Cumulative Final Exam Study Guide
Cumulative Final Exam Study Guide 160
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This 51 page Study Guide was uploaded by Zoë Fromer on Wednesday April 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 160 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Dana Krempels in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 488 views. For similar materials see Biodiversity and Evolution in Biology at University of Miami.
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ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg 1 BIODIVERSITY Know the meaningsignificance of biodiversity variety of living species on earth taxonomy naming and classification of living things systematics study of evolutionary relationships betw living organisms holotype indiv member of spec in type collection on whose physical description the description of the entire species is based paratype conspecifics in the type collection conspecific members of the same species species a pop or series of pops win free gene flow occurs under natural conditions population nuclear genome genome in a eukaryotic nucleus usually 2 nonidentical copies organelle genome genome in mitochondria or chloroplast may be multiple identical copies What is the significance of inbreeding and outbreeding with respect to genetic diversity and genetic quothealthquot of a species inbreeding mating between closely related individuals likelihood of homozygous condition passed on to offspring harmful condition Hemophilia TaySachs cystic fibrosis sicklecell anemia outbreeding mating between unrelated conspecifics A genetic diversity gt A spec health Understand the nature of the anthropocentric biocentric and ecocentric points of view in conservation Be able to recognize examples of each anthropocentric nonhuman species only important insofar as they can benefit humans food labor medicines biocentric nonhuman species important for their own intrinsic value Many biocentric people tend to have subjective view fur seals lions dolphins tigers ecocentric biodiversity and ecosystems should be preserved not just individ specpop bc it is the whole working system that maintains biodiversity Know the meaningsignificanceexamples of indicator species species that demonstrates through lack of abundance chemical consumption etc some distinctive aspect of the character or quality of env northern spotted owl keystone species a species upon which many other spec in an ecosystem rely on survival plankton in oceans carbonic acidification of oceans gt corals die coyote in south cali chaparral bird pop plummeted bc coyotes eat bird predators endangered species so few indiv left that extinction is imminent threatened species still relatively abundant in isolated areas likely to become scarce endemic species a species native to a particular area found nowhere else on earth exotic species introduced species not native ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg 2 invasive exotic species aggressively displaces native species allelopathy production toxic compounds to deter growth of existing plants nearby ex invasive exotic plants in South Florida such as paperbark tree Australian pine Brazilian Peppe Finally be sure you are familiar with the scientific method and the scientific definitions of hypothesis theory law inductive vs deductive reasoning etc inductive reasoning specific to general theory gt hypothesis gt observation gtconfirmation deductive reasoning general to specific observation gt pattern gt tentative hypothesis gt theory THE HISTORY OF EVOLUTIONARY THOUGHT Know the general age of the universe 10 20 BYO solar system the earth 45 BYO Life been on earth at least as far as current research tells us 4 BYO Homo sapiens existed on earth 400000 years Know the contributions of each of the following to modern evolutionary theory and know a little bit about each person Plato Aristotle unchanging world in which all species created in a perfect state with perfect interactions Scala naturae Francesco Redi Enlightenmentera scientist Placed rotting meat in open tightly sealed and meshcovered jars Maggots present only in open jars and on top of mesh Lazarro Spallanzani suspected that microorganisms entered Needham s flask after boiling but before sealing Anton von Leewenhoek invented microscope Louis Pasteur convinced scientific community against spontaneous generation w swan necked flask experiment Jean Baptist Lamarck usedisuse sentiments interieurs felt need acquired traits passed on to offspring Charles Darwin Alfred Russell Wallace Studied plants in Malaysia wrote 1858 essay extremely similar to Darwin s nat sel Stanley Miller and Harold Urey duplicated conditions of primordial earth yielded amino acids sugars nucleotide bases LACK OF OXYGEN What is epigenetic inheritance How is it somewhat related to the early ideas of Lamarck environmental factors influencing genes somewhat of an acquired characteristic doesn t exactly support Lamarck this happens on a molecular scale environment influencing expression of genes ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg 3 MODIFYING PHENOTYPE IN RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCE NOT CREATION OF NEW GENES Not a main route to speciation Know the meaningsignificance of spontaneous generation abiogenesis Is the origin of life the same as the evolution of life spontaneous generation belief first held by the ancient Romans that living organisms could spring fullyformed from nonliving matter abiogenesis process of living organisms arising naturally from nonliving matter SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT this process may have had to take place at some point for life on Earth to evolve think MillerUrey experiment origin of life a evolution We don t definitively know how life came to be on earth Strong evidence for evolutionary patterns Understand the significance of neutral evolution first proposed by Mootoo Kimura neutral changes in DNA at molecular level can have profound ev consequences over time THE DARWINIAN REVOLUTION What was Darwin doing when he devised his famous theory of evolution by natural selection Know the meaningsignificance of HMS Beagle ship Darwin was on Captain John Fitzroy captain of Beagle Darwin s professor Reverend john Stevens Henslow convinced Fitzroy to take Darwin on as unpaid gentleman scholar and naturalist Galapagos Islands HMS Beagle stopped here while charting South American coastlines Darwin noticed endemic species and adaptive radiation uniformitarianism assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now have always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere in the universe Ex gradual erosion of grand canyon same process over millions of years catastrophism Georges Cuvier s explanation for different types of fossils to compromise for his religious faith Hypothesized various signs of change in fossil record due to many mass localized extinctions artificial selection the contributions to Darwin39s theory of George Cuvier extinction gt speciation Thomas Malthus Religious scholar Essay on the Principle of Population Suggested much of humanity s suffering due to overpopulation humans reproduce more quickly than food supply can support gt war homelessness disease Rev John Henslow professor of Botany at Christ College at Cambridge University Darwin was his star pupil Know Darwin39s four tenets of evolution by natural selection how to apply them and how to recognize 1 OVERPRODUCTION organisms are capable of producing large numbers of offspring 2 HERITABLE VARIABILITY those offspring are variable in appearance and function and some of those variations are heritable ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg 4 3 COMPETITION Environmental resources are limited and those varied offspring must compete for their share 4 DIFFERENTIAL REPRODUCTION Survival and reproduction of the varied offspring is not random Those individuals whose inherited characteristics make them better able to compete for resources will leave more offspring than those notes well suited EXAMPLES IN NATURE OF THE TENETS IN ACTION What is the meaning of Darwin s term descent with modification gradual change of one species into another What is meant by adaptive traits increase the likelihood that the individual will leave offspring maladaptive traits decreases the likelihood that the individual will leave offspring neutral traits does not affect the likelihood that the individual will leave offspring Understand the meaning of the phrase quotsurvival of the fittestquot in the context of Darwinian evolution Know the meaning of the word quottautologyquot Is the term quotsurvival of the fittestquot a tautology Is the term meaningful in terms of Darwinian evolution tautology circular definitionphrase survival of the fittest is NOT a tautology but it s misconception is In short survival fitness fitness 2 longterm survival Be able to address the common misconceptions about evolution and explain why they are incorrect See end of lecture 3 there are about 20 examples EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION AND HOMOLOGY Understand the four basic lines of evidence that support the fact of evolution MICROEVOLUTION MRSA antibioticresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis north american house sparrow body mass and wing surface area darker and larger at northern latitudes MACROEVOLUTION fossil record Know the meaningsignificance of homology characteristic shared by 2 species or other taxa that is similar because of common ancestry analogy characteristic shared by 2 species or other taxa that is similar because of convergent evolution primitive relatively unchanged from ancestral form vs derived character changed from ancestral form plesiomorphy primitive morph vs apomorphy derived morph symplesiomorphy shared primitive char vs synapomorphy shared derived char convergent evolution ex bird wings and bat wings Evolved similar struc func differently ZOE FROMER EXAM I STUDY GUIDE pg 5 Know how the study of symplesiomorphies and synapomorphies across species is applied to the study of their evolutionary relationships more symplesiomorphies gt probably share common ancestor synapomorphies are derived characteristics Know what is meant by quotJust So Stories Rudyard Kipling How each animal got its characteristic features for a specific purpose NOT SCIENTIFIC THINKING not every mutation has a purpose genotype phenotype ontogeny embryonic development heterochrony developmental change in the timing of events leading to changes in size and shape neoteny retention of juvenile characteristics by either of these kinds of heterochrony progenesis faster sexual development paedomorphism paedomorphy retention by adults of traits only seen in young paedogenesis sexual reproduction in an animal that maintains its larval features allometric growth proportions vary with age ex humans DNA and the four quotlettersquot of the DNA alphabet Be able to recognize examples of morphological ontogenetic and molecular homology among species Know the meaningsignificance of vestigial and atavistic characters What is Evo Devo What did Ernst Haeckel mean by the phrase ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny Was he exactly correct Understand why not ED evolutionary developmental biology Study of ontogenies and DNA sequences not entirely correct because he assumed that we pass through all of our older evolutionary stages during embryonic development HOWEVER all related animals share commonalities in embryonic and evolutionary development TIMING OF CHEMICAL MESSENGERS ACTING ON DIFFERENT GENES DURING ONTOGENY Know the meaningsignificance in terms of ontogenetic homology of o zygote blastula gastrula gastrulation blastopore protostome blastopore becomes mouth bilaterally symmetrical Flatworms roundworms segmented worms mollusks water bears arachnids insects crustaceans PRIMITIVE CONDITION deuterostome blastopore becomes anus Starfish sea urchins acorn worms tunicates Iancelets vertebrates DERIVED CONDITION homeotic genes what is their job Check your text if you don39t remember this from lecture ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg 6 What is a gastrea What is its significance to animal evolution Know the meaning of heterochrony How can this result in changes in species What is the link between heterochrony allometric growth and paedomorphy See the link in Lecture 5 Timing is Everything changing in timing of evolutionary development POPULATION GENETICS AND MICROEVOLUTION Know the five criteria that must be met if a population is NOT to evolve What happens if one or more is not met no mutation at locus in question pop infinitely large individuals mate randomly no natsel no individuals immigrate from or immigrate into pop no genotype has a reproductive advantage IF RELATIVE GENOTYPE FREQUENCIES match those predicted by HW pop NOT EVOLVING at that locus at HW Equilibrium do not match those predicted by HW pop IS EVOLVING at that locus not at HW Equilibrium Know the meaningsignificance of gene allele population deme gene pool polymorphism homozygous heterozygous the tenets of evolution by natural selection see above Know the meaningsignificance of microevolution ev changes below species level genetic change win pop in respect to other pops May eventually lead to reproductive isolation and speciation macro macroevolution ev changes above the species level reproductive isolation win a pop resulting in two new species diversification of major lineages of organisms evolution on a grand scale stasis modification speciation extinction reproductive isolation and the different types of reproductive isolation be able to recognize an example extinct extant ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg 7 neutral evolution genetic drift mutation assortative mating positive and negative immigration and emigration natural selection Know the various types of polymorphism one might find at the molecular level What is a tandem repeat A microsatellite chromosomal polymorphism nonlethal aneuploidies chromosome breakages and fusions polyploidy reciprocal translocations inversions immunological polymorphism antigen specificities ABO blood groups in humans protein polymorphism codon change gt protein change DNA polymorphism restriction site variation detectable via activity of restriction endonuclease gen disease tandem repeats multiplied repeats of a particular DNA seq complete sequence variation electrophorically distinguishable classes of genes that differ at a single location SNPs HOX GENES ARE A CONSERVED SEQUENCE polymorphism in a single gene locus at different positions less var gt position has not tolerated mutation Know the difference between a physiological adaptation and an evolutionary adaptation and how they are related Note that while natural selection and the other five HW factors may occur at the level the individual organism only populations evolve Know the difference between somatic and germline mutations and which ones are more likely to have direct evolutionary consequences Is this the same across all organisms Know the definitions of various types of mutations including point mutations mutations of homolgous pairs and mutations of entire chromosome sets polyploidy Know the meaning of ploidy haploidy diploidy polyploidy autopolyploidy allopolyploidy What is the signficance of hybridization and polyploidy with respect to evolution Understand in good detail the concept of HardyWeinberg equilibrium and the five factors that can cause a population to evolve Know how to figure out a HardyWeinberg problem and apply the HW equation to a sample population Know the meaningsignificance of heterozygosity a population s average heterozygosity heterozygote advantage hybrid vigor ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg 8 FORCES THAT DRIVE EVOLUTION Know the five criteria that must be met if a population is NOT to evolve see above Know the meaningsignificance of microevolution macroevolution random genetic drift mutation assortative mating positive mating w like org and negative mating w dissim org immigration and emigration natural selection Understand the concept of HardyWeinberg equilibrium and the five factors that can cause a population to evolve Know how to figure out a HW problem and apply it Know the meaningsignificance of gene allele population deme gene pool polymorphism homozygous heterozygous positive and negative assortative mating the tenets of evolution by natural selection sexual selection be sure you can distinguish this from nonrandom assortative matingl genetic drift Founder Effect Bottleneck effect Know the difference between a physiological adaptation and an evolutionary adaptation Note that while natural selection and the other five HW factors may occur at the level the individual organism only populations evolve ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg1 PROKARYOTES 39 3 domains of life meaning signi cance basic cell characteristics 0 BACTERIA Lack complex compartmentalization memenclosed org Some infolding of plasma mem gt specialized func Circular chromosome nucleoid region or plasmids Smaller 705 ribosomes O ARCHAEA Single circular chromosome haploid Unique cell wall material unique cell mem struc comp branched hydroC Flagella of multiple prot agellins encoded by several unique archaean genes Ribosomes more similar to euk 805 Growth uninhibited by streptomycin chloramphenicol Some shapes similar to bacteria spherical rodshaped 3 basic types methanogens thermophiles halophiles O EUKARYOTA 39 Prokayrotic cell struc o prokaryote descriptive not phylogenetic term describes lack of memenclosed nuc some internal membrane systems 0 Divergence of prok lineages so long ago impossible to determine exact ev relationships 0 First fossils 39 Bacterial struc O Nucleoid region 0 Ribosomes 705 in prok mitochondria chloroplasts smaller less complex than euk 0 Cell wall plasma membrane Peptidoglycan Gram staining method 39 G simpler CW more p ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg2 0 Production of endospore in unfavorable env 0 Lack of nutrient gt cell copies chr gt surrounds w multilayered struc gt orig cell lyses gt e released 39 G p sandwiched between gel capsule o Flagellum 110 width of euk ag not covered by extension of plasma membrane Diff unrelated prot struc than euk gt arose independently o Fimbriae hairless appendages for attachment to substrate conspeci cs G o Pilus pull 2 bact cells prior to DNA transfer 39 Bacterial metabolism 0 Oxygen Tolerance Obligate anaerobes poisoned by 02 fermentation Obligate aerobes require 02 Facultative anaerobes can perform either depending on env conditions 0 Energy Transduction Photoautotrophs cyanobacteria C02 as C and light as energy Chemoautotrophs archaebacteria C02 as C and inorg comp as energy Photoheterotrophs rare organic molecules as C and light as energy gt 02 rich atmosphere Chemoheterotrophs common energy from org comp 39 Saprobe breaks down decaying organic matter 39 Parasite uses organic molecule of living tissue 39 Various prokaryotic symbioses o Nitrogen cycle role as nitrogen xer O Pathogenesis O Mutualisms lichen o Denitrifier o Leguminous plants 0 Decomposers bacteria that break down dead org mat vs detritivores detritus consuming heterotrophs ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg3 39 Bacterial reproduction gene transfer 0 O O O Binary ssion gt advantageous diversity can appear quickly ex antibiotic resistance Horizontal gene transfer of plasmids gt pathogenicity Transformation uptake of naked DNA from env Transduction DNA transferred by bacteriophage 39 Bacterial pathogenicity O O Opportunistic pathogen Plasmids can confer pathogenicity Iatrogenic infection hospitals Endotoxin secreted vs exotoxin CW component Antibiotic mechanism of action Bacteriostatic inhibits growth of bacterial culture Bacteriocidal kills bacteria Koch s postulates Diseasecausing microorganism Must be found in all organisms suffering from disease not in healthy organisms Must be isolated from diseased organism and grown in pure culture Should cause disease when introduced in healthy org Must be isolated from inoculated diseased experimental host and identi ed as being identical to original speci c causative agent ZOE FROMER EXAM III STUDY GUIDE pg4 EUKARYOTES 39 Cambrian Explosion Adaptive Radiation 39 Domain synapomorphies general characteristics 0 Nucleus w genome on multiple linear chromosomes 0 Cytoskeleton structural support changes in shape 0 Flagella cilia 9 peripheral microtubular doublets and 2 central microtubules o Endomembrane system 0 mitochondria O 805 ribosomes 0 Ability to asexually reproduce via mitosis 39 Eukaryote origins o Autogeneous model PLASMA MEMBRANE FOLDING extensive infolding of plasmem gt complex internal mem network 0 Endosymbiont model EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS Small energytransducing prok ingested as prey or were internal symbionts gt Endomem system LECTURE 12 PG 5 FOR EVIDENCE Primary endosymbiosis larger cell engulfs smaller takes up residence to bene t of both Secondary endosymbiosis product of primary engulfed by larger cell takes up residence to bene t of both cells 39 Red algae dino agellates apicomplexans straminopiles 39 Green algae euglenids chlorarachinophyta algae and green plants 39 Horiz gene transf betw cyanobact gt chloroplasts mitochondria in euk 39 Major Monophyletic Protisian groups 0 Excavata quotexcavatedquot groove on side of cell Parabasalids Diplomonads modi ed mitochondria Euglenozoans modi ed agella o Chromalveolata most specialized Alveolata linked by presence of alveoli under plasma mem ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg5 39 Dino agellates zooxanthellae and coral red tides ciguatera 39 Apicomplexa modi ed golgi apparatus at apex apicoplast all are intracellular parasites o Plasmodium malaria o Eimeria and lsopora coccdiosis 39 Ciliophora covered in cilia small diploid micronucleus for reproduction only and large haploid macronucleus for regulation of cell func Stramenophila fuzzy agellum often paired w smooth 39 Diatoms 39 Golden algae 39 Brown algae kelps 39 Water quotmoldsquot 39 Haptophytes unicellular algae w plated shells gt white cliffs of dover o Archaeplastida Rodophyta Red Algae unicellular or multicellular 39 Deep water 39 Under algal mats 39 Lack agella and centrioles 39 Ex agar and sushi wrap Green Algae colonial spec Land plants 0 Unikonta Aomebas closely related to entamoebas Slime molds Choano agellates similar to specialized cells in sponges primitive animalsl Animals Fungi 39 Protisian impact on environment 0 Red tide sh dieoffs ciguatera poisoning dino agellates 0 White Cliffs of Dover formed by calcium carbonate skeletons of Emiliana huxeyi ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE 0 Trypanosomiasis 0 African sleeping sickness o Malaria Chromalevolata gt Apicomplexa gt plasmodium O Coccidosis log6 ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg7 FUNGI 39 Major groups generalized life cycles evolutionary relationships 0 Chytridiomycota MOST PRIMITIVE Aquatic Chitinous cell walls Retain agellated gametes zoospores not found in any other fungi O Zygomycota Food molds parasites commensal symbionts Resistant to freezing drying Sexual reproduction in bad conditions Release of zygosporangium in good conditions gt meiosis Germination into sporophyte gt release of genetically diverse haploid spores to colonize new substrate 0 Asomycota Sac Fungi About 75 of fungi Microscropic pouch ascus where zygotes undergo meiosis gt ascospores o Basidiomycota Club Fungi Most commonly recognized eaten Microscropic struc basidum where zygotes undergo meiosis gt basidiospores O G lomeromycota Micorrhizae fungus roots 0 quotDeuteromycotaquot 39 Fungal body parts 0 Mycelium interwoven mass of hyphae in ltrates feeding substrate 0 Thallus O Hyphae O Fruiting body 0 cell wall of CHITIN ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE log8 39 Fungal reproduction O Plasmogamy O Karyoga my 39 Fungal symbioses O Predation o Decomposers cycling of carbon and nitrogen O Parasites Dutch elm disease Asomycete parasitoids that infect arthropods Dermatophytes Ergots carcinogenic infects plants Mycotoxins food 0 Mutualism Nitrogen cycle Nutrient cycling Detox compounds for leafcutter ants Uchens 39 Fungus provides habitat for autotroph 39 Algae provide photosynthates for fungus 39 Primary production in tundra Miccorhizae 39 Vesicular Abuscular Mycorrhizae assoc betw glomerocyte and plant 39 Ectomycorrhizae assoc betw ascoor basidiomycete and conifer owering plant ZOE FROMER EXAM III STUDY GUIDE pg9 ANIMAL FORM AND FUNCTION 39 Characteristics unique to animals 0 Multicellular w true tissues 0 lngestive heterotroph 0 Energy storage longterm fat shortterm glycogen O No cell walls 0 Nervous and muscular system 0 Hox genes segmentation of body Metamerism segmentation gt tagmatization fusion of metameres into functionally distinct body regions gt cephalization head region 0 Sexual reproduction 39 Metazoans O Poriferans sponges Choanocyte collar cells possibly rst animals Colonial choano aggelates gt division of labor gt somatic cells 0 Radially symmetrical animals Cnidaria Ctenophora Placozoa EUMETAZOA o Bilaterally symmetrical animals everyone else EUMETAZOA 39 Internal body cavity 0 Acoelomates no internal body cavity 0 Pseudocoelomates internal body cavity lined w mesoderm only on parietal surf o Coelomates internal body cavity lined w mes on parietal and visceral sides Protostomes and Deuterostomes protostomes Deuterostomes 39 Blastopore becomes mouth second opening anus Blastopore becomes anUS second opening mouth 0 Coelom formed via schizocoely 39 Coelom formed via enterocoely pinching of archenteron Spiral determinate Cleavage 39 Radial indeterminate cleavage 39 Circulatory system dorsal nervous system ventral CIrCUIatorV 5V5tem ventraII nervous 5V5tem dorsaI ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg10 ANIMALIA PROGRESION OF COMPLEXITY 39 Major planes of body symmetry 0 Radial Traits diploblastic Ectoderm epediermis and endoderm gastrodermis separated by gelatinous mesogloea Phylum 39 Porifera 39 Cnidaria diploblastic no coelom primary axis oral aboral dimorphic 39 Ctenophora mouth and no anus no cnidocytes suspension feeders o Bilateral Phylum 39 Acoela true bilateral symmetry no nerve ganglia or brain vague cephalization primordial gut not lined w epithelial cells creates vacuoles PRIMITIVE DIPLOBPLASTIC ANCESTOR TO BELOW 39 Platyhelminthes integumentary system digestive system nervous system sense organs muscular system reproductive system excretory system NO skeletal system circ resp immune lymphatic endocrine o Tubellaria planarians freeliving atworms o Trematoda ukes reduced sensory system bc live in hosts 0 Cetoda tapeworms scolex and proglottids covered by tegument 39 Majoranimal 0 Cells 0 Organs 0 Organ systems Nervous Muscular lntegumentary Skeletal Excretory Immune Lymphatic Circulatory Digestive endocrine ZOE FROMER EXAM III STUDY GUIDE pg11 ANIMAL DIVERSITY 39 Lophotrochozoans bilateral triploblastic true organs and organ systems 0 Lophophorates linked by lophophore feeding apparatus brachiopoda lamp shells bryozoan moss animals phoronids horseshoe worms 39 Trochozoans linked by trocophore larva o Annelida Protostome coelomate development char Metamerism appendages on segments Coelom as hydrostatic skeleton Dorsal closed circ sys Different types 39 Polychaetes 0 marine segmented worms freeliving or sedentary o cephalization paddle appendages 39 Oligochaetes o earthworms freeliving freshwater or terrestrial important detritivores 0 reduced cephalization small bristles on segments 39 Hirundinea o leeches 0 reduced coelom many times speciesspeci c o Mollusca Protostome coelomate development char Coelom reduced to vegistal gonocel surrounding reprod sys amp other struc Open circulatory system Visceral mass Thick shellsecreting mantle ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg12 Different types of Molluscs 39 Polyplacophora o chitons 8 dorsal plates instead of shells 0 marine benthic O closest to HAM 39 Bivalvia o scallops oysters mussels clams 0 marine and freshwater o hinged shell enclosing body 0 gill for respiration and suspensionfeeding 39 Gastropoda o snails slugs reduced mantle o freeliving marine terrestrial and freshwater 0 high degree of cephalization welldeveloped sense organs 39 Cephalopoda O squids octopi o Exclusively marine fastswimming predators camera eye intelligence 39 Ecdysozoans coelomates and acoelomates Undergo ecdysis shedding of chitincontaining cuticle o Nematoda Unsegmented Pseudoceolmate Simple excretory system to remove nitrogenous waste No circ resp sys Only longitudinal muscles Extremely diverse usually harmless bene cial soil members ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg 1 I Forces that Drive Evolution Know the five criteria that must be met if a population is NOT to evolve Remember in good detail the concept of HardyWeinberg equilibrium and the five factors that can cause a population to evolve Don t forget how to do a HW calculation no mutation at locus in question pop infinitely large individuals mate randomly no natsel no individuals immigrate from or immigrate into pop no genotype has a reproductive advantage Know the meaningsignificance of microevolution ev changes below species level genetic change win pop in respect to other pops May eventually lead to reproductive isolation and speciation macro macroevolution ev changes above the species level reproductive isolation win a pop resulting in two new species diversification of major lineages of organisms evolution on a grand scale stasis modification speciation extinction random genetic drift mutation germline gt added to gene pool assortative mating positive and negative indiv of similar genophenotype mate significantly more often indiv of different genophenotype mate significantly more often immigration and emigration natural selection adaptive vs maladaptive vs neutral traits or mutations Know the various types of reproductive isolating mechanisms and at what level each operates PREZYGOTIC Ecological Isolation ecological ranges of 2 spec overlap but ecological needs or breeding requirements differ enough to cause repaired isol Temporal Isolation breeding ranges of 2 spec overlap but breeding season sexual activity differs Behavioral Isolation spec w complex mating rituals Mechanical Isolation morphological diff prevent mating pollination Bucket orchid and bee snail cone direction and maternal effect genes Gametic Isolation sperm and ova of 2 chemicallygenetically incompatible and will not fuse Giant Red Urchin and Purple Urchin broadcast genes POSTZYGOTIC Hybrid lnviability zygote may form but embryo dies Hybrid Sterility viable hybrid produced often more vigorous than either parent but is unable to reproduce Hybrid Breakdown successive generations of hybrids suffer reduced fertility gt sterility Eventually selected out of pop Understand the meaningsignificance of different types of mutations silent mutation neutral mutation and why one is not always the other and vice versa silentsynonymous mut doesn t change AA seq encoded by a particular gene neutral mut has little to no phenotypic effect no effect on Darwinian fitness of indiv carrier ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg 2 Know the meaningsignificance of gene allele population deme local pop of interbreeding organisms Demes may interact with each other nor not cohesive species vs subspecies gene pool polymorphism 2 distinct phenotypes exist in a pop morphs of a phenotype homozygous heterozygous positive and negative assortative mating the tenets of evolution by natural selection see above sexual selection be able to distinguish this from nonrandom assortative mating lndiv ability to attract mate with members of the same species indiv exhibiting characteristics making them more likely to gain mating opp gt advantage Most likely to change allele frequencies when there is competition for mates May lead to sexual dimorphism works in 2 ways Members of one sex compete against each other for mates thereby creating a reproductive differential among themselves If those members of the population having heritable characteristics that contribute to their winning more mates reproduce more than those lacking those traits then natural sexual selection is occurring Members of one sex prefer a particular trait in the members of the opposite sex creating a reproductive differential in the other sex It members of the population having a heritable trait that makes them more attractive to the opposite sex than those lacking the trait they will outreproduce them Natural selection of the sexual kind is occuring Genetic Drift genetic change due to sampling error highly influenced by neutral mutations Founder Effect small sample of indiv from large pop colonizes new area and stops breeding w souce pop Bottleneck Effect large pop almost wiped out due to catastrophe few lucky indiv survive to be progenitors of new generations Much more subject to sampling error apparent in later gen Know the difference between a physiological adaptation and an evolutionary adaptation ev adap response to selectional preferences inheritable germline mut gt phenotypic difference phys ad response to environment suntan winter coat Remember that while natural selection and the other five HW factors may occur at the level the individual organism only populations evolve Know the basic principles of and be able to recognize examples of Classical Selection model of Evolution in a pop one allele functions better than others at any given locus natsel will drive A proportion of this allele wild type vs mutant forward vs reverse mutations FORWARD wildtype gtmutant REVERSE mutant gtwild type ME F ltgt R ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg 3 Balancing Selection model of evolution Theodosius Dobzhansky multiple alleles at a given locus can be actively retained in a gene pool at a higher frequency than would be predicted by mutation alone bc confers advantage under certain conditions prevents one allele from displacing others balanced polymorphism examples driven by predator s search image HETEROZYGOTE ADVANTAGE sicklecell anemia male homosexuality lt gt mother s fecundity FREQUENCYDEPENDENT SELECTION selection favors trait when frequent in pop batesian mimicry Viceroy mimics Monarch selection favors trait when rare in pop Mullerian mimicry convergent warning color patterns in butterflies Neutral Mutation Model of evolution Mootoo Kimura most ev diversity genetic level due to random genetic drift of neutral nearly neutral mutant alleles not natsel changes go along for the ride as other forces change organism other loci evidence changes in hemoglobin sequences over generations preceded regular rate and did not seem to have much effect be product of natsel Know the meaningsignificance of assortative mating indiv of similar genophenotype mate often A homozygosity indiv of dissim genophenotype mate often A heterozygosity inbreeding mating betw closelyrelated indiv occurs more frequently than would be predicted by their relative freq in pop NONRANDOM outbreeding mating between lessrelated indiv occurs more frequently NONRANDOM immigration emigration f gene flow hybrid zone reproductive isolation via hybridization hybrid speciation 33m I Understand the meaningsignificance of I 3 quot quot aquot natural selection W W stabilizing selection selective forces at wOrk 0n apOpulation favor greatest reproduction by individuals exhibiting the average state of a particular character In this instance the composition of the population doesn39t change directional selection the individuals at one extreme or the other of the bell shaped curve have a reproductive advantage over the rest disruptive diversifying selection individuals at the average point on the curve are at a selective disadvantage individuals with either extreme have a reproductive advantage Understand why evolution does not result in perfect organisms ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg 4 ll Origin of Species and Macroevolution Be able to distinguish among the different species concepts and how each one defines what makes a species typological morphological species concept a species is a group of organisms conforming to a common morphological plan emphasizing the species as an essentially static nonvariable assemblage as old as Plato biological species concept a species is a group of actually potentially interbreeding natural pops which are reproductiver isolated from other such groups Mayr 1940 evolutionary species concept a species is a lineage evolving separately from others w its on unitary evolutionary roles and tendencies Simpson 1961 ecological species concept a set of organisms occupying the same ecological nice Ridley 1993 Understand the meaningsignificance of anagenesis phyletic evolution conversion of an entire pop over time to a recognizably different one No net A in species diversity cladogenesis diversifying evolution divergence of 2 new species from 1 ancestral net A in spec diversity adaptive radiation can give rise to a variety of diverse spe as descendent spec radiate into new niches character displacement physical changes associated w resource partitioning birds occupying different parts of tree birds adapting beaks for different nuts ecological niche and the effects of niche overlap re evolutionnatural selection Gause s LawCompetitive Exclusion Principle in a stable env 2 spec cannot coexist if they occupy the same ecological niche Understand the mechanisms of allopatric speciation a single pop is divided into 2 by a physical geographic barrier peripatric speciation by entering a new ecological niche a small subset of original pop becomes isolated at periphery of pops s range Over generations gt reprod isolation parapatric speciation large s of pop gradually becoming differentiated along the range of the pop due to gen drift selection Adjacent demes may be able to interbreed widely separated demes cannot and undergo reprod isolation sympatric speciation speciation occurs without physical separation within the range of the ancestral pop Often due to sudden genetic event Well known in plants due to polyploidy ai looatrk oer ipatric parapati It sympatric Ol qlnai oopmation IEW nicne new nlCl it OHYSICai genetit ba 839 entered entered powmommsm 1b 0 quot genetli 1 genetir l genetir l inbreeding firsr step of SpeCIatIon diiierpnnannn differentiation di erentiation b mutanrz ltibling spemes can no longer interhmed soeripc minivan speaes evolved speripc avanp speCIes euower39 in isotation in isolated niche In contiguous niche In shareo space evolution of reDrOGUCUV coiation ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg 5 Know the meaningsignificance of autopolyploidy chromsomes in new spec all from same ancestral spec allopolyploidy chr in new spec come from 2 different but related ancestral spec hybrid speciation hybridization between related species may result in reproductive isolation that can then lead to speciation Sometimes event if confers advantage hybrid zone area of secondary contact between two related species where limited hybridization is taking place between them Sympatry after separation introgression introduction of alleles from one species39 gene pool into that of another closely related species due to limited hybridization Whitetailed and mule deer Know how to calculate a fitness coefficient and a selection coefficient and what these mean fitness coefficient expression of adaptive value of a particular genotype relative to others Genotype that produces most offspring in a given pop assigned W 10 Others measured relative to best Ex AA 10 offspring W 1010 1 Aa 5 offspring W 510 5 aa 2 offspring W 210 2 selection coefficient expression of selection against given genotype compared to others s 1 W Ex AA s 1 1 0 no selection against Aa s 1 5 5 50 more selection against than AA aa s 1 2 8 80 more selection against than AA Understand the difference between microevolution and macroevolutionspeciation Know what is meant by phyletic gradualism vs punctuated equilibrium PG Darwinian view species gradually changed into new species in a relatively gradual stepwise manner Species accum small changes over generations gt new species PE Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould 1972 major changes occur suddenly punctuating long periods of relative stasis Saltatory Leaping evolution anagenesis cladogenesis adaptive radiation character displacement see pp 4 incipient species species on the verge of becoming separated altruism group selection kin selection individual fitness inclusive fitness Know specifically what is meant by adaptive maladaptive and neutral characters and what they mean in terms of differential reproduction Understand why the marmoset and honeybee examples explain the benefits of kin selection and why a worker bee is better off helping the queen make more sisters than having babies of her own which she can39t since she39s sterile Know the general meanings of the different species concepts including biological morphological recognition cohesion and cohesive species ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg 6 III The Genetics of Evolutionary Change Understand the meaningsignificancedifferences between silent mutation synonymous mutation neutral mutation genetic drift molecular clock Over the course of millions of years mutations may build up in any given stretch of DNA at a reliable rate Ex the gene that codes for the protein alpha globinexperiences base changes of 56 changes per base pair per billion years If this rate is reliable the gene could be used as a molecular clock pseudogene genes that no longer appear to have any function carry more mut than proteome genes May eventually turn back on and have new func Duplication of pseudogenes could result in the overproduction of the gene products of the duplicated genes Duplicated genes is now subject to mutations that could leave original gene intact quotextraquot genes become the raw material for new functions that arise via mutation Possible outcomes 1 gene evolves new regulation and function eaCh gene eVOlveS to am 1 gene mutates into pseudogene w no func one Of the funC Of the orig gene proteome the entire complement of proteins that is or can be expressed by a cell tissue or organism Understand the significance of silent vs nonsilent mutations in proteome vs pseudogenes or noncoding regions and the significance of silent vs nonsilent muations in purifying selection neutral genetic drift and positive selection natural selection vs neutral evolution neutral genetic drift neutral evolution If a gene is not influenced at all by natural selection one would expect silent and non silent mutations to accumulate at an equal rate since neither kind of mutation matters to the gene39s function or lack thereof ratio of nonsilent to silent mutations NSS should be ONE NS S positive selection and purifying selection both are subclasses of natural selection PURIFYING Gene codes for a protein so vital that even small changes to its function are lethal then only nonlethal mutations will accumulate NO nonsilent mut ratio of nonsilentsilent O POSITIVE If a gene product39s function is a little less rigid then mutations may be tolerated resulting in new alleles of that productprotein Some of the nonsilent mutations may result in alleles that function better under certain conditions than other alleles and these will be naturally selected ratio nonsilent silent gt O View the examples shown by the FOXP2 gene and while you39re at it take a small break and Google FOXP2 for some interesting recent information FOXP2 widely distributed among vertebrates regulates plasticity of nervous system wiring FOXP2 knockout mice cannot squeak to get mother s attention Humans w mutant form have language speech disabilities Mice and apes nearly identical seqfunc Humans have 2 nonsilent mutations importance ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg 7 Understand the evolutionary significance of gene duplication and gene recruitment new genes come from preexisting genes in germline cells base pair subs duplications deletions all mutations gt new genes or new funcs deleterious beneficial harmful ANTIEV CLAIM THAT YOU CAN T ADD GENETIC INFO ISN T TRUE Citratefeeding E coli at Michigan State University PCPfeeding Sphingobium strip off Cl ions and break apart carbon ring for energy happened in 1930s when PCP first entered environment Understand how mutations in the noncoding regions of the genome can have evolutionary effects and how changes in the intensity level of gene expression can affect phenotype without a DNAsequence mutation eg Galapagos finch beak shape size development low BMP4 gt long narrow beak high BMP4 gt wide deep beak high calmodulin levels gt long break length Understand the basic concept of the Molecular Clock Understand the basic structure of a gene as well as its regulating regions What might happen when each of these regions mutates promoter facilitates gene transcription when bound to a transcription factor enhancer enhances transcription levelrate when bound to a transcriptionfactor like protein repressor represses transcription levelrate when bound to a transcriptionfactor like protein Know what is meant by Central Dogma DNA gt RNA gt protein DNA RNA transcription factor codons start and stop codons positive and negative control of transcription apoptosis genetic toolkit set of genes that determines body axes morphology segmentation of limbs etc Hox genes major part homologous in many org but different thru duplication recruitment Know the major differences and homologies between protostome and deuterostome animals Protostomes lt FLIPPED gt Deuterostomes nervous system ventral nervous system dorsal intestine dorsal Genes that determine intestine ventral circulatory system dorsal Where these Systems circulatory system ventral develop are homologous Know what is meant by convergent evolution and be able to recognize new examples evolution of unrelated lineages towards similar or parallel form ex giant armadillo N America giant anteater S America giant pangolin Africa spiny anteater Australia placentals and mammals reexpression of genes present in common ancestor ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg 8 Know what is meant by quotirreducible complexity Who claims that some biological structures are irreducibly complex idea that structures so complex that it is impossible they were formed by natural processes Michael Behe Lehigh University influenced by William Paley Know the basic components of the vertebrate eye and be familiar with the earlier photoreceptor structures seen in living vertebrates and prevertebrates that show us what ancestral eye precursors might have been like Lecture 8 pg 21 lightsensitive eyespots in early chordates bulge outwards toward sides of head parch folds inwards to a cup beneath unpigmented skin surface becomes transparent lens evolves capability to focus image eyes become spherical evolve greater acuity Understand the evolutionary significance of rod light lowresolution rhodopsin cone color highresolution other pigs lens focuses light clear composed of crystallins heatshock properties iris cornea retina rhodopsin snake venom precursors and specializations Bdefensins produced in skin and other body parts gt expressed in snake pancreas gt evolve into chromatin venom expressed in venom glands due to Bdefensin gene duplication expresed in mouth later duplications natal of mutations cause potency IV The History of Life on Earth Know the meaningsignificance of abiogenesis origin of life from nonlife coacervate gelatin and gum arabic gt stable globular structures Oparin protobiont the contributions of Oparin chem reac in primitive oceans eventually gt life Coacervates enzyme systems inside protobiont Miller amp Urey apparatus simulating anaerobic conditions of early earth Yielded AA formic acid acetic acid urea Similar results when replicated as long as no 0 present Sutherland et al makingRNA polymers from inorganic precursors simple as long as the right proportions of ingredients present and steps in correct order Know the five major past mass extinctions What was a probable cause of the one that occurred in the Pleistocene What about the one that39s going on now 1 OrdovicianSilurian Mass Extinction Event 460MYA gigantic glaciers drop in sea level 1 Godwana moved into polar region setting off drop in temperature and increase in glacial formation 2 gamma ray burst from hypernova 2 Late Devonian 360MYA 1 prolonged series of mass extinctions half of all genera and 70 of species 2 marine life spiders scorpions protoamphibians 3 500000025MY extinction pulses ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg 9 4 asterioid impulse or supervolcano glaciation ocean levels fell and lost oxygen 5 plants absorbing so much CO2 that they caused 3 PermianTriasic Extinction Event 250MYA 1 comet asteroid Volcanic eruption in Siberian Traps gt A temp 5100 2 clouds lasted 1MY release of methane reservoirs underground volcanoes gt hyperoxia and anoxia shift in ocean currents 3 3OMYA until recovery 4 TriasicJurrasic Extinction event 200MYA 1 least known 2 25 families 48 families mostly plants and dinosaurs left 3 Pangaea breaking into different continents due to volcanic eruptions gt CO2 gt global warming 5 CretaceousTertiary Extinction 60 MYA 1 killed non avian dinosaurs mammals and birds 2 half of all genera 75 of species 3 asteroid winter volcanic eruption in winter 6 Today 1 99 of species that have ever existed are extinct 2 faster than KT extinction diven by rising CO2 habitat destruction invasive species overharvesting What was the Oxygen Catastrophe and what caused it 25BYA Paleoprotozoic era rise of photosynthetic bacteria cyanobacteria anaerobic oxidized iron in ocean O2 seeped into air little competition continued polluting atmosphere broke down methane gt global freezing species that survived adapted to oxygenrich env Understand the meaningsignificance of autogenesis endosymbiosis horizontal gene transfer How did these contribute to the evolution of eukaryotic cells Understand the differences between the basic methods used to date fossils and of what use each type is considering the age and type of fossil you have to work with What is meant by half life Which isotopes are best for dating relatively recent fossils Which are most commonly used to date extremely ancient ones relative dating based on composition of sediment absolute dating radiometric Carbon dating relatively recent Otzi UranianLead dating fossils close to igneous rocks 1M4SB years Amino Acid Racemizaton relatively recent thousands of years L form to D form Other isotopes smaller HL 3 39 0 J Nu sodium24 gt magncswmZl 13 hour half life dam recent samp39es 0 5 Fc iron59 gt cobalt59 45 day half life 0 Co cobalt60 gt nickel60 53 year half life 0 Sr strontium90 gt yttrium90 and then into stable zirconium90 28 year half life 0 235U uranium235 gt thorium23 710 million your half lifc 14C carbonl4 gt nitrogenl4 5730 year half life 0 87Rb rubidium87 gt strontium87 47 billion your half life longer HL dating old samples ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg 10 When did the continents begin to drift apart When were they fully separated Of what significance is this in terms of biological evolution Understand the connection between continental drift and climateclimate change started drifting 200MYA fully separated fossils of nearly identical animals in South America and Africa plant fossils in Arctic Know the meaningsignificance of solstice equinox March 21 Sep 21 angle of incidence of solar radiation 235o tilt of earth s axis gt annual changes in solar inundation gt seasons in NS hem tropics between the Tropic of Cancer 235 N and the Tropic of Capricorn 235 S highest annual input of solar energy only place on earth that the sun ever shines directly overhead on the equinoxes March 21 and September 21 subtropics betw Tropic of Cancer amp 30 N in N Hem Tropic of Capricorn amp 30 S in S Hem temperate regions betw 30 N60 N in the N Hem 30 S60 S in S Hem polar regions above 60 NS Understand the idea of spontaneous generation How did the experimentsdiscoveries of Francesco Redi Anton van Leeuwenhoek Lazzaro Spallazani and Louis Pasteur affect39s people39s acceptance of this idea What was the significance of Stanley Miller and Harold Urey39s apparatus and experiment What did they find Understand the meaningsignificance of stromatolite Greenhouse Effect vs Global Warming oxidizing atmosphere and what generated it coacervate protobiont subduction zone area where edge of 1 plate being forced under edge of another oceanic trenches seafloor spreading area where volcanic activity causes ocean floor to split ridges plate tectonics mass extinction Cambrian explosion 54OMYA fossil record shows mast array of org All living phyla had evolved by the end Scientists not sure why Know the criteria that must be met for a something to be considered ALIVE made up of cells obtain use energy grow and develop reproduce respond to adapt to environment ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg 11 V Systematics and Taxonomy Know how to read a basic phylogenetic tree the branching diagram representing evolutionary history of a particular lineage of organisms so that you can see the difference between anagenesis entire pop change and cladogenesis branching event Know the reasons scientific classifications are useful Aid to memory aid to prediction aid to explaining evolutionary relationships provide a stable relatively unchanging system of internationally recognizable names Know the subtle difference between taxonomy classifying organisms and systematics determining ev relationships Know the significance of the work of Carl Linne aka Linnaeus What are the basic rules of Systema naturae What is the significance of the ICBN ICZN What are the most basic rules governing naming of species Comissionscodes independent of one another taxon only bears 1 correct name no 2 specgenera win one code may have the same name sometimes overlap betw sys names must be latinized w consistent gender accepted name based on publication priority For plant families and animal superfamilies name of FSF must be based on that of a type genus first genus ever described Know the meaningsignificance of taxonomy alpha taxonomy the describing and naming of speciesl beta taxonomy arranging species into a system of higher classification genus through Kingdom and Domain gamma taxonomy study of the biological aspects of species such as intraspecific variation and the actual mechanisms of speciation taxon category rank common ancestor outgroup parsimony sister taxa clade cladogenesis analogous vs homologous characters homoplasy see page 540541 of your text primitive plesiomorphic vs derived apomorphic characters symplesiomorphy vs synapomorphy and what the significanceuse of these are in constructing phylogenies outgroup ingroup Know the classification hierarchy Domain Kingdom Phylum etc and what is meant by the quotmost inclusivequot and quotleast inclusivequot groups Know how to read a phylogenetic tree and what the various aspects of the tree endpoints branch points etc represent Understand the differences between cladistics used almost exclusively by modern systematists only quantifiable feature of evolution is cladogenesis branching from common anc all taxa must be monophyletic all ev relationships must be measured in terms of recency of common descent the rank of a taxon is automatically determined by the age of common ancestor ZOE FROMER EXAM STUDY GUIDE pg 12 phenetics organisms classified on basis of overall similarity classical evolutionary taxonomy common ancestry and speciation investigator bias Know how to read and understand a cladogram a phylogenetic tree constructed using cladistic techniques Know what is meant by parsimony fewest steps and be able to recognize a most parsimonious phylogenetic tree from among a selection of several different phylogenies Understand the role of horizontal gene transfer in evolution see pages 552553 of your text Consider the link to the UCMP site on Cladistics to be assigned reading The lab manual chapter on Systematics and Taxonomy is also a good study guide for this section ZOE FROMER EXTRA MATERIAL STUDY GUIDE p 1 Note from Krempels THE TEX TBOOK CHAPTERS FOR ALL THE ANIMAL ANATOMYAND FUNCTION SHOULD BE CONSIDERED REQUIRED READING WE HAVE INSUFFICIENT TIME TO COVER THESE DETAILS IN LECTURE SO THIS IS SOMETHING FOR WHICH YOU MUST TAKE RESPONSIBILITY TO READ AND LEARN ON YOUR OWN ECDYSOZOA Recall the major planes of animal body symmetry and the types of animal body symmetry radial symmetry bilateral symmetry Know the common names and important characteristics organ systems natural history etc of each of the following taxa Also know what characteristics are unique to each group What links them to their related taxa and what sets them apart Onychophora Velvet Worms segmented give birth to live young capture pray w mucous spray Tardigrada Waterbears segmented coelomates paired clawed appendages on each segment aquatic can survive extreme conditions undergo suspended animation Anthropoda JointLegged Animals typical protostome coelomate development at least 1 pair of lateral compound eyes Each ommatidium photoreceptor cell 1 pixel in vision external skeleton of chitin sometimes fortified by calcium carbonate in marine forms internal external metamerism segmentation fusion of body segments into functional units tagmosis head thorax abdomen coelom reduced to gonocoel main body cavity reduced to hemocoel w open circulatory system both char shared w mollusks nervous system ventral like annelids muscles striatedarranged in segmented bands linking exoskel plates gt efficient mvmt Anthropod development metamorphosis complete metamorphosis larvae looks completely different from adult drastic metamorphosis advantage resource partitioning different predator search images ex butterfly simple metamorphosis parents care for babies by brooding egg encapsulation young have same form as adult but smaller ex milkweed bug silverfish ZOE FROMER EXTRA MATERIAL STUDY GUIDE p 2 mixed metamorphosis zygotes encapsulated by eggs watch as larvae w SOMEWHAT diff form from adult ex dragonfly egg gt nymph gt adult Know the major groups of arthropods we covered in class and their general characteristics Trilobytes all extinct present in shallow waters of paleozoic oceans 250 MYA pronounced segmentation appendages all similar PRIMITIVE CONDITION later anthropoid evaluaten gt tagmosis specialization of appendages Chelicerata united by molecular similarity and presence of chelicerae modified jaws Xiphosura Horshoe Crabs compound eyes in flexible carapace walk along ocean bottom on jointed legs feed on worms small prey 4 extant spec most common is Horseshoe Crab Arachnida Spiders Scorpions Mites Ticks tagmosis gt cephalothorax headthorax fused and abdomen 4 pairs of walking legs attached to thorax 1 pair of chelicerae often modified into fangs 1 pair of pedipalps for sensing feeling Pycnogonida Sea Spiders Myrapodia Chilopoda Centipedes 1 pair of walking legs per segment head as 1 pair of antennae 3 pairs of modified appendages mouth parts body dorsoventrally flattened terrestrial carnivores predators Diplopoda Miipedes 2 pairs of walking legs per segment bodyisround entirely herbivorous detritivorous earliest of fully terrestrial animals Hexapoda Insects vast diversity 350K spec of beetles body head thorax abdomen 3 pairs of walking legs on thorax segment modified appendages on head gt mandibles mouthparts Crustacea possibly polyphyletic body cephalothorax abdomen Cirripedia barnacles ZOE FROMER EXTRA MATERIAL STUDY GUIDE p 3 Copepoda think Plankton from Spongebob May be planktonic benthic or wet terestrial Malacostraca shrimp crab lobsters Study the major insect groups we discussed in class and know which ones are the most primitive most derived etc Zoe s note don t see any insect groups in the lecture notes Study the structure and function of the insect compound eye and understand the general importance of insect vision as it applies to pollination and how flowers attract pollinators compound eye mosaic image excellent at detecting motion predators or prey can see or different colors than us draws them to center of flower for pollination Know the meaningsignificance of pseudocoelom body cavity in diploblastic animals occupies space betw mesoderm and endoderm internal body cavity lined w mesoderm only on parietal surface coelom main body cavity contains digestive tract and other organs lined w mesoderm on parietal and ventral surface metamerism segmentation of body parts tagmosis fusion of segments open vs closed circulatory system hypothetical ancestral mollusk HAM and insects have open circ sys of hemocoel filled w hemolymph we have a close circ sys a An open circulatory system b A closed circulatory system i 1quot in 39 interstitial uid Small branch quot39 quot vessels in each organ Dorsa Auxiliary d y i J vesse hearts main heart 7 l r riilill39fquotWWW 7 Tubular heart Ventral vessels Hemolymph in sinuses surrounding organs ecdysis and the terms related to arthropod metamorphosis molting of chitinous cuticle anthropod becomes inactive for a period of time while the old exoskeleton separates from un old cuticle exoskeleton called exuviae protostome deuterostome see exam III study guide pg 9 ZOE FROMER EXTRA MATERIAL STUDY GUIDE p 4 ARCHAEPLASTIDA PLANTS Know the synapomorphies and symplesiomorphies that link and separate the members of the algal and land plant taxa Symplesiomorphies w algae shared primitive char heteropmorphy alt of gen may be found in highly derived green algae multicellular gametangia may be found in highly derived green algae true tissues may be found in highly derived green algae Synaphomorphies w algae derived char that set land plants apart from algae heterogamous having unlike gametes isogamy physically indistinguishable gametes similar in shape and size only different in allele expression in 1 matingtype regions heterogamy physically distinguishable gametes oogamy special case ovum large immotile sperm small motile waxy cuticle found on leaves other struc wo woody periderm conservation of water enables more efficient gas exchange defense against pathogens bacteria virusfungi stomates pore in the epidermis of leaves controls gas exchange meristems plant stem cells tip of each shoot and root embryonic development inside of mother s archegonium secondary metabolites such as alkaloids terpenes tannins phenols flavonoids metabolic functions and determent of herbivores pests Other characteristics shared w green algae specifically Charales and Choleochates sporopollenin component of outer walls of plant spores and pollen grains ligninlike compounds in cell walls of green algae male and female sex organs antheridium oogonium in brittleworts Charales Choleochate microscopic algae form colonies and are considered closest living relative to land plants Other characteristics shared w red algae chlorophylls a and b carotenoids as accessory photosynthetic pigments doublemembraned chloroplasts storage of energy as starch w in chloroplasts cell walls composed of cellulose and pectin Know the meaning of thallus undifferentiated vegetative tissue of algae liverworts lichens kelp have structures analogous to the differentiated struc of plants Think of the brown stuff that washes up on the shore on Florida beaches cellulose primary component of CW of green plants and some algae lignin complex polymer in secondary cell wall of plants some algae component of wood Plant considered herbaceous if it doesn t produce wood remains pliable organs tissues since bryophytes lack xylem phloem they don t have true organs ZOE FROMER EXTRA MATERIAL STUDY GUIDE p 5 Know the course of events in a generalized alternation of generations and what is meant by the following terms sporophyte diploid multicellular develops from zygote undergoes meiosis sporophyll leaf that bears sporangia dots llltosls sporangium enclosure that forms spores from meiosis zy 2quot O spore unit of asexual reproduction easily widely dispersed usually haploid unicellular megaspore germinates into female gametophyte 0 Game n microspore germinates into male 00 O gametophyte O G 39 O quot33921quot 8 r lm m altos gametophyte haplond multicellular produces gametes by mitosis Fl Haptoid n archegonium female reproductive struc L J mph 2quot antheridium male reproductive struc gametes haploid zygote diploid product of fusion of gametes undergo mitosis gt sporophyte double fertilization unique to flowering plants The 2 haploid sperm produced via mitosis enter the ovule One fuses w ovum gt zygote Other fuses w both polar nuclei gt 3n endosperm nourishes embryo flesh in corn kernel flesh of pea Know the meaningsignificance ploidy of the terms below What do each of these look like in the various plant taxa we studied Which things are homologous to which across the taxa 2n diploid n haploid sporophyte gametophyte sporophyll amp mega or micro spore amp mega or micro sporangium archegonium ovum antheridium sperm zygote Know the meaningsignificance of dioecious species have distinct male and female individuals colonies monoecious species do not have distinct male and female individuals colonies strobilus quotconequot as in pine cone whorl of sporophylls around a stem not a flower ZOE FROMER EXTRA MATERIAL STUDY GUIDE p 6 PLANTAE KFlEMPELS IMPORTANT NOTE You MUST read the textbook chapters on plants to fully understand this material Much of what I said in class is not written in the webbased notes on our web site but is repeated in the textbook You are responsible for it Zoe s note this page has almost everything in this section Know the meaningsignificance of Iignin sporopollenin waxy cuticle stomates secondary compounds see last section endomycorhizzae fungal hyphae penetrate root cells apical meristems growth increases plant length covered by root cap primary growth lateral meristems growth increases plant girth secondary growth xylem conveys water from roots to shoots phloem conveys organic nut from where they are made to where they are needed What are the synapomorphies and symplesiomorphies that link and separate the major plant taxa Know the general defining characteristics of the Bryophytes versus the Tracheophytes and each smaller group within them Which are most closely related to each other Bryophytes nonvascular characteristics lack xylem and phloem and thus true organs very thin waxy cuticle stomates fixed in open position release flagellated sperm primitive directly into env gt need H20 for reprod Ex liverworts mosses Tracheophytes vascular Characteristics most that you see are sporophytes of vascular plants gametophyte stage is tiny lingin structural support allows for greater turgor pressure thick waxy cuticle fully functional stomates highly differentiated tissues organs Categorization Seedless Lycopodiophyta Club mosses most primitive seedless plants Pteriodiophyta ferns and horsetails 11k spec 2nd in diversity only to flowering plants young leaves emerge as fiddleheads Seedbearing Spermatopsida gymnosperms Cycadophyta short squattylooking sago palms Ginkgophyta ginkgos ZOE FROMER EXTRA MATERIAL STUDY GUIDE p 7 Coniferophyta conifers bear seeds in cones strobili Gnetophyta weirdlooking gnetophytes angiosperms Anthophyta flowering plants flowers for pollination fruit for seed dispersal Structure function basic anatomy of the three organs of plants refer to notes text roots stems leaves anchors vascular plants alternating system of nodes main photosynthetic organ where leaves are attached and absorbs minerals water stores internodes spaces betw blade and petiole stalk nutrients growth concentrated in apical monocot and dicot vein patterns taproot long main root that bud near shoot differ plunges into soil axillary buds can form lateral modified leaves tendrils spines lateral roots help to anchor branches thorns flowers storage leaves onion layers plant nutrient absorption root reproductive leaves hairs gt A surface area gt modified stems can be mistaken A nut absorp for roots rhizomes stolons tubers trichomesspikes mod stems Know the basic parts of a flower and which parts are male and female Know what is meant by double fertilization known only in angiosperms DOUBLEFERTILIZATION The 2 haploid sperm produced via mitosis enter the ovule One fuses w ovum gt zygote Other fuses w both polar nuclei gt 3n endosperm nourishes embryo flesh in corn kernel flesh of pea ZOE FROMER EXTRA MATERIAL STUDY GUIDE p 8 Know the various types functions of plant cells and tissues simple tissues made of only one type of cell such as parenchyma abundant in ground tissue thin walled metabolically active collenchyma narrow elongated thin primary walls some secondary thickening struc support esp in areas of new growth nonlingified sclerenchyma Thick lignified secondary walls often die at maturity Main structural suppon complex tissues made of more than one type of cell dermal protective covering vascular transport of materials throughout plant structural support xylem conducts water dissolved minerals phloem conducts water and dissolved organics ground all tissue that is not dermal or vascular consists of cell types mentioned M Know the meaningsignificance of epidermis singlelayered group of cells that covers roots leaves stems of plants protects against water loss boundary betw plant amp external environment in roots water enters thru epidermis cortex outermost layer of stem or root bounded by outer epidermis and inner endodermis usually made of large thinwalled parenchyma cells pith spongy parenchyma tissue in stems of vascular plants nutrient storage encircled by ring of xylem which is encircled by ring of phloem vascular tissue complex conducting tissue found in vascular plants ex xylem and phloem stele central part of root or stem containing tissues derived from procambium includes pith vascular tissue vascular cambium cylinder of undifferentiated meristem cells located betw xylem phloem in stems roots of vascular plants generates rings of xylem found in dicots and gymnosperms but NOT in monocots cork cambium gives rise to bark replaces epidermis annual ring shows growth of 1 year springwood part of annual ring characterized by compact thinwalled cells formed during first part of growing season summerwood part of annual ring characterized by compact thickwalled cells formed during second part of growing season ZOE FROMER EXTRA MATERIAL STUDY GUIDE p 9 heartwood interior cells usually no longer actively dividing transporting water amp minerals generally a darker shade than sapwood sapwood exterior newest layers of secondary xylem still transport xylem sap generally lighter shade bark includes all tissues external to vascular cambium secondary phloem produced by vascular cambium gt most recent periderm all older layers of periderm ZOE FROMER EXTRA MATERIAL STUDY GUIDE p 10 CRANIATES Know the taxonomic and common names of the major vertebrate groups we studied in class as well as their defining characteristics Myxini Hyperotriti hagfishes bottomfeeding eellike Partial cranium no skull not true vertebrates 3 hearts no jaw but mouth w toothlike structures to tear into dead dying fish Direct development no larval stage Skeleton composed of cartilage lacking bone Vertebrata PetromyzondidaHyperoartia Iampreys circular mouthparts w teeth to latch onto prey Gnathostomata jawed vertebrates anterior pharyngeal gill slits gt jaws Posterior pharangeal slits gt respiratory structures Complex camera eye see exam II study guide Chondrichthyes cartilaginous fishes sharks skates rays skeleton composed entirely of cartilage bone secondarily lost must keep swimming to keep water over gills placoid dermal scales cover skin form replaceable teeth reproduction oviparous lay eggs that hatch outside mother s body ovoviviparous brooding eggs that hatch w in mother s body gt release young viviparous young develop win uterus inside mother s body nourished prior to birth w placenta Actinopferigii rayfinned fishes most diverse numerous of vertebrates 3OK species ectothermal poikilotherms skin covered w dermal scales that protrude thru epidermis and are shed skin sullied w mucous glands fins made of cartilage or bone may be medial unpaired lateral paired toothy terminal mouth gill arches covered by bony operculum swim bladder derived from digestive tract provides buoyancy twochambered heart small differentiated brain Sarcopferigii lobefinned fishes and tetrapods Amphibia salamanders frogs caecilians Gymnophiona Caecilians Caudata Salamanders and Newts Salientia Frogs and Toads ReptiliomorphaAmniota reptiles birds dinosaurs mammals Anapsida no temporal opening behind eye orbits turtles Synapsida single temporal opening behind eye orbits mammals Diapsida 2 temporal openings behind eye orbits reptiles scales derived from epidermis of tough scaly skin dermal chromatophores gt skin pattern color ZOE FROMER EXTRA MATERIAL STUDY GUIDE p 11 internal fertilization no bladder kidney uterers empty into cloaca excrete waste as uric acid higher blood pressure welldeveloped lungs gt A activity outside of water powerfully muscled jaws Avian BIRD ONLY synapomorphies homeothermic endotherms saurischian pelvis 4chambered heart airspaces in hollow bones reduce weight bills beaks sex determination via female parent ZZ long flexible neck or ZW Mammals hair derivative of integument may be specialized to form horns antlersO lntegumentary glands sweat eccrine apocrine scent sebaceous mammary Know the major tissue and organ systems of the vertebrates their components function and structure review on your own will not write down here pretty selfexplanatory Know the meaningsignificance of synapsid anapsid diapsid see last section swim bladder derived from digestive tract provides buoyancy air sacs ectotherm endotherm poikilotherm homeotherm see page 16 dental formula mammalian epidermaldermal system and its derivatives Know the parts of the amniotic egg and the evolutionary significance of the amniotic egg What parts of the mammalian placenta are homologous to which amniotic egg structures Extraembryonic membranes Early Mammalian r A Embryo lanceta Cho on Ammo Allantous Yolk sac amnion allantois Yolk amnionic Mm umwlallmrd Embryo nutrients md chorion Amniotic cav y with amniotic fluid yolk sac fetus Shell Albumin 00qu 0 P041911 onaocn h pubisth as Beqamm Curran uterine wall lt gt egg shell allantois lt gt umbilical cord waste exchange ZOE FROMER EXTRA MATERIAL STUDY GUIDE p 12 What characteristics set each of the vertebrate groups apart from the other vertebrates see page 1011 What are the three main groups of mammals in terms of reproductive mode and what are the characters that distinguish them Monotremes egg laying mammals platypus and echidna Marsupials pouched mammals marsupials Eutherians placental mammals Which taxa form a clade with primates Check out wwwtolweborg to be sure you understand the relationships of the mammals Anthropoids humans chimps gorillas orangutans gibbons oldnew world monkeys Prosimians lemurs lorises pottos tarsiers ZOE FROMER EXTRA MATERIAL STUDY GUIDE p 13 INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY Know the meaningsignificance of species similar org able to interbreed under natural conditions gt fertile viable offspring population all members of a single spec living in a defined location community all pops living in a defined location ecosystem the community and its abiotic factors biosphere all earth s ecosystems considered collectively biotic living organisms vs abiotic nonliving light temp water nutrients topography etc Understand the scope of the various levels of ecological study global ecology study of the effects of regional change sin energy and matter exchange on the function distribution of organisms across the biosphere landscape ecology study of energy amp matter inc organisms exchanges betw ecosys ecosystem ecology study of changes in the community in response to changes in abiotic components of the ecosystem community ecology study of how interactions between species symbioses affect community structure organization population ecology study of how factors affect pop growthstruc over time organismal ecology study of physiological evolutionary and behavioral mechanisms used by indiv org to meet ecological challenges Understand the significance and importance of abiotic ecological factors and how they affect ecosystem structure Temperature contributes to soil erosioncreation affects ev of temp tolerance in living org think ectoendotherm poikilo homeotherm Water contributes to soil erosion creation major component of organism habitats natural selection driven by lack of water in terrestrial env lack of solutes in fresh water Sunlight intensity daily duration angle of incidence seasonal changes competition for sunlight gt nat sel photoperiodicity circadian rhythms Wind contributes to erosion affets percieved temp via convection evap evap cooling affects desiccation rate growth form of plants All above culminate to create Climate Determines flora Rocks soil topography creates habitat pH mineral content of rock affects flora composition substrate composition affects quality of water in contact w substrate ZOE FROMER EXTRA MATERIAL STUDY GUIDE p 14 eluvium geological deposits derived in sifu in the same place by weathering gravitational mvmt wind accumulation alluvium soil sediments deposited by river other running water Know what is found in the different soil horizons 0 organic detritus Atopsoil B subsoil C parent material bedrock Know the meaningsignificance of solar irradiance sunlight that actually strikes the earth s surface when it is directly overhead peaks around 540nm green Climate Regions Area Location Characteristics Tropics between the Tropic of Cancer 235 highest annual input of solar energy N and Tropic of Capricorn 235 S sun shines directly overhead on equinoxes Mar 21 Sep 21 Subtropics N hem TOCan 30 N Miami win subtropics S hem TOCap 30 S Temperate Regions N hem 30 N 60 N S hem 30 S 60 S Polar Regions N hem above 60 N S hem above 60 8 Understand why the tilt of earth s axis generates seasons and how those differ between northern and southern hemispheres Earth tilted 235 on axis gt seasonal changes in solar inundation in hemispheres June Solstice N hemisphere towards sun 8 hemisphere away December solstice N hemisphere away from sun 8 hemisphere towards March and September Equinoxes equator faces sun directly Understand the general pattern of global air circulation and how that contributes to biome formation Descending dry air Descending dry air absorbs g absorbs moisture i moisture in 3 t l R I l r 39 39 o l t t I 300 2350 0 2350 300 Temperate Tropics Temperate zone I I zone a Air circulation and precipitation near the equator Cow110 Farm Salem Inc mewm as Mama Common ZOE FROMER EXTRA MATERIAL STUDY GUIDE p 15 Be familiar with the general features of the major terrestrial biomes and be able to recognize a list of organisms you d be likely to find in each one Arctic region N and S poles low biodiversity day length varies tremendously low animal diversity most photosynthetic org marine penguins antarctic seals whales walruses Tundra just 8 of polar regions in N hem arid permafrost small scrubby plants reindeer caribou owls bears wolves migratory birds Coniferous Boreal Forest Taiga S of arctic tundra mostly in N hem Tremendous snowfall in winter highly endangered by logging mostly coniferous evergreen trees Deer wolf bears foxes migratory birds squirrels rabbits A spec diversity than tundra Temperate Deciduous Forest found 8 of Taiga relatively A rainfall elevation but longer day length Mostly deciduous shedding trees Deer wolf bear foxes migratory birds squirrels rabbits Somewhat A spec div than taiga Prairie Temperate Grassland Distinct seasonal changes moderate rainfall rich soil Annual grasses and flowering plants some small trees For aquatic biomes know the meaningsignificance of photic zone light sufficient for photosynth vs aphotic zone light insufficient for photosynth littoral zone shallow inshore photic zone in freshwater ecosystems benthic zone bottom substrate in freshwater or marine ecosystems often rich in detritus abyssal zone Know what is meant by these kinds of lake systems be able to recognize an example of eacb oligotrophic deep nutrient poor very clear water eutrophic shallower nutrient rich very murky water think manmade lakes in Florida backyards mesotrophic in between the 2 classifications ZOE FROMER EXTRA MATERIAL STUDY GUIDE p 16 ORGANISMAL ECOLOGY Know the meaningsignificance of homeotherms vs poikilotherms homeotherms temp regulation result of balance betw heat from metabolic activity and heat loss from water evap poikilotherms internal body temp varies considerably endotherms vs ectotherms endotherms regulate body temp by metabolic means usually homeotherms ectotherms can t metabolically regulate body temp usually poikilotherms ex reptiles regulators vs conformers regulator use metabolic means to maintain homeostasis in response to env change vs conformer less able to metabolically maintain homeostasis governed primarily by external env usually poikilotherms ectotherms andaromous vs catadromous anadromous fish that migrate from salt to freshwater catadromous fish that migrate from freshwater to salt both maintain constant salt balance via renal systems REGULATORS evolutionary adaptation vs individual adaptation evolutionary adaptation change occurring over generations in physiology biochemistry morphology naturallyselected for confers advantage individual short term adaptation shortterm response by indiv in response to env change may be physiological morphological or behavioral acclimation vs acclimatization acclimation physiological biochemical anatomical change that occurs in idiv organism in manipulated situation acclimatization physiological biochemical anatomical change that occurs in indiv organism within the lifetime of org from chronic exposure to naturally occurring env chaHenge eury vs steno eury can tolerate wide range of a parameter steno cannot tolerate wide range of given parameter organisms ex euryhalines lampreys can tolerate freshwater or saltwater ex stenyhaline certain fish require specific salinities amp will otherwise die ex eurythermal tigers can live in jungle or tundra ex stenobathic benthiczone marine fish cannot tolerate shallower depths A LETHAL RANGE STILL EXISTS FOR EU RY ORGANISMS they can just tolerate a wider range than steno org Understand the concept of the ecological niche sum of a species use of biotic abiotic resources in its env as dictated by its ev adaptations everything a species is and does each species has its own niche but they may overlap or interact gt community ecology ZOE FROMER EXTRA MATERIAL STUDY GUIDE p 17 COMMUNITY ECOLOGY Know the meaningsignificance of the theoretical types of symbiosis recognize examples Hypotheses of community formation lndividualistic Hypothesis HA Gleason a chance assemblage of species found in the same area bc they happen to have similar biological requirements Interactive Hypothesis FE Clements an assemblage of closely linked species locked into mandatory assoc and biological interactions Community func as integrated unit Know the meaningsignificance of mimicry aposematism bright coloration to advertise that an organism is poisonous unpalatable crypsis subtle coloration to camouflage blend into env to avoid predation Batesian Mimicry harmless species mimics appearance of unpalatable poisonous spec takes advantage of search image of unpalatability Mullerian Mimicry two equally noxious spec evolve to look similar reinforces search image of unpalatability poisonous harmful if ingested eaten vs venomous must be injected into bloodstream snakes spiders Know the meaningsignificance of herbivory eating only plants parasite parasite benefits at expense of host parasitoid uses host for most of life cycle but ends up sterilizing or killing host host organism that houses parasite or commensalistic mutualistic organism endoparasite lives inside host tapeworm fluke etc ectoparasite lives outside host lamprey tick flea etc intermediate host harbors parasite for larval transitional period ex snails for liver flukes definitive host harbors parasite for adult period ex specific mammal for liver flukes pathogen coevolution Know how to apply the concepts of species diversity species richness and relative abundance of species in an ecosystem Understand the meaning of trophic levels primary producer primary secondary etc consumers food chain food web Food Chain Length Hypotheses Energetic Hypothesis inefficiency of energy transf betw trophic levels limits chain length Dynamic Stability Hypothesis longer food chains less stable than shorter ones Know the meaningsignificance of and be able to recognize examples of dominant species most numerous highest total biomass in community gt strong influence on community structure dynamics Ex sugar maples better at competing for limited resources or better at avoiding predation pathogens ZOE FROMER EXTRA MATERIAL STUDY GUIDE p 18 keystone species strong influence on community by means of ecological role ex Pisaster starfish and mussels foundation species ecosystem engineer Ex beavers causes drastic alterations to habitat gt affects community structure diversity ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Understand the meaningsignificancecharacteristics of energy flow Second Law of Thermodynamics energy FLOWS through ecosystems captured by autotrophs gt flows toward entropy matter recycling in ecosystems Law of Conservation of Mass matter is continually RECYCLED through ecosystems Gross Primary Production GPP vs Net Primary Production NPP GPP total primary productivity NPP GPP energy used for productivity biomass total dry weight of organisms in a given area Energy and Biomass pyramids Be able to calculate transfer efficiency productivity at level t productivity at level t 1 Recall the major features of a generalized biogeochemical cycles Carbon Cycle Water Cycle Nitrogen Cycle Phosphorus Cycle which is pretty much the same as any other mineral cycle POPULATION ECOLOGY Understand basic population dynamics births deaths immigration emigration Understand the concepts of density of individuals per unit area dispersion pattern of spacing among individuals clumped may indicate local abundance of food resources temporary mating swarms or social congregation A protection of herds flocks A efficiency of wolf lion hunts uniform may indicate infraspecific territoriality animals or allelopathy plants random individual s positions are independent of each other Understand basics of demography life tables survivorship curves cohort individuals of the same age s used to determine survivorship curves life tables survivorship curves type I low risk of death early in life increasing w advanced age ex large mammals type II constant risk of death throughout life ex birds ZOE FROMER EXTRA MATERIAL STUDY GUIDE p 19 type III high risk of death early in life long life expectancy once maturity is reached ex small mammals flowers infant mortality life expectancy Understand the differences between population growth arithmetic pop increases by same amount over each time interval looks like exponential geometric increase rapid reflecting max intrinsic rate of growth looks like J logistic exponential growth incorporating env resistance carrying capacity K Understand the concepts of intrinsic rate of increase r carrying capacity K What life history strategies are typical of rselected and Kselected species rselected usually at low pop density early sexual maturity short generation time increased fecundity unstable habitats where resources not a limiting factor Kselected usually at high pop density ability to reproduce w few resources and compete for these resources ability to use resources very efficiently stable habitats where pop size doesn t vary much once it has approached K few offspring high parental care What factors can limit populations Which factors are Density dependent any limited resource food mates water habitat Density independent sunlight rainfall temp any factor that influences all indiv regardless of pop size Note from Krempes REMEMBER you won 39t do well on the GRE DAlj MCAT or any other professional entry exam unless you can not only remember all the facts but connect them apply them and solve problems with them These exams are just a tiny taste of things to come in your future If you study for ALL of your classes with this in mind you Will do much better and become a smarter Wiser person GOOD LUCK on all your finals and in all your courses to come
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