneath the surface of Earth is called a ______ ∙ Pluton 11. A dike is… ∙ A sheet like intrusion that cuts across preexisting layers 12. A sill is… ∙ An intrusion formed within the magma chamber of a volcano 13. When magma crystallizes, _______ are formed ∙ Intrusive igneous rocks 14. If a body of magma becomes more felsic, its viscosity will… ∙ Increase 15. As compared to coarse grained igneous rocks, all fine grained igneous rocks… ∙ Cool and solidify more quickly 16. As compared to mafic igneous rocks, all felsic igneous rocks… ∙ Solidify at lower temperatures 17. All other factors being equal, intrusive rocks that form deep within Earth _______ than intrusive rocks that cool near the surface. ∙ Cool more slowly 18. Which type of magma (rock) has the greatest silica content? ∙ Felsic 19. In Bowen’s discontinuous reaction series, the first mineral to crystallize from a mafic melt is… ∙ Olivine20. Bowen’s continuous reaction series describes the crystallization behavior of a single mineral _____ ∙ Plagioclase 21. An igneous rock with a mixed texture of course grains surrounded by fine crystals is termed… ∙ Porphyritic 22. The castle in Edinburgh is sitting on top of a _______ ∙ Volcanic neck 23. In Bowen’s reaction series, which mineral would melt first with increasing temperatures? ∙ Quartz 24. Physical precipitation of gypsum due to evaporation of seawater produces what kind of sedimentary rock? ∙ Chemical 25. Compaction and cementation of grains occurs during… ∙ Lithification 26. The majority of the rocks that occur at the surface of earth are ______ ∙ Sedimentary 27. Detritus (breakdown of products of preexisting rocks) forms which kind of sedimentary rock? ∙ Clastic 28. The breakdown of exposed rock into small fragments and dissolved ions is termed _____ ∙ Weathering 29. Which transport medium carries the largest particles? ∙ Ice 30. It is unusual for _____ to carry grains larger than sand. ∙ Wind 31. The difference between breccia and conglomerate is that conglomerate…. ∙ Possesses more rounded grains than breccia 32. Grains become rounded primarily during _____ ∙ Transportation 33. Chemical weathering takes place most rapidly in environments that are _____ and _____ ∙ Warm and wet 34. Clastic sedimentary rocks are primarily classified on the basis of ______ ∙ Grain size 35. Stratification refers to… ∙ The development of layering within sedimentary rocks 36. True or false: Asymmetric ripples indicate unidirectional flow, such as in a river, whereas symmetric ripples are indicative of flow in multiple directions, such as when waves wash back and forth in shallow water. ∙ True 37. If evidence of cross bedding was discovered on a barren planet such as mars, what could you assume was once occurring on the planet? ∙ Movement of water 38. Graded beds tell a geologist that… ∙ Turbidity current deposited these beds, depositing coarser material first 39. Which environment would most likely produce sedimentary deposits characterized by very well sorted, very well rounded grains that are nearly pure quartz? ∙ Beach 40. Which environment would most likely produce sedimentary deposits characterized by poorly to moderately sorted, angular to subangular grains that consist of feldspar, quartz, and lithics (rock fragments)? ∙ Alluvial fan 41. A dark coloration in a sedimentary rock layer would most likely indicate an abundance of ______ ∙ Carbon 42. True or false: Symmetrical waves are great at providing a unique current direction ∙ False 43. A worm burrow is an example of what? ∙ Impression 44. A body of gneiss is subjected to heat and forms a melt. Later the melt cools and crystallizes to form a(n)…. ∙ Igneous rock 45. Clay minerals within a buried body of shale are recrystallized at 400degrees C and high pressure to form mica, producing a rock called phyllite; this is an example of ______ ∙ Metamorphism 46. Metamorphism may be induced by…. ∙ Contact with a hot pluton ∙ Heat and pressure associated with deep burial ∙ Contact with hot groundwater 47. Compared to low grade metamorphic rocks, high grade rocks ______ ∙ Are produced at greater temperatures and pressures 48. Regional metamorphism ______ ∙ Is another name for dynamo thermal metamorphism 49. The protolith subjected to metamorphism….∙ May belong to any of the three primary rock types 50. The blueschist facies is a metamorphic realm of….. ∙ High pressure but relatively low temperature 51. Within a single mountain range….. ∙ It is possible to find a variety of metamorphic rocks produced in distinct facies 52. As compared to the amphibolite metamorphic facies, the greenschist facies… ∙ Consist of lower grade rocks 53. Thermal (contact) metamorphism occurs…. ∙ In areas surrounding igneous intrusions 54. What processes can occur in the formation of metamorphic rock? ∙ Realignment of minerals so that they develop a preferred orientation ∙ Solid-state rearrangement of atoms or ions to create a new assemblage of minerals ∙ Segregation of minerals into layer of different compositions 55. Metamorphism, in broadest terms, involves…. ∙ Changes in minerology and texture in response to heat and stress 56. Foliated metamorphic rocks possess _______ ∙ A planar fabric consisting of mineral grains in preferred orientations of preferred patterns of association (banding) 57. Rapid, deep burial of sediments in an accretionary prism (think about the pressure) leads to the formation of a metamorphic rock termed…. ∙ Blueschist 58. Wegener proposed continental drift after he observed evidence from fossils, glacial deposits, and the fit of the continents that suggested all the continents were once….. ∙ Combined to form a supercontinent (he termed Pangaea) in the late Paleozoic through the Mesozoic 59. Wegener’s idea of continental drift was rejected by American geologists because….. ∙ He could not conceive of a valid mechanism that would cause continents to shift positions 60. The magnetic field of earth in the geologic past is __________ ∙ Known to have been constant through geologic time, due to remnant magnetization of iron-rich minerals in rocks 61. Sea floor spreading is driven by volcanic activity……. ∙ Along mid ocean ridges 62. Distinctive rock sequences on south America terminate at the Atlantic ocean but reappear on the continent of ________ ∙ Africa63. The apparent polar-wander path obtained from magnetite crystals in basalts on the north American continent is now interpreted to be the result of ________ ∙ Wandering of the geomagnetic north pole 64. The oldest sediments on the ocean floor are about ________ years old ∙ 180 million 65. At a divergent plate boundary, two opposed plates….. ∙ Move toward one another 66. At a transform plate boundary, two opposed plates….. ∙ Slide past one another 67. Mid ocean ridges are ________ ∙ Divergent plate boundaries 68. At a subduction zone, the overriding plate _________ ∙ Is always composed of continental lithosphere 69. Hawaii is an example of ________ ∙ Hot-spot volcanism 70. Segments of the mid ocean ridge system are offset. Between the offset segments we observe _________ ∙ Transform faults 71. When 2 bodies of continental lithosphere are pushed together at a convergent boundary, the result is ________ ∙ Collision and mountain formation 72. Most of the pushing force that drives plate motion is produced _________ ∙ At subduction zones 73. Most of the pulling force that drives plate motion is produced _________ ∙ At mid ocean ridges 74. Change in shape, induced by stress, is termed ___________ ∙ Pressure release 75. A body of rock affected by compressive stress will likely undergo ___________ ∙ Shortening 76. A fold shaped like an elongated arch is a(n)……. ∙ Dome 77. A fold shaped like an elongated trough is a(n)…… ∙ Basin 78. Why are most migmatites composed of granite? ∙ Hot enough to melt the components of granite which then came and melted together 79. A body of gneiss is subjected to heat and forms a melt. Later the melt cools and crystallizes to form a….. ∙ Igneous rock80. Clay minerals within a buried body of shale are recrystallized at 400degrees C and high pressure to form mica, producing a rock called phyllite, this is an example of…. ∙ Metamorphism 81. The protolith subjected to metamorphism…. ∙ May belong to any of the 3 primary rock types 82. How many seismic stations are necessary to find the epicenter of an earthquake? ∙ 3 83. Earthquakes are likely to occur along ______ ∙ All 3 types of plate boundaries 84. Faulting and earthquakes are examples of….. ∙ Brittle behavior 85. Intermediate and deep earthquakes occur along ________ ∙ Convergent plate boundaries 86. Normal, reverse, and thrust are all examples of ________ faults ∙ Dip-slip 87. Which earthquake intensity scale assesses the effects of an earthquake on humans and human made structures? ∙ Mercalli scale 88. If, during an earthquake, a footwall slides up relative to a hanging wall, the fault is termed _______ ∙ Normal 89. Which type of earthquake wave travels fastest? ∙ P-wave 90. If, during an earthquake, a hanging wall slides upward relative to a footwall, the fault is termed ___________ if the fault is steep ∙ Reverse 91. The hot spot track associated with the Hawaiian islands and emperor seamounts ______ ∙ Shows that the pacfic plate has been moving northwest for the last 30 million years 92. A body of rock affected by tensile stress will likely undergo…. ∙ Stretching 93. If a fault is nearly vertical in orientation and the two walls of rock on opposite sides slide past one another horizontally, the fault is termed ___________ ∙ Strike-slip 94. What are the effects of pumping wells? ∙ Accelerates flow near well ∙ May reverse ground water flow ∙ Causes water table drawdown ∙ Forms a cone of depression ∙ Continued water table drawdown may:i. Dry up springs and wells ii. Reverse flow of rivers (and may contaminate aquifer) iii. Dry up rivers and wetlands iv. Can draw contamination uphill v. Will cause saltwater intrusion 95. What is a glacier? ∙ Simply the existence of year round ice on the landscape ∙ There are 2 broad types: i. Continental (uncommon now) ii. Alpine (common) ∙ Measure the health of a glacier by equilibrium line 96. How do glaciers for? ∙ Form whenever snowfall exceeds snowmelt year after year. Snow accumulates incrementally, pressure increases, and it is changed into neve and then ice by this pressure ∙ Alpine: found in higher altitude locations (excellent job at carving) ∙ Continental: Greenland and Antarctica are examples (not easily visited)