HRMA 1422 Study Guide Spring 2017 Chapter 1 Boulanger’s achievements Opened the first known modern restaurant in 1765, sold soups “restoratives, restaurant” What is Nouvelle Cuisine and its characterization? Cuisine rejecting traditional principles. Uses more simple, natural flavors and preparations to be utilized in cooking. Emphasis on artful plIf you want to learn more check out che 102
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ating and fresh ingredients What’s Escoffier’s brigade system? Escoffier’s reorganized, more streamlined kitchen, still used worldwide Fusion Cuisine Use of ingredients and techniques from more than one regional and/or international cuisine in a single dish Sous Vide Cooking food by storing food in vacuum sealed bags and immerse it in boiling water Definition of chef, sous chef, and working chef Chef- in charge of the kitchen, known as executive chef in larger establishments Sous Chef- second in command, controls production and staff supervision Working Chef- in charge of operations not large enough to have an executive chef Chapter 2 Two causes of illness 1) Plant toxins, such as chemicals in poisonous mushrooms 2) Natural food components to which some people are allergic Four types of food hazards Biological, chemical, physical, and allergens Where can bacteria be found? In air, water, ground, food, skin, and inside bodiesClassifications of bacteria Harmless, beneficial, undesirable, disease-causing (pathogen) bacteria How bacterial pathogens cause disease Intoxication- caused by poisons the bacteria produce while they are growing in the food Infections- caused by bacteria that gets into the intestinal system and attack the body Toxin-mediated infections- caused by poisons the bacteria produce as they grow and multiply in the body Meaning of FAT TOM What bacteria needs to grow- food, acidity, time, temperature, oxygen, moisture TCS foods Foods that are most susceptible to harboring disease-causing microorganisms Sliced melons, cut tomatoes, animal by-products, cooked plant food, raw seed sprouts, garlic and oil mixtures Cross contamination Transference of hazardous substances to a food from another food or surface Best personal hygiene practices in the workplace Wash hands often, shower regularly, wear clean uniforms, wear gloves, no nail polish, cover cuts & sores with clean bandages, cover coughs and sneezes Four-hour rule Don’t let food remain in the danger zone for more than four hours between receiving and serving HACCP System The purpose of the system is to identify, monitor, and control dangers of food contamination in 7 steps 1) Assess hazards 2) Identify critical control points (CCPs) 3) Set up standards or limits for CCPs 4) Set up procedures for monitoring CCPs 5) Establish corrective actions 6) Set up a recordkeeping system 7) Verify, the system is working Chapter 3Types of metal Aluminum, copper, stainless steel, cast iron, porcelain enamel-lined pans, nonstick plastic-type coatings What do the NSL and UL cleaning symbols mean? The equipment with those symbols has been tested and certified by recognized agencies that certify products and write standards Chapter 4 Types of institutions Hotels, hospitals, employee food service, catering and banquet, fast-food and take out, full-service restaurants What are specific customer preferences? Food, taste, and price must all be appealing Types of menus Static menu- offers the same dishes every day Cycle menu- changes every day for a certain period A la carte menu- individual items are listed separately, each with its own price Table d’Hote- a selection of complete meals are offered at set prices Prix fixe- only one price is given Structure of a recipe - Name of recipe - Yield; total yield, # of portions, and portion size - Ingredients and exact amounts, listed in order of use - Directions for preparation with trim yields, equipment needed, temp and time directions, and food safety instructions What’s a standardized recipe? A set of instructions describing the way a particular establishment prepares a particular dish Function of a standardized recipe Controls quality, controls quantity, controls costs Difference between AP & EP As Purchased (AP) weight: weight of food before trimming Edible Portion (EP) weight: weight of food after trimming, and ready to consumeChapter 5 What’s a calorie? Amount of heat needed to raise the temp of 1 kilo water by 1 C Amount of calories for different nutrients 1 gram carb = 4 cal 1 gram protein = 4 cal 1 gram fat = 9 cal Empty calories Calories w/ little to no nutrients ex. refined sugars and starches High-nutrient density Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains Carbohydrates Compounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The body’s most important source of food energy Fiber Group of carbs that can neither be absorbed nor used by the body. Soluble fiber absorbs water and forms a gel. Insoluble fiber forms bulk in the intestines Fats Supply energy to the body in highly concentrated form. Carries vitamins A, D, E and K Protein Used for energy. Complete proteins: contains all nine essential amino acids. Incomplete protein: lack one or more of essential amino acids Vitamins Essential for regulating body function but don’t supply energy. Water-soluble, vitamins B and C can’t be stored in the body. Fat-soluble, vitamins A, D, E, and K can be stored in the body Affects of water on the body Regulates metabolism, digestion, delivery of nutrients, removal of waste, temp, lubrication and cushioning of joints and tissuesChapter 6 What is a cook’s judgement based off of? Experience and understanding of: raw materials available, basic cooking principles, food science Heat When a substance absorbs heat, its molecules move faster How foods heat up - Fast-moving molecules in hot substances come in contact w/ slower molecules in cold substances - The fast molecules bump into the slower ones and transfer some of their energy - This action makes the slower molecules move faster, or heat up How does heat affect carbs? Caramelization: the browning of sugars because of heat Gelatinization: occurs when starches absorb water and swell, acids inhibit How does heat affect vegetables? Breaks down fiber Smoke point Temperature at which fats deteriorate rapidly and begin to smoke Emulsions A uniform mixture of two substances that are normally unmixable Ex. Mayonnaise, Hollandaise, Vinaigrette Chapter 7 Mise en Place Deliberation of plating Danger zone 41-135 F Holding temperature Temperature at which a product is kept for service of for storage, must be outside of danger zoneWhat is The Grip? The proper grip that’ll give you most control over knife, increases cutting accuracy and speed, prevents slipping, lessens chance of an accident Rondelle A round slice cut Julian Thin and long cuts Oblique Diagonal chops Three stages of standard breading 1) Flour 2) Egg wash 3) Crumbs Chapter 8 Stock Fond in French, a clear, thin unthickened liquid flavored by soluble substances extracted from: - Meat, poultry, or fish - Meat, poultry, or fish bones - Vegetables - Seasonings Broth Flavored liquid produced because of simmering meat or poultry Mirepoix 50% Onion: 25% Carrot: 25% Celery Bouquet Garni Assortment of fresh herbs and other aromatic ingredients tied w/ string. Contains pieces of leek, celery, thyme sprigs, bay leaf, and parsley stems Remouillage Stock made from bones that were already used once to make stock Dashi Basic Japanese stockRoux Cooked mixture of equal parts by weight of fat and flour What are the five mother sauces? Béchamel, Hollandaise, Tomato, Espanola, Veloute Chapter 9 Clear soups All based on a clear, un-thickened broth or stock Types of clear soups Broth/Bouillon- simple, clear soups without solid ingredients Vegetable soup- clear, seasoned stock or broth w/ one or more vegetables Consomme- rich, flavorful stock or broth that’s been clarified to make it perfectly clear and transparent Thick soups Opaque soups thickened by adding a thickening agent, ex. roux, or by pureeing one or more ingredients Types of thick soups Cream soups- thickened w/ roux, beurre manie, liaison, etc. plus milk and/or cream Purees- naturally thickened by pureeing one or more of ingredients, normally starchy ingredients What is potage? A general term for soup, sometimes associated with thick, hearty soups Chapter 10 Four ways cooking affects vegetables Color, nutrient, flavor, texture What does al dente mean? Firm to the bite Anthocyanins Red pigments in veg such as red cabbage and beets. Acid turns anthocyanins a brighter red, alkalis turn it blue or blue-greenChlorophyll Green pigment, enemy of acids. Acids and long cooking turn green vegetables into a drab olive green Carotenoids Yellow and orange pigments. Very stable and not affected by acids or alkalis much. Short cooking prevents dulling of the color and preserves vitamins and flavors Six factors of nutrient loss 1) High temperature 2) Long cooking 3) Leaching (dissolving out) 4) Alkalis 5) Plant enzymes 6) Oxygen Chapter 11 Shocking/refreshing Boiled or simmered vegetables are drained as soon as they are cooked, then cooled quickly under cold water Sauté Cooking quickly in a small amount of fat Pan-fry Cooking in a larger amount of fat for a longer time at lower heat Categories of deep-fried vegetables 1) Vegetables dipped in batter and fried 2) Vegetables breaded and fried 3) Vegetables fried w/o a coating 4) Small vegetables/cuts mixed with a batter and dropped into hot fat 5) Croquettes