Final Exam Crim Theory Study Guide ∙ Content from chapter 1 o What is a theory Helps us to make sense of facts that we already know and can be tested against new facts May focus on ∙ Explanations for crime ∙ Operation of the criminal justice system Theories that explain crime ∙ May focus on o Macro influences We also discuss several other topics like What is deductive argument?
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Addresses broader questions about differences across societies or major groups in society o Micro influences Focuses specifically on small-group or individual differences ∙ May focus on o Individual factors o Social relationships o Political/economic factors o Culture o What crimes are most likely to occur? Violent (in order) ∙ Aggravated assault ∙ Robbery ∙ Rape ∙ Murder Nonviolent (in order) property crime ∙ Larcenytheft ∙ Burglary ∙ Motor vehicle theft o How does crime vary by: age, gender, race/ethnicity, social class? Age and crime ∙ Young people commit more crime than adults ∙ Crime tends to begin and peak during adolescence, then declines ∙ Lifecourse theories explain the age/crime relationship Gender and offending ∙ Males are more likely than females to offend o In 2012, women comprised 31% of all adult arrestees o About 7% of all incarcerated adults are women ∙ Gender differences are greatest for violent and serious offenders Juvenile arrest records ∙ In 2012, 32% of all juveniles arrested for any crime were African American o Blacks make up 17% of the juvenile’s population Race and crime ∙ The race/crime relationship may differ for: o Actual crimes committed o Treatment of offenders by the criminal justice system ∙ Some theories try to explain the relationship between race and crime o Strain theory o Social disorganization theory Social class and crime ∙ There is some evidence that socioeconomic status (income, education, and employment) ∙ Social class/crime relationship may differ for: o Actual crimes committed o Treatment of offenders by the criminal justice system ∙ Some theories try to explain the relationship between social class and crime o Strain theory o Labeling theory o What makes a theory “good”? It’s logical ∙ It has clearly defined and logical statements It has a broad scope ∙ It tries to explain most types of illegal behavior ∙ Range of phenomena that it proposes to explain It’s “parsimonious” ∙ It uses the simplest and fewest possible explanations to account for crime ∙ Conciseness and abstractness of a set of concepts and propositions It’s testable ∙ It identities “hypotheses” that can be tested: o X>Z or X>Y>Z ∙ Subject to empirical falsification o Must be open to evidence that may counter/disprove its hypotheses with negative findings ∙ Nontautological o Tautology Statement or hypothesis that is true by definition or involves circular reasoning There is evidence to support it ∙ People have tested it using real life participants and examples ∙ These tests show that the theory does a good job explaining crime and who commits it It is useful and practical ∙ Its statements suggest realistic ways to reduce crime It can explain the “facts” about crime: ∙ Why some crimes are more common than others ∙ Why some groups are more likely than other groups to be offenders and/or victims Empirical validity ∙ Theory has been supported by research evidence Casuality and determinism ∙ Traditional concept of casuality o X must precede and produce effect Y o To be a cause, X must be both a necessary condition, the absence of which means that Y will not occur, and a sufficient condition, so that Y always occurs in the presence of X o No criminological theory can meet these two traditional causation criteria of necessary and sufficient conditions but that makes little difference because probabilistic concept of causality is more appropriate for assessing the empirical validity ∙ Soft determinism o Allows for human agency and recognizes that various factors influence and limit actions but leave room for individual choices that cannot be completely predicted ∙ Outcome evaluations o Utilize experimental designs with both pre and post intervention measures and random assignment of subjects to treatment and control conditions offer the most credible results ∙ Process evaluation o Done to see if the program has indeed been implemented in the proper manner and with the proper participants as specified by the theory and goals underlying the program Ideology ∙ May be informed by theory and have relevance to the application of theory, but they are not themselves theoretical explanations of why laws are formulated and enforced or why people commit crimes ∙ Content from chapter 2 ∙ Deterrence theory o Crime is less likely when there are suffiecient penalties for breaking the law o Assumes all people are motivated to commit crime Seeks to find out why/when people will be deterred from crime o Basis of “classical criminology” Cesare Beccaria Reaction to harsh, subjective actions of criminal justice officials o A macro, not micro theory o What kinds of punishments work the best to deter crime? Known ∙ Universally understood Swift ∙ Applied immediately to create a more certain association between crime and punishment Severe ∙ But proportionate to crime committed o Legislature should enact an exact scale of crimes with an exact scale of threatened punishment, without regard to individual differences Certain ∙ Most important element o Certainty Probability of apprehension and punishment o Celerity Swiftness with which criminal sanctions are applied after the commission of a crime o Two types of deterrence Specific deterrence ∙ Punishment reduces crimes among the specific people who are punished ∙ Can test theory with recidivism rates ∙ Research suggest that arrested/convicted people do not have lower rates of subsequent crime ∙ Some studies show that those who are punished via the criminal justice system have higher rates of crime than those who are not formally sanctioned General deterrence ∙ Punishment deters crime among people in the general population o Even those who are not punished ∙ Research shows increasing the certainty of punishment may reduce a moderate amount of crime o Small amount of evidence shows increasing the number of police officers reduces crimeo Increasing the severity of punishments does not reduce crime Death penalty research Three strikes laws Absolute deterrence ∙ Chance of punishment versus no punishment at all Informal deterrence ∙ Actual or anticipated social sanctions and other consequences of crime and deviance that prevent their occurrence or recurrence o This research has found that perceptions of informal sanctions do have deterrent effects o Evidence for deterrence theory How are theories about deterrence tested by researchers? ∙ Official reports: compare cities/states with different punishments for same crimes ∙ Individual surveys o Ask about the likelihood of arrest/punishment o Ask about receipt of punishments and crime o Crime prevention What does the theory suggest is the best way to prevent crime? ∙ Laws, punishments, and law enforcement o Increase the certainty of punishment Hire more police officers Scared straight ∙ Deter at risk youth from future offending through first hand observation of prison life and interaction with adult inmates o Increase the severity of punishment Death penalty Three strikes legislation Waivers of juvenile offenders to adult courts o Increase the celerity of punishment Why might punishments be ineffective? ∙ People are not always aware of punishments ∙ Punishment is rarely certain or swift ∙ Many offenders are not that rational o They are often impulsive o Many are pressured into crime due to other factors ∙ But for some punishments will be effective o Those who have strong/high selfcontrol, bonds, commitment to conformity, moral beliefs ∙ Rational choice theoryo Based on “expected utility principle” of economics: people act to maximize profits and minimize costs/losses o Crime is a choice made by the offender It’s not something you were forced into or biologically driven to do o How it works You have the opportunity to commit a crime You consider the pros and cons of doing so You make the decision that allows the most benefits and fewest costs o How might this apply to: Underage drinking Attacking someone who beat up your friend o If costs>benefits, crime will not occur o If benefits of crime>costs, crime will occur o How is this theory similar to deterrence theory? Both consider people to be rational thinkers Both view punishment as an important “cost” of crime o How is this theory different from deterrence theory? Rational choice is a micro theory ∙ Focuses more on the individual and on his/her decisionmaking process Deterrence is a macro theory ∙ Focuses on the need for laws and enforcement of them o What does rational choice theory recommend to reduce crime? Similar to deterrence theory: increase the costs of crime o Critique: criminals aren’t always rational Response: ∙ Offenders usually do weight the pros and cons of their actions, even if it’s only a quick assessment o Will I be able to win this fight? o Someone is watching; I’ll do this later ∙ Criminals don’t always make good choices ∙ Even “irrational” crimes have benefits for the offender o Thoughtfully reflective decision making Raymond Paternoster and Greg Pogarsky introduced Tendency of persons to collect information relevant to a problem or decision they must make, to think deliberately, carefully, and thoughtfully, about possible solutions to the problem, apply reason to the examination of alternative solutions, and reflect back upon both the process and the outcome of the choice in order to asses what went right and wrong It then describes the process of good decision making o Wright and Decker, 1997 Study of 86 armed robbers in St. Louis Study Goal: Find out why/how individuals commit these crimes and how they select victims How did the authors study this group? ∙ Where did they get their information? Are these robbers rational? Do they weigh the benefits and costs when considering: ∙ Whether or not to commit the crime? ∙ Choosing a victim? ∙ Deciding when/how to commit the crime? (How) could these criminals be prevented from robbing? ∙ Content from chapter 3 ∙ Biological theories o Summary: crime is used by anatomical, physiological or genetic “abnormalities” o Microlevel theory: examines individual predictors of crime What are some of these factors? ∙ Genes o Explains individual differences in criminal tendencies: Why do some people from “bad” neighborhoods/families not engage in crime? Why do some people from “good” backgrounds commit crime? ∙ Positive school of criminology o Rejects notion of complete free will and rational choice The causes of crime are outside an individual’s control Swift, certain, and severe punishments will not be effective ∙ Cesare Lombroso o The Criminal Man, 1876 Measured physical and physiological traits of Italian prisoners and noncriminal Italian soldiers ∙ Found substantial differences between criminals and non criminals o Criminals are physically different or called stigmatas: long arms, large jaw, big lips, twister nose, large eyes, low forehead o Criminals are born that way o They are “atavistic” Physical characteristics were real abnormalities o They are less evolved, biologically inferior and defective ∙ William Sheldon 1949 o Modern day Lombroso o Crime is related to differences in body types and corresponding personality types Endomorph ∙ Larger/overweight people Mesomorph ∙ Physically strong people Ectomorph ∙ Skinny/frail people o Focused on violent and aggressive crime, saw mesomorph as most violent Most physically capable ∙ IQ and crime o Offenders have lower IQ and less verbal intelligence than non criminals o Why might this affect their criminal involvement? More likely to get caught Less likely to consider the consequences of their actions IQ related to moral reasoning (understand something is wrong) ∙ How does brain development affect crime? o Teens are not adequately prepared to react to their environments o Teens can’t adequately evaluate the consequences of their actions o Brain maturation is not complete until about age 25 o The prefrontal lobe takes the longest to develop o The teenaged brain is not yet fully matured and capable of: Judgment, planning, problem solving, impulse control, resisting rewards, abstraction, selfawareness, selfconcept, identity, stress management ∙ Should this affect how we punish teens? o Supreme Court decided that “children are different” and outlawed for juveniles: The death penalty (2005) ∙ Science shows that youth have a “lack of maturity and an underdeveloped sense of responsibility” Life in prison without parole (2012) ∙ Testosterone o Are testosterone levels responsible for sex differences in offending? Have found statistically significant for a link (weak though) ∙ Other physiological differences o Lower heart rate In 2015 study of 710,000 Swedish men, those with heart rates <60 beats per minute, compared to those with >83 beats per minute were: Lower heart rate were: ∙ 49% more likely to be convicted of violent crimes ∙ 25% more likely to be convicted of non violent crime Why? ∙ Individuals need to engage in risker/more dangerous activities to feel excitement ∙ Personality and crime o Criminals tend to have: Low levels of selfconstraint (high impulsivity) A lack of empathy Negative emotionality ∙ They break down under stress, are aggressive, and are more likely to perceive their environment as harmful/threatening o Someone accidently bumping you seen as personal attack Less “resiliency” ∙ Don’t easily cope with stressors of life o What about psychopathy? Hare: About 20% of inmates are psychopaths Traits: selfcentered, lack remorse, lack empathy, manipulative Mixed evidence and difficult to test ∙ Genetics research o Is there a genetic basis or crime? Do genes “cause” offending? There is no one gene that an adequately or fully explain offending But, some genes have been found to make offending more likely under certain circumstances ∙ Some relationship but not direct Criminal or delinquent behavior tendencies depend on the individuals’ exposure to ∙ Shared environment o Class o Parents o Religion ∙ Nonshared environment o Differences in family and siblings o Peer groups o Teachers o How would you study the relationship between genes and crime? o Twin studies The genetic make up of identical twins is the same because they are product of single egg Many twin studies show that monozygotic (identical) twins are more similar in their criminal tendencies compared to dizygotic (fraternal) twins This evidence supports a genetic or hereditary link ∙ Right? o Adoption studies Criminal records of adopted children are compared with criminal records of biological and adoptive parents What do these studies show?∙ Children are more likely to be offender when their biological parent is, compared to their adoptive parent ∙ Summary o Which biological characteristics have the strongest evidence of affecting crime? Personality traits Brain development Some genetic influences Heart rate Testosterone (weak evidence) o What had no evidence? Physical characteristics Quiz ∙ Lombroso thought that criminals could be identified by their: o A: physical appearance ∙ Biosocial theories stress that crime is influenced by biological factors and: o B: environmental condition ∙ There is strong evidence that higher levels of testosterone are related to increase violence and aggression o B: False (weak) ∙ Biosocial theories o Crime is caused by the interaction between biological characteristics and the environment o Its not “nature vs. nurture” but “nature via nurture” ∙ Biosocial “interactions” o Individual (genetic) and environmental (social) factors both affect crime Crime depends on nature and nurture o Individuals with certain genetic profiles are more likely to be negatively affect by adverse environments And, individuals with certain genetic profiles are more likely to be positively affected by positive environments ∙ Gene X environment interaction o Genes shape how environmental (social influences) and crime affect an individual ∙ Study by Caspi et al 2002 o One of the first studies to show a biosocial relationship o Even though maltreatment increases crime, not all maltreated children become criminal or violent They tested whether or not this relationship depends on individuals’ genetic makeup The MAOA “warrior” gene which has been linked (weakly) to violence o Effect of MAOA activity on the relationship between abuse and violence Low MAOA/high risk people convicted for more violent offense more than high MAOA/low risk people ∙ Question o What are the implications (if any) for the criminal system if there are “crime genes”? ∙ Genes, parenting, and delinquency o People going through program that promoted not participating in risky behavior were more likely not to then people who did not o People who had the genetic risk were changed most for both groups where people without were not affected much ∙ Biological more logical ∙ Biological more broad scope ∙ Biosocial more parsimonious ∙ Biological not much support biosocial some but not as much as want ∙ Evaluating biological/biosocial theory o Biological theories are making a comeback We now have better technology to study biological traits o What are the strengths of biological and biosocial theories? Biological identifies individual influences on crime Biosocial recognizes that both individual and social characteristics affect crime o What are the weaknesses of these theories? Lack of empirical evidence: not all individuals with traits become criminal ∙ Few studies have included women Policy implications are unclear, difficult to enact, or morally problematic ∙ Crime prevention o What do biological and biosocial theories suggest to reduce crime? Start early Use screening tools to identify deficits ∙ Then provide treatment/counseling o Is it appropriate to label individuals as potential criminals based on their biology? o A different prevention approach Offer services to all individuals; no need for screening or testing And: improve the environment to weaken the impact of biological deficits and lack of brain development ∙ Programs/treatments to help individuals cope with stress ∙ Programs that improve the family environment Practice ∙ Biosocial theories state that individual characteristics alone are responsible for crime o False ∙ Which theory identifies genetic influences on crime? o B. biosocial ∙ Content from chapter 5 ∙ Differential association and social learning theories o Commonalities Individuals are not inherently criminal People learn how to be criminal just like they learn other behaviors Criminal behavior is learned through interactions with others ∙ Differential association o Interactional dimension Direct association and interaction with others who engage in certain kinds of behavior, as well as the indirect association and identification with more distant reference groups o Normative dimension Different patterns of norms and values to which an individual is exposed through this association o Edwin Sutherland’s 1947 theory o One sentence summary: social interactions lead to crime o Criminal behavior is learned Through interaction and communication In small, intimate personal groups o The frequency, duration, priority, and intensity of interactions determine how much learning will occur o Learning leads to crime when: definitions favorable to crime outweigh definitions unfavorable to crime o Definitions are motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes that affect our behavior The more you justify a crime, the more likely you are to commit a crime Definitions favorable to crime ∙ They help us excuse, rationalize and/or justify our actions before or after the crime: o So we can live with ourselves o So we can lessen the guilt we may feel ∙ More examples o “Department stores can write off their losses” o “They deserved it” o “nobody will get hurt” Crime is most likely when: ∙ Definitions favorable to crime exceed definitions unfavorable to crime o Modalities of association Persons are exposed first (priority), more frequently, for a longer time (duration) and with greater intensity (importance) to lawviolating definitions than to lawabiding definitions, then they are more likely to deviate from the law ∙ Social learning theory o Ronald Akers Contain classical or respondent conditioning ∙ Conditioning of involuntary reflex behavior Discriminative stimuli ∙ The environmental and internal stimuli that provide cues or signals for behavior Schedules of reinforcement ∙ The rate and ratio in which rewards and punishments follow behavioral responses o Extends Sutherland’s theory More emphasis on how behaviors (not just definitions) are modeled by others and then learned Adds the concept of reinforcement: learning is based on rewards and punishments o Four major concepts Imitation ∙ One’s first criminal action is usually the result of imitating someone else’s behavior ∙ You are more likely to imitate people who: o Are important to you o You see rewarded for their behavior ∙ Who are the most important models? o Primary groups (family, friends, etc.) vs. the media Differential association ∙ Relationships with deviants/criminals increase the likelihood of crime o Exposure to behaviors and attitudes are both important ∙ The priority, duration, frequency, and intensity of the relationship affect learning o Which groups have the most influence on your behavior? Childrenparents/siblings Teens peers(friends) Young adultssignificant other/friends Older adultsspouse/coworkers o Most important groups are primary groups: Family Friendso Secondary groups Church School Mass media Virtual associates ∙ How do you measure differential associations? o Have any of your brother or sisters ever… Taken a handgun to school Smoked marijuana o How many adults do you personally know who: Have sold drugs? Gotten drunk or high? Definitions ∙ What are definitions? (Same as Sutherland) o “One’s own attitudes or meanings that one attaches to given behavior” o Orientations, rationalizations, moral attitudes o Can be general or specific General ∙ Religious, moral, and other conventional values and norms that are favorable to conforming behavior and unfavorable to committing any deviant or criminal acts Specific ∙ Orient the person to particular acts or series of acts ∙ Definitions “favorable” to crime make crime more likely o But, just holding favorable definitions does not always lead to crime o Positive definitions o Negative definitions o Neutralizing Favor the commission of a crime by justifying or excusing it Differential reinforcement ∙ The more (positive and negative) behaviors are rewarded, the more they will be continued ∙ Rewards can be: o Tangible or intangible o Actual or anticipated o Individual or social ∙ Which types are these? o Getting in trouble with the police or others o Having friends avoid you o Physical problems ∙ Rewards can also be: o Positive Evokes pleasant/hoped for outcomes o Negative Evokes unpleasant/painful consequences (i.e., punishments) o Modalities of reinforcement Amount, frequency, and probability o Social reinforcement The peer or other social context in which the actions take place, one’s learned moral attitudes, and other social variables affect how much one experiences the intrinsic effects of criminal acts as pleasurable or as frightening o Nonsocial reinforcement More narrowly confined to unconditioned physiological and physical stimuli o Self reinforcement Individual exercises self control, reinforcing or punishing one’s own behavior by taking the role of others, even when alone ∙ Crime depends on past, present and future (anticipated) reinforcement o Individuals will engage in crime if there are positive reinforcements and few/no negative reinforcements Which other theory does this sound like? Rational choice theory o High frequent, and certain reinforcements are most likely to influence behavior ∙ How do you measure differential reinforcement? o What are the chances you would be seen as cool by your friends if you… Smoked cigarettes Began drinking regularly Carried a handgun o How much do you agree that… If a kid drank liquor in your neighborhood, she or he would be caught by the police? If you carried a handgun without your parents’ permission, you would be caught? ∙ Positive reinforcement that is high, frequent, and certain is most effective ∙ Reinforcements may also be negative o All four elements interact to affect learning over time o Social structure and social learning Social learning is affected by the social structure ∙ Race, class, gender, age, etc. ∙ Where you live o Symbolic interactionism Theory that social interaction is mainly the exchange of meaning and symbols; the individuals have the cognitive capacity to imagine themselves in the roles of others and incorporate this into their conceptions of themselves ∙ Anderson: the code of the street 1999 o Many poor, inner city neighborhoods have high crime and violence o These areas have a “code of the street” Informal rules governing interpersonal public behavior Necessary because formal systems (police and judicial system) are not trustworthy or effective ∙ Must take care of yourself o In these areas, two conflicting sets of definitions are present: Street: opposed to mainstream society ∙ Values: toughness, manliness, and violence Decent: endorse middleclass, mainstream values and goals ∙ Values: hard work, employment, follow the rules o Why does the street culture endorse violence? It is necessary in order to get/maintain respect ∙ Especially if you are challenged and want to “be a man” It will help avoid victimization o How does one show the code of the street? Must convince others that you will be violent if the situation requires it People will go to great extremes (even risk their lives) to maintain respect o Do females follow the code? Yes, they live in same neighborhoods they have to get respect too o How do children learn the street code? Parents teach it ∙ Street families are poor ∙ Drug addiction ∙ Deepseated bitterness and anger ∙ Lack of consideration for others Children are unsupervised or physically punished ∙ At an early age, children learn through imitation, associations, definition, and reinforcements o That physical strength is a musto That they must protect themselves o How do children learn to be “decent”? From their parents/families ∙ Accept mainstream values more fully and instill these definitions in their children ∙ Value hard work and selfreliance ∙ Value the church and school ∙ Poor but ∙ Parents are strict o Teach children to respect authority, have morals, be polite/considerate, maintain a positive mental attitude (be “resilient”), cooperate with others o Positively and negatively reinforce noncriminal behavior o By adolescence, most youths have: Internalized the code Learned the need to behave in accordance with its rules o Street and decent families live side by side o Youth often learn to “code switch” o How do street and decent youth learn criminal and noncriminal behavior via: Imitation Associations Definitions Reinforcement Chapter 6 ∙ Social control/bonding theory o Social control theory assumes we are all willing to break the law o Asks: why don’t people break the law? People refrain due to bonds to individuals and institutions People refrain when they have high levels of external or internal control o Variation in control, not variation in motivation, explains why some people break the law more than others ∙ Hirschi’s social bond theory o Delinquency occurs when bonds are weak o His four key elements: (low attachment, commitment, involvement, belief crime more likely) Attachment to others ∙ “If a person does not care about the wishes and expectations of other people…if he is insensitive to the opinion of others, then he is to that extent not bound by the norms. He is free to deviate” ∙ involves:o emotional connections to others o internalization of others’ norms o indirect control ∙ how is attachment measured? o To parents: supervision, communication, affection o To school: grades, positive attitudes o To work: employment history, status Commitment to conformity ∙ People’s “stakes in conformity” keep them from breaking the law o People who make “investments” into key parts of society (i.e. work, school) are less likely to break the law o They are more aware of costs/punishments ∙ How is commitment measured? o GPA, educational goals o Career plans Involvement in conventional activities ∙ “idle hands are the devil’s workshop” ∙ people who are too busy with conventional activities don’t have time to engage in crime o do you see any problems with this idea? ∙ How is involvement measured? o How much time do you spend… On sports teams Taking music lessons With your family Belief in the moral order ∙ Beliefs are similar to definitions o Attitudes about the importance of conventional values and rules/laws ∙ Most people (even criminals) endorse prosocial values, norms, and laws o But, there is variation in the extent to which people: believe they should follow the rules/laws o Believe they should follow the rules/laws in all situations ∙ How are beliefs measured? o How much do you believe that… Its important to go to college Its important to be honest with your parents Teachers should be respected Laws should be obeyed o Bond theory Why would having a bond to others keep you from committing crimes? When might attachments or relationships be a bad thing for the individuals? How do bonds develop? o The social development strategy The goal…healthy behavior…for all children and youth Start with…healthy beliefs and clear standards…in families, schools, communities and peer groups Build…bonding: attachment & commitment…to families, schools, communities and peer groups By providing…opportunities, skills, recognition o Social bond theory What are its strengths? ∙ Good empirical support for most elements ∙ Clear prevention implications What are its weaknesses? ∙ Cannot explain the relationship between delinquent/criminal role models and crime How would you use this theory to prevent crime from occurring? ∙ Gottfredson and Hirschi: self control theory…or the general theory of crime o Self control is the most important cause of crime Low self control predicts all types of crime and non-criminal problems Self control predicts crime and other outcomes (substance dependence, physical health) o Self control and impulsivity What is low self control? ∙ Now-oriented, lacks persistence, adventuresome, unskilled, self interested, pleasure-seeking, low tolerance for frustration, high pain tolerance ∙ Low self control is related to impulsivity o Impulsive children are less successful and more likely to be criminal Self control ∙ Levels of self control are determined early on and are relatively stable over your life o Self control is an individual characteristic But, it is socially, not biologically, determined ∙ What causes low self control? o Poor parenting ∙ What do parents need to do to establish children’s self control? o Monitor the child’s behavior o Recognize deviant behavior when it occurs o Punish deviant behavior when it occurs ∙ Why does low self control predict crime? o Most crime is easy and immediately gratifying o People with low self control are “easily swayed by the current benefits (of an action) and tend to forget future costs” ∙ How is self control measured? o Simple tasks, impulsivity, self centered, risk seeking, temper, physical activities ∙ Social bond vs self control theories o Similarities Both agree that humans are prone to crime and need external or internal constraints to stop our criminal tendencies Both believe the family is an important source of control o Differences Self control theory places the emphasis on the individual, bonding theory on social relationships To prevent crime, bonding theory suggests increasing bonds; self control theory says you should increase self control Bonding theory says you can prevent crime all during life; control theory says you must do so early in life or it’s too late ∙ Self control and crime prevention o Do Gottfredson and Hirschi believe it is possible to prevent crime? No: rehabilitation doesn’t work and adults should not be incapacitated Yes: start early, teach parents how to monitor, recognize, and respond to deviant behaviors of children ∙ Provide interventions to increase self control ∙ Decrease opportunities for crime o Make It more difficult ∙ Self control theory o Social control theory has been very influential in criminology and has empirical support Parenting practices affect levels of self control Low self control predicts crime in studies based on self reports and official records of crime Low self control predicts crime better than some other influences Low self control predicts other antisocial/deviant behaviors Article ∙ Schreck 1999 o What is the goal of the study? To study the relationship between low self control and victimization (a non-criminal but problematic outcome) o Why would low self control increase victimization? Those with low self control tend to have: ∙ A “here and now” orientation and failure to consider the consequences of their actions ∙ A lack of empathy for others ∙ A low tolerance for frustration/ quick to become angry ∙ A lack of diligence, including taking safety precautions ∙ A preference for risk taking ∙ Males have higher levels of victimization ∙ Victims have lower self control than non-victims ∙ Self control theory o What are the strengths? Empirical evidence Generality o What are its flaws? Self control is not always well measured or defined Self control is not as stable over time as they state ∙ Albery Reiss attributed the cause of delinquency to failure of o Personal control internalized o social control operates through external application of legal and informal social sanctions direct control ∙ punishment is imposed or threatened for misconduct and compliance is rewarded by parents indirect control ∙ a youth refrains from delinquency because their delinquent act might cause pain and disappointment for people whom one has close relationships internal control ∙ a youth’s conscience or sense of guilt prevents them from engaging in delinquent acts ∙ reckless’s containment theory o inner and outer pulls will produce delinquent behavior unless counteracted by inner containment ∙ a strong conscience or a good self-concept which renders one less vulnerable to pulls of deviant environment and is the product of socialization in the family outer containment ∙ parental and school supervision and discipline, strong group cohesion, and a consistent moral front ∙ Sykes and Matza: Techniques of neutralization and drift o Techniques of neutralization Justifications and excuses for committing delinquent acts, which are inappropriate extensions of commonly accepted rationalizations found in general culture o Drift theory Techniques of neutralization are ways in which adolescents can get episodic release from conventional moral restraints Chapter 8 ∙ Social disorganization theories (also known as structural theories) o These theories recognize that crime rates vary by geography Crime is higher in the south than in the west Crime is higher in urban than in suburban areas o Differences in crime rates have more to do with the places where people live than with the individuals who live there o The theory views individuals as likely to break the law Social controls are needed to stop people from offending ∙ Community social controls are especially important o Low community control= high crime o High community control= low crime o Crime rates can also vary within cities o Think about a big city you know What area has the most crime? Where is the riskiest area? Where would you go to buy drugs or a gun? o What does crime look like in Gainesvillle? ∙ Homicide rates in Chicago, 2015o District 11: 48 homicides o District 7: 38 homicides o In segregated areas higher homicide ∙ Shaw and McKay: social disorganization theory o Crime rates are higher in urban versus other areas o Within cities, crime is concentrated in inner city neighborhoods o Concentric zone model Burgess’ depicted the city graphically as a target, consisting of a series of concentric rings; each ring or zone was delineated by a different function or pattern of activities As the city grows, each inner ring invades the ring that immediately surrounds it, setting off the process of invasion, domination, and succession Zone in transition ∙ Delinquents no matter how they were defined in what time period, were concentrated in or near an area of the city zoned for industry or commerce ∙ Characterized by physical decay, poor housing, incomplete/broken families, high rates of illegitimate birth and infant deaths, unstable heterogeneous population o Structural problems (poverty, turnover, diversity) lead to social disorganization, which leads to crime o “Disorganized” communities have the highest rates of crime o Social disorganization is: “When the community ceases to function effectively as a means of social control” “The inability of residents to solve their own problems or meet their own needs” o A neighborhood’s structural conditions lead to disorganization Low socio-economic status (poverty) Ethnic heterogeneity (diversity) High residential mobility (turnover) o Why/how would these factors cause disorganization? ∙ Social disorganization o Disorganized communities have fewer social controls over residents: Residents don’t trust each other Residents are unwilling to help each other out or informally control crime Crime rates begin to increase Law abiders move out, criminals move in ∙ Fear of crime increases Gangs and criminal subcultures develop ∙ Criminal subculture o Youth gangs organized primarily to commit income producing offenses o Utilitarian choice of illegal means o Lower class ethnic neighborhoods organized around stable adult criminal patterns and values ∙ Conflict subculture o Fighting gangs o Status is gained by being tough, violent, and able to fight o In socially disorganized lower class neighborhoods with few illegal opportunities to replace the legal opportunities that are denied them o Few successful adult role models, either conventional or deviant o Youths become alienated from adult world and view most adults as weak o Unable to develop skills to achieve economic success and see no way to gain conventional/criminal status so resort to gangs ∙ Retreatist subculture o Focused on consumption of drugs and alcohol o Given up on both goals and means o Are double failure that perform poorly in school and have little/no occupational prospects and aren’t good criminals/fighters o Goal is to be cool by getting high and maintaining drug habit Conventional values, social controls and trust weaken even more ∙ In summary o Social disorganization theory states that crime is related to geography Places not individuals o Where are crime rates highest? Poverty, mobility, ethnic heterogeneity o Crime rates are highest in cities/inner city neighborhood only because residents are poor False ∙ Collective efficacy theory o The opposite of social disorganization is collective efficacy “The ability of community members to trust each other and informally assist each other” o High collective efficacy reduces crime o Why might structural problems (poverty, turnover, diversity) make collective efficacy more difficult? o How is collective efficacy measured? Informal social controls: ∙ How likely is it that one of your neighbors would do something if: o Someone was breaking into your house o Someone was trying to sell drugs to one of your kids o There was a fight in front of your house Social cohesion/trust: ∙ How much do you agree that: o People around here are willing to help their neighbors o This is a close-knit neighborhood o People in this neighborhood generally get along with each other o People in this neighborhood share the same values ∙ Broken windows theory o Wilson and Kelling (1982) Focuses on how neighborhoods “look,” not their economic or structural characteristics Crime occurs in areas with physical and social disorder o How might physical and social disorder be measured? Commercial building security ∙ Security bars gratings on building window Alcohol/ tobacco advertising ∙ Signs advertising tobacco products, or beer/other alcohol Presence of bars/liquor stores ∙ Bars and alcoholic beverage services, liquor stores Physical disorder ∙ Cigarette cigar on sidewalk/gutters ∙ Garbage/litter/condoms/syringes in street sidewalk ∙ Graffiti ∙ Abandoned cars Social disorder o The process Neighborhoods with social disorder attract deviant individuals (teenagers, drunks, prostitutes) These groups begin to take over This sends the message that no one cares Respectable people become afraid and move out More serious crime occurs When people are afraid, they avoid each other, which further weakens control ∙ Social disorganization o For each theory, what causes crime? Shaw and McKay: Social Disorganization theory Sampson: Collective Efficacy theory “Broken Windows” theory o How would you prevent crime? ∙ How would you reduce crime? o Shaw and McKay: Social Disorganization theory Increase employment opportunities and income Move people out of disorganized neighborhoods? Increase residential stability ∙ Offer incentives to attract “good” people to “bad” areas o Sampson: Collective Efficacy theory Increase trust and cohesion between residents o “Broken Windows” theory reduce physical and social disorder increase police presence in “hot spots” o research on social structure and crime rates a composite index of concentrated disadvantage combines measures of percent of families below the poverty level, on welfare, female-headed households, unemployed, under age 18, and black into a single indicator meant to capture the conditions of blighted neighborhoods occupied by the truly disadvantaged, where poverty, race, and age converge to produce the highest risk of crime ∙ hot spot policing o What are hot spots Crime clusters, or very small places which generate a disproportionate amount of criminal events ∙ A disproportionate amount of criminal events o A study in Seattle showed that 5% of the city’s street accounted for 50% of all crimes o In Boston, 5% of streets had 74% of all serious gun assaults o What is the typical police response once hot spots are identified? Systematic policing using…. ∙ Police crackdowns o E.g., raids on crack houses ∙ Directed patrol ∙ Heightened traffic enforcement o Does hot spots policing reduce crime? Article Review Braga et al., 2008 ∙ Summarized outcomes from 9 evaluations examining hot spots policing in the US and Australia ∙ 7 studies reported that areas in which hot spots policing was used had less crime and fewer “calls for service” by police o none of the studies showed “displacement” of crime to other areas ∙ an updated review (in 2011) of 19 studies concluded that this strategy is effective in reducing crime o discussion concerns have been raised that hot spots policing can cause residents to feel unfairly targeted by police ∙ do you think this concern has merit? ∙ (How) can hot spots policing be implemented to minimize concerns about police misconduct and discrimination? Chapter 9 Strain theory ∙ Extra credit quiz o Anomie refers to a state of normlessness and a lack of social regulation o Merton’s anomie/strain theory says that everyone wants to achieve the American Dream, but some cannot because they are blocked from doing so ∙ Strain (anomie) theories o Common assumptions People are law-abiding under “normal conditions” ∙ People commit crime when they feel a pressure or strain to do so ∙ Crime is a “normal response” to “abnormal conditions” o Examples You’re a single-mother, you just lost your job and you’re about to be evicted from your home 15 and 11-year-old sisters broke into a locked room in their home, stole their parents’ gun and shot and killed their 16- year-old brother. They suffered from abuse and neglect from their parents and brothers. Social class/income is an important influence on crime ∙ Micro: an individual’s social class influences crime o E.g.,: the poor will commit more crime than the rich ∙ Macro: the national economy influences crime o E.g.,: crime is higher in times of recession ∙ Social system o A society, community, or subsystem within a society o Described as socially organized and integrated if there is an internal consensus on its norms and values, a strong cohesion exists among its members, and social interaction proceeds in an orderly way o Discrepancy between Aspirations ∙ What one hopes to achieve in life, economically, educationally, or occupationally Expectations ∙ What one believes is realistically possible to achieve o Merton: social structure and anomie In the US, everyone has the same goal ($$$) and everyone is expected to achieve it But not everyone uses legitimate means (e.g., education, hard work) to make money and be successful Anomie makes illegitimate means (crime) likely to occur ∙ Anomie is a state of normlessness or lack of social regulation in modern society as one condition that promotes higher rates of deviant behaviors such as suicide ∙ When society fails to regulate desires and control individual’s behaviors ∙ Success and wealth are prioritized above all else ∙ We don’t always emphasize that legitimate means (e.g., education, hard work) should be used to make money Some individuals have blocked opportunities that make it difficult to legitimately make money ∙ Discrimination, unemployment, etc. The social structure limits the ability of some to use legitimate means to achieve goals ∙ This creates a strain on people must be overcome ∙ This strain is felt most strongly by the lower class Goals: good job, expensive car, nice house, fashionable clothing, a new cell phone, an attractive gf/bf, many friends Means: ∙ legitimate means: hard work, education, deferred gratification ∙ Illegitimate means: theft, force Merton’s modes of adaption ∙ People must adapt o Innovators accept society’s goals, but reject legitimate means of getting them o Pursue goal ($$) through illegitimate means Common responses for adaptation ∙ Conformity o Most common response o One accepts the state of affairs and continues to strive for success within the restricted conventional means available ∙ Innovation o Most common deviant response o One maintains commitment to success goals but takes advantage of illegitimate means to attain them o Most crime and delinquency, especially income-producing offenses ∙ Rebellion o Deviant that rejects the system altogether both means and ends, and replaces it with a new one, such as a violent overthrow of the system ∙ Retreatism o Escapist response, one becomes a societal dropout, giving up on both the goals and the effort to achieve them ∙ Ritualism o One gives up the struggle to get ahead and concentrates on retaining that little has been gained by adhering rigidly and zealously to the norms ∙ Crime is the result Strengths ∙ Crime is related to a country’s economy ∙ Explains why the lower class can be more involved in crime Weaknesses ∙ Some research does not show a strong relationship between (personal) income and crime ∙ Too much focus on property crimes ∙ Can’t explain spontaneous crimes Strain theory does not believe that people are inherently criminal Strain theory identifies income o Rosenfeld and Messner: institutional anomie Expands Merton’s marco-level theory ∙ Society causes crime What is the main cause of crime in this theory? ∙ Institutional anomie ∙ The economy, especially its: emphasis on achievement, individualism, universalism, monetary success Why is the American focus on economics and money making problematic? ∙ Other institutions become devalued o School, family, politics ∙ Other institutions have to accommodate the economy ∙ Economic norms penetrate and dominate all other institutions o Social institutions no longer keep each other in check A strong achievement orientation creates a culture in which people are valued ultimately on the basis of what they have achieved or possess Individualism encourages people to make it on their own pinning individuals against each other instead on cooperating Universalism creates the normative expectation that all members of America must desire and strive toward the same success goal The fetishism of money designates the accumulation of monetary wealth as an end in itself, valued above the possessions it can buy or the power it can wield Functions of non-economic institutions become devalued Non-economic institutions must accommodate the requirements of the economy Economic norms begin to penetrate non-economic institutions Decommodification ∙ Crime rates should be lower when society can buffer its members from market forces by providing for their social welfare, making them less dependent on the economy for their survival and diminishing economic dominance in the institutional balance of power o Agnew’s general strain theory Strain leads to anger/other emotions which leads to crime Focuses on individual strains and reactions Strainangercrime Three major types of strain ∙ Failure to achieve positively valued goals o Similar to Merton’s strain theory o E.g.,: being unemployed, poor, school failure ∙ Loss of positive stimuli o E.g.,: death of a relative or close friend ∙ Presentation of negative stimuli o E.g.,: bullying, peer victimization, child abuse How does strain lead to crime? ∙ Strains lead to negative emotions which lead to crime o Negative emotions must be present for crime to occur; just having a strain is not enough o Anxiety, guilt, or depression can lead to drug use or abuse o Anger most likely to produce crime, especially violent and retaliatory crimes When does strain lead to crime? ∙ What types of strains are most likely to lead to crime? ∙ Those that: o Involve an important area of your life o Are seen as unfair o Are high in magnitude, duration, and frequency ∙ What types of people are most likely to react to strains with anger and crime? o People with poor coping skills What are positive/negative coping skills? o People with few social supports o People with low self control o Younger vs. older Younger more likely to react poorly to strain because have lower self control and coping skills o Males vs. females ∙ Gender and strain theory o GST can help explain gender differences in crime: Males are more likely to experience the types of strain that lead to crime: e.g., peer conflict, victimization, and financial strain Males are more likely to react to strain with anger ∙ Females are more likely to react to strain with depression/anxiety OR with better coping strategies o Female More likely to respond to depression and anger anger is accompanied by fear, guilt, and shame more likely to blame themselves and worry about the effects of their anger depression and guilt may lead to self-destructive behavior o male more likely to respond with anger anger is followed by moral outrage quick to blame others and are less concerned about hurting others moral outrage may lead to property and violent crime Article ∙ Ford and Schroeder, 2008 academic strains and drug use o Goal of the study: to apply general train theory to explain college students’ nonmedical use of prescription drugs Tested with 11,215 students at 119 colleges o They focus on academic strains faced by college students How important is academic work? What is your GPA? o Academic strains and drug use Did strain increase nonmedical stimulant use? ∙ Strain increased depression ∙ Depression increased stimulant use ∙ Straindepressionstimulant use Were the results consistent with GST? ∙ General strain theory o Does evidence support this theory? Various strains have been linked to crime ∙ Victimization ∙ Negative life events Mixed evidence about whether or not: ∙ Strain increased negative emotions ∙ Emotions are linked to crime ∙ Gender differences in these processes o GST: summary Strengths ∙ Looks at more than just income/social class ∙ Can explain violent and property crimes Weaknesses ∙ Hard to test if strain causes anger or depression ∙ Not very parsimonious Review ∙ Which types of strain does Merton focus on? o Financial strain ∙ According to Agnew, not having as much respect and status as you want is an example of which type of strain? o Failure to achieve goals ∙ Strains are most likely to lead to crime when: o They cause negative emotions ∙ Which strains would produce crime? o You’re a teenaged boy who lives in a low-income neighborhood and regularly witnesses violence, drug deals, and prostitution o Experiencing an earthquake and a hurricane in the same week o You are a low-income student working towards a PhD o You’re 45 years old and have suffered numerous health problems for the last ten years ∙ Crime prevention o How can crime among individuals be prevented? Reduce strains ∙ Increase economic opportunities (create jobs) ∙ Enhance academic performance: e.g., tutoring ∙ Reduce victimization o Parenting programs to reduce child maltreatment o Bullying prevention programs Change reactions to strains ∙ Provide victims with therapy ∙ Improve social/coping skills of all individuals ∙ Miller: focal concerns of lower class culture o Lower class youths learn and act according to the central values or focal concerns of lower class adults, but the delinquent adolescents express and carry out these values in an exaggerated way Values: ∙ Trouble o Getting away with law violations ∙ Toughness o Physical power and fearlessness ∙ Smartness o Ability to con others ∙ Excitement o Seeking thrills, risk taking, danger ∙ Fatalism o Being lucky or unlucky ∙ Autonomy o Freedom from authority ∙ Types of strains o Subjective strains Individuals report as particularly stressful to themselves Been no more predictive of delinquency than o Objective strains Simply assumed to be universally stressful o Vicarious strains Individual witnesses others’ experiences with strain o Anticipated strains Individual evaluates their risk or fear of future stressors Chapter 13 ∙ Feminist theory o Questions considered by this perspective: What explains the gender gap in: ∙ Offending? ∙ Victimization? What explains female crime? Does the criminal justice system treat males and females differently? ∙ If sexism exists, how can we eliminate it? o Characteristics of feminists theories Critical of traditional theories of crime ∙ They were created by men to explain male offending Advocates activism and fairness in how laws are created and applied ∙ Identify bias and discrimination based on gender, race, social class and other factors Prioritizes the lives and experiences of females ∙ Examine reasons for female offending Recognizes that “gender” is socially constructed ∙ There are few biological differences between males and females ∙ Ideas about masculinity and femininity affect crime ∙ Gender differences in crime o Males are more likely to be offenders In 2012, females comprised 31% of all arrests of adults and 29% of all youth arrests Females comprise 7% of all those in prison o Males are much more likely to be violent offenders o Females make up 10-30% of gang members (see Miller, 1998) o Gender differences are smaller for less serious offenses and for some type of drug use o Percentage of female and male juvenile arrested in 2012 Total: ∙ Females: 29% ∙ Males: 71% o Adolescent substance use, genders have little differences ∙ Feminist theories o How do theories try to explain: Gender differences in offending? ∙ Differences in exposure to risk factors o Peer delinquency ∙ Differences in the influence of risk factors o Peer delinquency o Economic strain ∙ Differences in exposure to or the influence of protective factors o Parent monitoring/supervision o Social support Female offending? ∙ Gender similarities in crime o Many of the same risk and protective factors are related to crime for both sexes o Generally, when male arrest rates decrease, female arrest rates decrease o Both sexes are least likely to be violent o Male and female offenders have similar demographic characteristics Young, poor, uneducated, working low skilled jobs or unemployed ∙ Intersectionalities o Gender differences in offending may vary according to other demographic characteristics ∙ Summing it up o So…how do we explain the vast differences in offending between males and females? o Gender affects: The likelihood of encountering risk and protective factors How crimes are committed Which crimes are committed ∙ Are new theories needed to explain gender differences? o NO If the causes of crime are similar for males and females, we can use traditional theories to explain offending among males and females o But: We need to test theories with males and females We may need to revise theories to better take gender into account ∙ E.g., Agnew’s general strain theory o YES We need new theories because older theories: ∙ Do not prioritize gender ∙ Do not explain gender differences in offending ∙ Do not adequately account for female offending ∙ Theories of female offending o Lombroso and Pollack Critiqued: misogynistic, stereotypical, no evidence o Liberal theories/masculinity hypothesis (Adler) Discredited: no evidence, based on stereotypes o New theories Identify unique factors, or responses to these factors, that increase women’s risk or protection for offending ∙ Victimization- sexual abuse, domestic violence ∙ Drug use/abuse ∙ Family circumstances ∙ Economic marginalization ∙ Meda Chesney-Lind o Victimization…running away…offending Girls are much more likely than boys to experience child sexual abuse (CSA) Female victims of CSA may run away from home and engage in crime to support selves Female victims of CSA are likely to use drugs and alcohol to cope with stress of victimization ∙ Gender and victimization o Feminist theory helped discover hidden crimes against women Domestic violence Sexual harassment Sexual assault/abuse o But, males are somewhat more likely to be victims of most crime o According to the 2012 NCVS, females reported being victims of: 40% of all robberies 44% of all aggravated assaults 87% of all rapes o there are gender differences in the victim/offender relationship males are equally likely to be victimized by those they know (51%) and by strangers (49%) females are most likely to be victimized by those they know (78%) ∙ Miller 1998 o Goal of the study: understand how gang membership and gender place girls at risk for victimization o Research method: qualitative study In-depth interview with 20 girls in mixed-sex gangs in Columbus, OH Most gangs have male leaders and <5 females members o Which sex was more at risk for victimization? o How did girls’ gender both protect them and harm them in the gang? o Protect them Male members sometimes protected them Girls were less involved in risky activities Rival members rarely attacked female members o Harm them Victimization increases after joining gangs Did not have equal status in the gang ∙ Seen as weaker and less important More likely to be sexually victimized ∙ The criminal justice system o Compared to males, do females receive more punitive or lenient treatment in terms of their: Likelihood of arrest? Likelihood of getting locked up? Length of sentences?o Generally, research shows more lenient treatment for women Especially in decision to arrest or incarcerate o But, some studies show women receive harsher treatment o Many studies show equal treatment o Why do women receive more leniency? Chivalry: female offending is less serious and less dangerous ∙ Selective hypothesis o White middle class women ∙ Typicality hypothesis o Women charged with crimes consistent with traditional feminine stereotypes Paternalism: women must be protected from the harsh criminal justice system Females have more informal social control Mothers must not be separated from children o When will females receive harsher treatment? When their crimes do not conform to gender roles ∙ Sex crimes When they commit “status offenses” (due to paternalism) o What types of females receive harsher treatment? Minority racial/ethnic groups Low income Sexual minority status o In 2012, 1.4 million males and 109,000 women were imprisoned in the US Once in prison, do females receive better or worse treatment than males? ∙ Barry Feld 2009 o Bootstrapping Following decriminalization of status offenses, prosecutors charged many girls with criminal-type offenses for the same behavior they previously charged as status offenses allow the juvenile court to retain dispositional authority over these minors by relabeling them as delinquent the juvenile system, remains committed to protecting and controlling girls o transinstitutionalization status offenders, rather than being processed and institutionalized within the official juvenile system, are placed instead by their families in private residential psychiatric facilities rare but usually for noncriminal behaved girls ∙ Patriarchal families o Father’s occupation places him in a command position, giving orders to others, and the mother either does not work outside the home or works in a job where she occupies and obey position, taking orders from supervisors ∙ Egalitarian families o Both mother and father work in command positions, both work in obey positions, or the father is absent ∙ Gendered pathways approach o Focus on life experiences and developmental trajectories of girls and women who become involved in crime ∙ Gendered context approach o Examines the degree to which males and females encounter different normative expectations and opportunities for offending, as well as the degree to which males and females attribute meanings, and thus respond differently, to similar events and situations Chapter 2 ∙ Routine activities theory o Suitable target, motivated offender, and absence of capable guardian all have to exist for attack to occur o A suitable target Targets include: ∙ Persons ∙ Objects o More expensive o Easily concealable o Light weight ∙ Places o Seclusion o Light o Absence of a capable guardian A guardian is anything, either a person or thing, that discourages crime from taking place ∙ E.g.: police patrols, security guards, neighborhood watch groups o Presence of a motivated offender ∙ Routine activities theory o The “routine activities” (i.e., daily habits) of individuals help determine their likelihood of being an offender o Those who come into contact with suitable targets with no guardians are most likely to commit crime o According to RAT: Why are males more likely to break the law than females? Why are youth more likely to break the law than adults?o Routine activities also help determine one’s chances of being a victim What “routine activities” make victimization more likely? According to RAT, which group is most likely to be a victim of crime? ∙ Teenagers o Hang out with other offenders who take advantage of them o In school setting when around other teenagers (theft, bullying) o After school unsupervised ∙ Elderly o Don’t go out much o Home alone often ∙ Who is most likely to be a victim of sexual assault o Sexual assaults reported by 18-24 year olds on the NCVS, 1995- 2013 College students: percent of all victims ∙ Males: 17% ∙ Females: 83% College students: Rate per 1,000 persons ∙ Males: 1.4 ∙ Females: 6.1 Non-students: percent of all victims ∙ Males: 4% ∙ Females: 96% Non-students: Rate per 1,000 persons ∙ Males: 0.3 ∙ Females: 7.6 ∙ Study by Schwartz et al., 2001 o Goal of the study: test RAT’s ability to explain sexual assaults between “dating partners” on college campuses o How do each of the elements of RAT apply to this crime? Motivated (male) offenders ∙ Contact with peers who support physical force/rape against women increases motivation ∙ Drinking/ drug use increases motivation Suitable (female) targets ∙ Women who use alcohol/drugs are more attractive targets Lack of guardianship ∙ Colleges do not provide enough guardianship for acquaintance rape ∙ When (male) peers o Men who report all three of these factors (drink 2 or more times a week, have a friend who supports emotional and physical violence) are 10X more likely to perpetrate and sexual assault vs. those who report none ∙ Conclusion o Was routine activities theory supported in this study? o What do the authors suggest to do to reduce sexual assault? What does UF do? ∙ Policy implications o What does routine activities theory suggest to reduce other types of crime? Increase the types of crime prevention we already do ∙ Target hardening o Make targets/victims more difficult to access ∙ Increase guardianship ∙ Increase risk/ difficulties of crime Situational/environmental crime prevention ∙ Crime prevention through environmental design o Change physical structures o Increase surveillance o Remove signs of physical disorder ∙ Crime displacement o Movement of crime to a different location ∙ Diffusion of crime-control benefit o Areas contiguous with but not directly experiencing the crime prevention strategy also see reductions in crime ∙ Routine activities theory o What are the strengths of this theory? Logical Some evidence supports it Can explain victimization Many recommendations for crime prevention Fairly Parsimonious o What are the weaknesses? Does not try to explain offender motivation ∙ Better at explaining victimization than offending Somewhat difficult to test Chapter 7 ∙ Labeling theory o A critical theory o It focuses on: Definitions of crimes: who gets to decide what is a crime?∙ It does not focus on individuals’ motivations for offending Reponses to criminals o Key questions Why are certain acts defined as illegal? Why are some people more likely to be treated as criminal and punished for their crimes? How do others react to crime? What impact does the reaction have on the individual? ∙ Howard Becker o “Social groups create deviance by making the rules whose infraction constitutes deviance” Deviance/crime is not inherent to any particular act; it is the result of how rules are applied by others o “Deviant behavior is behavior that people so label” the deviant is one to whom the label has been successfully applied o Rules (about crime) are created by those in power o Rules are often created: When the powerful feel threatened by a particular group During “moral crusades” o Rule-making helps those in power control others and regain/retain power E.g., prohibition, opium laws, etc. ∙ Labeling theory o Focus on the criminal justice system and “official labeling’ Considers whether laws are enforced unequally across social groups ∙ Who is most likely to be arrested? ∙ Who is most likely to end up in prison? ∙ Crime rates in the US o As of 2008, 1 in every 100 adults is locked up (2.3 million) o For some groups, incarceration rates are very high 1 in 106 white men ages 18+ ∙ Labeling theory o Official labeling can stigmatize individuals and increase recidivism Why? Why might punishments increase future offending? o “Informal labeling” also occurs How do we use labels to judge others? How are criminals treated by other people? How do labels change how we interact with others?o Informal labeling can stigmatize offenders and make recidivism more likely ∙ Self-labeling o Labels have meaning for individuals Social interactions significantly influence our behavior o The “looking glass self” We become what others think we are ∙ Lemert” labeling process o Primary deviance: unstable, early criminal activity Offender has not yet been caught/labeled o Secondary deviance: offender is caught, labels are applied, stigma occurs Offenders engage in more and more crime o Primary deviance (first crime) (in)formal reaction (label applied)secondary deviance (more crime) ∙ Chambliss 1973 o The saints and the roughnecks o Basic ideas Labels are powerful People are judged according to the label that is placed on them People’s potential for crime is assumed based on their label Your social class (income) often becomes a label o How were the Saints treated by teachers? By police? o How were the roughnecks treated in comparison? o Although the saints committed a similar amount of crime as the roughnecks, they did not get into as much trouble, why not? o How did the social reactions to these groups affect their futures? ∙ Reintegrative shaming o John Braithwaite Australian criminologist o Labels can increase crime and they can decrease crime o The outcome depends on how labels are applied o Basic idea: “societies that effectively communicate shame about crime will have lower crime rates” o His advice: Take crime Communicate disapproval for the offense Respect the offender Communicate that the offense, not the offender, is bad c o Labels increase recidivism when criminals: Are shamed, disrespected, and humiliated Are treated like outcasts Seek deviant friends/groups who will respect them Acquire definitions favorable to crime ∙ Key terms o Shaming Social disapproval that communicates that the criminal act was (morally) wrong o Disintegrative shaming Treating the criminal as an outcast Making the offender feel shamed/stigmatized o Reintegrative shaming Make the offender feel shamed but still respected Communicate that the offender is still part of the community ∙ Use “efforts to reintegrate the offender back into the community through words, gestures, or ceremonies or forgiveness” Individuals displaying intercy more likely to be responsive to it ∙ Evidenced by attachments to others and commitments to conventional activities Cultures characterized by communitarianism are more likely to engage in its practices ∙ Small closely knit communities in which families rely on one another ∙ Restorative justice o “Restorative justice is a process whereby all the parties with a stake in a particular offence come together to resolve collectively how to deal with the aftermath of the offence and its implications for the future” o Goal: offer punishment that is reintegrative Differs from retributive justice o Targets: juvenile offenders, minor offenses o Values: healing not hurting, making amends, caring, taking responsibility, remorse o Process: Brings together all those involved in the crime ∙ Victim, offender, friends, family, state/community representatives Both parties (victim and offender) tell their story and can ask questions of the other Participation is voluntary and offender must admit guilt Everyone gets a change to participate All parties arrive at an agreed-upon punishment o Does restorative justice reduce crime? A study of 22 evaluations showed that RJ resulted in better: ∙ Victim satisfaction ∙ Offender satisfaction ∙ Recidivism rates for offenders o 72% of the studies showed reductions in recidivism o Averaged together, effects were small but significant o Faith-based prison/community programs implicitly/explicitly reflect restorative justice and reintegrative shaming Conduct religious serices and spiritual guidance to inmates ∙ Crime prevention o What other crime prevention strategies would labeling theorists recommend? Diversion programs ∙ Face problem of net-widening o Occurs when diversion has the unintended result of placing more, rather than fewer, youth under involuntary control in the community than would have been the case without a diversion policy in place ∙ There are pre-trial or delayed adjudication programs for first-time non-violent adult offenders o Accused agree to community supervision and certain conditions such as drug treatment, restitution, or payment of supervision costs in lieu of facing trial o Successful completion avoids adjudication of guilt and a criminal record Decriminalization of some offenses Restoring some of the legal rights of offenders ∙ Matsueda 1992 o Revised labeling theory Effects of labels, including informal labeling by significant others, are mediated substantially by reflected appraisals ∙ Perceptions an individual has of the way others seem him or her ∙ Labeling theory summary o What are its strengths? Calls attention to importance of stigma and social reactions to crime Questions the effectiveness of the cj system Helps to explain high recidivism rates Suggests alternatives to incarceration o What are its weaknesses? Disregard individual motivations and actions Disregards all other (social) causes of crime Cant explain why criminals who aren’t caught persist Cant explain why criminals who are caught desist Lack of evidence for some of its claims Chapter 14 Integrated theories ∙ Purpose of theories o Bernard and Snipes: “Theory is supposed to direct research and to accumulate its product into a coherent, understandable framework” ∙ Theories of crime o Bernard and Snipes: “Most criminologists would agree that the abundance of theories does not enrich the field but impedes scientific progress” ∙ Integrated theories of crime o What is the purpose of theory integration? What is the purpose of theory integration? ∙ To identify commonalities in two or more theories and produce a new, more comprehensive and synergistic theory that is superior to any one theory ∙ Theory competition o Logical comparison of two or more theories to determine which offers the better explanation of crime ∙ Theory integration-pros o Why integrate theories? Improve our ability to predict and explain crime Offer a more unified explanation of crime Improve our ability to reduce crime Increase public confidence in criminology ∙ Theory integration-cons o Integration risks combining theories that are fundamentally incompatible Too much compromise changes the original theories too much o Integrated theories can become too complex or too general and cannot be tested or falsified They can become theoretical mush o Integrated theories must be testable and parsimonious ∙ Theory integration o How do you integrate theories? Identify the assumptions and main causes of crime identified in the original theories ∙ E.g., humans tend to be law-abiding Identify commonalities and join together ∙ E.g., “beliefs” and “definitions” Identify incompatibilities and decide if they can be reconciled ∙ E.g., bonding reduces crime vs. bonding (to deviant role models) increases crime ∙ Integrated theory- example o Reintegrative shaming theory combines ideas from what other theories? Control theory Social learning Labeling theory Deterrence ∙ Conceptual integration: social support and coercion o Conceptual integration: join together concepts found in multiple theories Example: social support and coercion theory ∙ Support: positive relationships with others reduce crime o What theories identify support as protective Bond theory ∙ Coercion: forces that increase crime via fear, anxiety or stress o What theories identify coercion as a risk faster? Strain theory ∙ Propositional integration o Propositional integration: identify the factors that lead to crime and place them in a sequence/chain of events o Example: Elliott’s integrated theory Integrates strain theory, bond theory, and social learning theory Strainweak bondsbonds to delinquent peerscrime o Example: Thornberry’s interactional theory Integrates social bond and social learning theory Social structureweak bonds to societydeviant peer influencecrime ∙ Integration can be o Within-level Only macro or micro o Cross level Micro-macro or structural-processual ∙ Conceptual absorption o Subsuming concepts from one theory as special cases of the phenomena defined by the concepts of another ∙ Krohn’s network analysis o Social network Set of actors, individuals, or groups linked by friendship or some other relationship o Personal network An individual’s set of linkages to others o Multiplexity Number of different relationships or contexts that two or more persons have in common o Network density The ratio of existing social relationships to the maximum total number of possible relationships in a network ∙ Tittle’s control balance theory o Control balance The ratio of how much the individual is subject to control by others to how much he or she is able to exert control over others o Control deficits Controlled by others more than they control others o Control surpluses More controlling than controlled by others o Control balance desirability Deviant acts are more desirable the more likely they are to change a control imbalance in the long term and the less they necessitate confronting a victim in person ∙ Life course theory o Focuses on the age/crime relationship o Asks How does criminal involvement change over one’s life? At what age do most people start and stop offending? What factors affect the onset, continuation and desistence of offending? ∙ How do different factors affect individuals at different times of their lives? ∙ Life course theories o Complex: crime is caused by many different factors The causes include individual characteristics, social interactions, and environmental factors o Integrative: borrows explanation from other theories o Examines the relationship between age and crime Individuals show both the stability and change in offending across their lives ∙ Theories should explain why some people move into and out of crime during their lives, why some never engage in crime, and why some offend all throughout life ∙ Criminal careers o Typical pattern of crime involvement Onset between ages of 12-16 Escalation of crime and peak ages of offending: ages 16-25 Desistence: ages 20-29 ∙ Onset of crime o The earlier the age of onset, the longer and more serious the criminal career o What causes the onset of crime? A variety of individual, family, school, peer, and neighborhood “risk factors” o Risk factors are the causes of crime identified in individual theories of crime Experiences, characteristics, or attitudes predict, but don’t determine involvement in problem behaviors May have different effects at different ages ∙ Peak offending o Peak age of offending: ages 16-25 years Many theories focus on identifying crime among adolescents o Average “career length” is 1-3 years o Violent offending is sporadic o Offenders are versatile, not specialized ∙ Moffitt’s developmental typology o Moffitt recognizes two main types of offenders Adolescent-limited offenders Life course persistent offenders o What type of age/crime pattern do each demonstrate? When do they state and stop offending? Adolescent-limited offenders ∙ After adolescence Life course persistent offenders ∙ Never stops ∙ Adolescent-limited o Crime is normal during adolescence Why? Why do so many teens engage in crime? ∙ Social mimicry/peer influences ∙ Maturity gap (driving force) What types of crimes do teens commit? ∙ Low level crimes Why do tends stop offending? ∙ Life course persistent offenders o They display stability/continuity in offending o They engage in antisocial behavior at all ages Age 4- biting and hitting Age 10- shoplifting and truancy Age 16- selling drugs and stealing cars Age 22- robbery and rape Age 30- fraud, child abuse, and domestic violence o The types of crime they commit reflect different opportunities for offending o Why do LCPs begin their offending? Neurological problems Child maltreatment or poor parenting Low intelligence Personality traits like hyperactivity and impulsivity o Why do LCPs persist in crime? Personal traits interact with the environment Cumulative consequences and snares o Do LCPs ever desist from offending? No, never ∙ Abstainers o Moffitt also identifies a group of “abstainers” o If crime is normal, who are the abstainers? About what proportion of the population are abstainers? o What causes them to abstain from crime? Lack of deviant role models ∙ They are unpopular They don’t feel a maturity gap ∙ Sampson and Laub’s age graded theory o Most adult offenders have histories of delinquency, but most delinquents become adult offenders o Criminal careers can be stable (for some) and unstable (for many) o Social “bonds” are most important for explaining the onset, persistence and desistence of crime The specific bonds that are important differ in different periods of life ∙ What bonds are most important in childhood? o Family, school ∙ What bonds are most important in adolescence? o School, peers∙ What bonds are most important in adulthood? o Employment, intimate partners, community o Bonds are especially important during life transitions and turning points E.g., entering school, graduating, getting a job, becoming a parent… Also, getting arrested, going to jail o The risk for crime is especially high during life transitions and turning points o Turning points provide opportunities for crime onset, persistence, and desistence People will move in and out of offending based on how they respond to turning points o Among the first to discuss desistence o Following white men from adolescence into their 70s, the found that all eventually desisted from crime o Why? What causes desistance? Strong, positive social bonds ∙ Jobs ∙ Marriage ∙ Joining the military Human agency and decision making ∙ Patterson: a developmental perspective o Focuses on explaining early starters o Problems begin when “family members directly train the child to perform antisocial behaviors” They also fail to teach positive behaviors o These problems set off a chain of events that eventually lead to crime, but only for a relatively small number of families o Offending is the end result of a predictable sequence of events: poor parenting, failure in school, behavioral problems, rejection by prosocial peers, association with delinquent peers, adolescent delinquency oo Focuses on explaining “early starters” What causes people to be early starters? Why are early starters likely to persist in crime? ∙ Comparison of theories o Compare and contrast: Moffitt’s life course persistent offender Patterson’s early starter offender o What causes crime for each group? Patterson’s early starter offender ∙ Poor parenting Moffitt’s life course persistent offender ∙ o What should be done to prevent crime? Patterson’s early starter offender ∙ Increase parent monitoring Moffitt’s life course persistent offender o Moffitt’s life course persistent offender Logical Least parsimonious theory Hard to test New theory so not a lot of evidence