Lecture 14 Geological time: ‐ Know the difference between relative and numerical age dating ‐ Understand and be able to identify the different laws that geologists have used for centuries to determine relative age dating of sequences of rocks We also discuss several other topics like what term refers to the constant and deliberate effort to stay healthy and achieve the highest potential for well-being?
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‐ What underlying principle allows us to use those laws? ‐ Know how to identify rocks for which the law of superposition doesn’t apply as it normally does ‐ What are unconformities, and what do they indicate? ‐ Be able to identify the three different types of unconformities ‐ How do geologists put the whole history of the Earth together into a coherent story if unconformities exist? ‐ What is the geologic column and how was it divided? ‐ What is fossil succession and how is it useful to geologists? ‐ What is an index fossil, and why are they useful to geologists? ‐ What types of elements are used for numerical age dating? ‐ What are parent and daughter isotopes? ‐ What is a halflife? ‐Be able to determine age given a percentage of parent and daughter isotopes in a sample, along with the parent isotope’s halflife. ‐ What types of rocks are usually dated numerically? Why are sedimentary rocks not usually dated in this way? How are sedimentary rocks dated? Lecture 15, Crustal deformation/mountain building: ‐ What geological subdiscipline studies deformations of the crust? ‐ What is stress and what is strain? ‐ What are plastic deformation, brittle fracture, and ductile deformation? Where does each of these occur? ‐ What factors affect deformation and how do they do so? ‐ What are three main types of stress applied to rocks? ‐ What are the two main types of brittle fracture? ‐ Know the types of ductile deformation ‐ Be able to differentiate anticlines and synclines in cross sectional view and in map view; also, be able to label the hinge, axis, and limbs in cross sectional view ‐ Know what overturned and recumbent folds are ‐ What do non plunging anticlines and synclines look like in map view? ‐Where are the oldest rocks in nonplunging anticlines and synclines? ‐ What do plunging anticlines and synclines look like? Where are their oldest rocks? ‐ What are domes and basins, and how do they form? ‐ What are mountains and where do they form? ‐ What types of mountains formed in New England as Pangea broke up 200 million years ago? ‐ Why are there shells on Mount Everest? Lecture 16, Earthquakes: ‐ What geological subdiscipline studies earthquakes? ‐ Where are the focus and epicenter of earthquakes? ‐ What causes most earthquakes? ‐ What is strain energy? ‐ Be able to identify and label the different parts of a normal and reverse fault, such as the fault plane, scarp (if there is one), hanging wall, and footwall blocks. ‐ Be able to identify the different types of faults by looking at a block diagram and determining relative sense of motion of each block of rock. ‐ Know where the different fault types occur. ‐What is stickslip behavior? ‐ What are the two main types of seismic waves? ‐ What are the two major divisions of body waves? Which of these is faster? Which can’t flow through liquid? ‐ What are the two types of surface waves? ‐ What scale was developed to measure earthquakes by examining their damage? What two modern scales are also used to measure energy of a quake? ‐ What modern tool is used to record the vibrations caused by earthquakes? ‐ Which waves are recorded first on a seismogram? Which type of wave makes the largest marks on a seismogram, indicating their dangerousness? ‐ Understand the steps in how are seismographs used to measure earthquakes. ‐ How many seismographs are needed to locate a quake, and why? ‐ Where do most earthquakes occur? ‐ At what type of plate boundary do the deepest earthquakes occur? ‐ What are intraplate quakes? How do humans induce earthquakes? Do quakes occur elsewhere in the solar system? If so, where? ‐ What does the pattern of S waves opposite a quake, called the shadow zone, indicate about the Earth’s interior?‐ What does the speed of P waves traveling directly through the earth in a straight line indicate about the Earth’s interior? Lecture 17 Mass wasting ‐ What causes it? ‐ Where is it a problem generally, and also specifically within Connecticut? ‐ What stabilizes slopes, and what makes them unstable? ‐ Know the different types of mass movements. Be sure to know what creep is because it is really common here in CT, and even on our campus. ‐ Are there any benefits to mass wasting? ‐ Know how humans cause mass wasting, and how they then try to fix the problem Lecture 18, Streams: ‐ Know what streams are and how they form ‐ Know what the sources of water are for streams ‐ Know why some streams are permanent and some ephemeral ‐ Know how streams weather and erode rocks ‐ Know how potholes form ‐Know what headward erosion is and how it results in stream piracy ‐ Know what tributaries and drainage networks are ‐ Be able to identify by sight some of the different drainage patterns ‐ Know what drainage basins and divides are ‐ Know what the lowest level a stream can cut to is called ‐ Know how streams transport sediment (suspension, saltation, creep) ‐ Know what competence and capacity are ‐ Know where deposition occurs and why ‐ Know what deltas are, and why bird foot deltas form ‐ Know why waterfalls are not permanent ‐ Know what alluvial fans are and where and how they form ‐ Know what a braided stream is ‐ Know what a meandering stream is and where they form. Also, know the major parts such as cut banks, point bars, and oxbow lakes Lecture 19, Oceans and coastal processes: ‐ Know how the ocean regulates climate ‐ Know why ocean basins exist ‐ Know what the shelf, rise, and abyssal plains are‐ Know what types of crust underlie the shelf, rise, and abyssal plains, and why ‐ Know how submarine canyons form ‐ Know the difference between active and passive margins and what type of coastal features are likely to be found at each ‐ Know the difference between emergent and submergent coasts and what type of coastal features are likely to be found at each ‐ Know why ocean water is salty, why salinity varies in different parts of the ocean, and how the differences influence ocean circulation ‐ Know what the main cause of surface currents is ‐ Know what causes tides ‐ Know the anatomy of waves ‐ Know what causes breakers to form ‐ Know what longshore currents are, how they form, what they do to sediment on shore, and how to identify them using spits ‐ Know what rip currents are ‐ Know what coral reefs, atolls, and lagoons are ‐ Know what wavecur notches, benches, sea arches, and sea stacks are Lecture 20 , Glaciers: ‐ Know how and where glaciers form ‐ Know what the zones of accumulation and ablation are, and what the equilibrium line is ‐ Know what glaciers are and how the two types of glaciers differ ‐ Know what causes glaciers to flow and how they flow ‐ Know where glaciers behave brittlely and where they behave plastically ‐ Know how fast glaciers move and where in a glacier the fastest movement takes place ‐ Know how glaciers advance and retreat ‐ Know the processes of glacial erosion and what u shaped valleys and fjords are ‐ Know what terminal moraines, drumlins, eskers, and kettle lakes are, and how they form ‐ Know what glacial rebound is and why it occurs ‐ Know why glaciers cause sea level to drop ‐ Know how glaciations might cause extinctions ‐Know what evidence there is in New England for glaciers covering the landscape in recent times, and know what the last glacial period did to alter climate zones ‐ Know what the causes of glaciation are Lecture 20, Deserts ‐ Know how to define a desert ‐ Are all deserts warm? ‐ Know the different kinds of deserts ‐ Know what types of physical and chemical weathering occur therein ‐ Why is chemical weathering slower there? ‐ Know the features produced by weathering and erosion in deserts ‐ Know what desertification is Lecture 22 The atmosphere and climate: ‐ Know how and why the Earth’satmosphere is different from that of the other inner solar system planets ‐ Know how the composition of Earth’s atmosphere has changed over time and what caused the changes ‐ Why did it take so long for Earth’s atmosphere to accumulate oxygen? What is the Great Oxygenation Event? ‐ Know what process causes the sky to appear blue during the day and red at dusk‐ Know where most of the atmospheric mass lies in relation to the surface of the Earth ‐ Know what the troposphere and stratosphere are; how are they differentiated? ‐ Know where the energy driving winds comes from ‐ Know what drives global circulation patterns ‐ Know what jet streams are and how they form ‐ Know what causes the seasons. Do any other planets experience seasons? ‐ Know what weather and climate are, and how to differentiate them ‐ Know what a front is and why precipitation occurs in association with them ‐ Know how thunderstorms, lightning, and tornados form ‐ Know what causes cyclones and anticyclones, and what type of weather is associated with each ‐ Know what nor’easters are and how they form ‐ Know what hurricanes are and why they occur at certain times of year ‐ Understand the factors that affect climate change ‐ Know what Milankovich cycles are‐ Know what monsoons are and what causes their seasonality ‐ Know the difference between El Niño and La Niña, what causes them, and how they affect our climate in New England Lecture 23 Global change: ‐ Know the difference in duration of gradual and catastrophic changes and be able to give examples of each ‐ Know the difference between unidirectional and cyclic changes, and be able to give examples of each ‐ Know what type of change evolution is and what evidence there is from a geological perspective ‐ Know what natural selection is and how it works to change populations over time ‐ Know what transitional fossils are ‐ Know what homologous structures are ‐ Know what vestigial structures ‐ Know what adaptive radiations are ‐ Know what biogeochemical cycles are and which one is important for climate change ‐ Know the steps of the carbon cycle, that is, where is carbon stored and for how long, and how is it released again‐ Know what the greenhouse effect is and what gases are a cause of it ‐ Know the different proxies that geologists use to determine past climate ‐ What is the relationship between leaf margins and climate? ‐ What are stomata? ‐ Which isotope of oxygen is relatively more abundant in colder climates? ‐ What are greenhouse and icehouse periods?