PSYCH 432 (Section 003) Final Exam Study Guide Exams are based on material presented in the text and material presented during class. Exams will consist have multiplechoice, shortanswer, and essay questions. ***Cumulative Exam Question*** *What is a clinical disorder? (no partial credit for this question) ● A cluster of symptoms with a specific onseIf you want to learn more check out the belief that the physical attributes of places can be analyzed and manipulated to improve the flow of cosmic energy that binds all living things is called:
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t, course, and duration. The symptoms must interfere with the individual’s ability to function. The symptoms must not be better accounted for by a general medical condition or other psychological disorder. Chapter 8: Conduct Problems *List three aggressive and three rulebreaking behaviors; Explain the value of this differentiation. ● Major categories: destruction of property, cruelty to animals, ● Aggressive: argues, destroys things, fights ● Rule breaking: breaks rules, lies, steals ● Page 184 *Compare a destructive covert act of behavior and an overt destructive one; List an example of each; Is either one more harmful than the other? Covert concealed, antisocial behaviors (ex: fire setting, stealing, truancy) Overt behaviors that are readily observed (ex: confrontational, physical aggression, temper tantrums) Covert is probably more seen as harmful *Differentiate among OD, CD, and ADD/HD. *Explain the difference between the legal and psychological concepts for disruptive behaviors (e.g., delinquency). Delinquency primarily a legal term used in the criminal justice system to describe youth who exhibit conduct problem/antisocial behavior Legal juvenile (under 18) who commits a crime Psychological irresponsible *List two of the main DSMIVTR symptoms for conduct disorder. Conduct disorder represents more seriously aggressive and antisocial behaviors. Criteria aggression, destruction, deceitfulness/theft, serious violations of rules *Indicate the diagnostic features of oppositional defiant disorder.Display at least 4 loses temper, easily annoyed/touchy, angry and resentful, argues with adults/authority figures, refuses to comply with or defies adult’s requests or does not follow rules, deliberately annoys others, blames others for own mistakes or bad behavior, spiteful/vindictive *Compare the behavioral differences between oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. The anger/aggression is shared in each definition, but for oppositional defiant disorder that is just one cluster of three for the disorder. Oppositional defiant disorder has 3 clusters angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, and vindictiveness *What are the four quadrants of antisocial behavior? Describe the four categories and the behaviors in each of these quadrants. ∙ CovertDestructive = Property Damage. (cruel to animals, vandalism, steals, fire setting, lies). ∙ OvertDestructive = Aggression. (assault, spiteful, cruel, blames others, fights, bullies). ∙ CovertNondestructive = Status Violations. (runaway, swears, breaks rules, truancy, substance abuse). ∙ OvertNondestructive = Oppositional Behavior. (annoys, temper, defies, argues, angry, stubborn, touchy). *Identify some of the characteristics of bullying; Explain ways someone might engage in bullying behavior. Bullying an imbalance of power and involves intentionally and repeatedly causing fear, distress, or harm to someone who has difficulty defending himself/herself. Tends to affect males more. Girls are exposed to subtle forms of bullying than open attacks. Bullys are typically highly aggressive, positive attitude towards violence, strong need to dominate others. *Discuss the major intervention/treatment strategies: pharmacological intervention, parent training, cognitive problemsolving skills training, functional family therapy, communitybased programs, multisystemic therapy, and prevention. Chapter 9: AttentionDeficit Hyperactivity Disorder A LOT OF QUESTIONS KNOW SUBTYPES QUESTION ABOUT DOPAMINE ADHD alone is associated with academic problems *Be familiar with DSM IVTR diagnostic criteria for ADHD (JB’s translation: be able to recognize the core symptoms of ADHD). Inattention: ∙ Makes careless mistakes in school or at work ∙ Seems to not listen when spoken to ∙ Fails to follow through on instructions, chores, ect∙ Has difficulty in organizing activities ∙ Is distracted by extraneous stimuli Hyperactivity: ∙ Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat ∙ Runs about inappropriately ∙ Talks excessively ∙ Has difficulty in waiting ones turn ∙ Interrupts or intrudes on others *Know the three subtypes of ADHD. ● Predominantly HyperactiveImpulsive Presentation ○ symptoms of hyperactivity and feel the need to move constantly ○ Problems with impulse control ○ may struggle to sit still in class and manage their behavior. ○ Easiest to see ● Predominantly Inattentive Presentation ○ have difficulty paying attention ○ they’re easily distracted but don’t have much trouble with impulsivity or hyperactivity ○ Sometimes referred to as attention deficit disorder (ADD) ○ May not be disruptive in class ○ Seem shy or daydreamy ● Combined Presentation ○ show significant problems with both hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention ○ Most common type of ADHD *Recognize some of the accompanying problems associated with ADHD (e.g., academic/learning issues, cognitive problems). Primary Inattention, Hyperactivity and impulsivity Secondary motor skills (clumsy, delay in motor dev), intelligence/academic achievement (lower in intelligence, learning disabilities), excessive functions (goals), adaptive behavior (immature), social behavior and relationships (not listening, shy, withdrawn, aggressive), peer and teacher relations (disliked), family relations, health/sleep/accidents (sleep difficulties, accidental injuries) *List two comorbid psychological disorders that can cooccur with ADHD. ● Depression and Bipolar disorder *Discuss possible genetic and neurobiological links identified with ADHD (e.g., hypofunctioning dopaminergic system). Chapter 10: Language and Learning DisabilitiesFEW QUESTIONS FROM 10 AND 11 *What is PL 94142 and IDEA? ● IDEA: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act is a law ensuring services to children with disabilities throughout the nation. IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services to eligible infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities. ● Public law 94142: Education for All Handicapped Children Act → schools lose funding if they don’t give kids with learning disabilities the right accommodations ● Preschool law is 99142 regards preschool aged kids *Be familiar with the three ways for identifying specific disabilities (e.g., IQachievement discrepancy, below average achievement, response to intervention). Learning Disabilities • Child performs below grade level in at least one academic area • Compare performance to same age peers on standardized tests child scores 2 SD below mean • Look for discrepancy between IQ and achievement (typically 2 SD ) • Response to Intervention (RTI) Definition *Be familiar with the three language disorders discussed in the chapter (e.g., phonological disorder, expressive language disorder, receptiveexpressive language disorder). Phonological disorder awareness & decoding; speech and sound; tends to remit by age 6 Expressive language disorder expressive easier to enhance than receptive Receptiveexpressive language disorder receptive usually dev first; expressive easier to enhance than receptive; chronic course *Be familiar with the three learning disabilities: reading (dyslexia), writing, and arithmetic. Current academic skills must be well below the average range of scores in culturally and linguistically appropriate tests of reading, writing, or mathematics. The individual’s difficulties must not be better explained by developmental, neurological, sensory (vision or hearing), or motor disorders and must significantly interfere with academic achievement, occupational performance, or activities of daily living. Dyslexia problem with reading or wordlanguage skills; phonological processing (sounding words out) useful Writing slow working Arithmetic no defining features in Dx *Define IEP and least restrictive environment (LRE). What is included in an IEP?● ON EXAM: An IEP is an individualized education plan that is developed to ensure that a child who has a disability identified under the law and is attending an elementary or secondary educational institution receives specialized instruction and related services. ● **GET MORE INFO** list requirements of what must be included in an IEP ○ short and long term goals, who is helping the child in the school setting; there is a page on blackboard with more information ● LRE? Kids with learning problems with kids withouth learning problems as much as possible. *Know benefits and concerns regarding inclusion. Chapter 11: Intellectual Disability *What is Rosa’s Law? ● 2010: adopted the change in terminology in federal law regarding intellectual disability ● no longer mental retardation → now intellectual disability *What three criteria must be met before a person can be diagnosed with ID. ● 3 major parts: IQ score 70 or below (average IQ score is 100, 3 standard deviations from normal), problems with adaptive behaviors, need to document the onset of the cluster of symptoms (onset must occur before the age of 18) *Know commonly recognized levels of ID (e.g., Mild, Moderate, Severe, Profound IQ range and be able to provide a brief description of functioning according to the Mild level). ● ON EXAM: IQ scores: ○ Mild 5070 ○ Moderate 3550 ○ Severe 2035 ○ Profound below 20 ● About 85% of all cases are mild disability *Know basic information regarding Down Syndrome and Fragile X. Basic infomation ● Down syndrome is associated with high rates of intellectual disability has genetic component. ● Fragile X is inheritable disorder. Chapter 12: Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Schizophrenia VERY FEW QUESTIONS *Define Autism Spectrum disorder ● Autism: ○ One of several pervasive developmental disorders ○ Characterized by impairments in: ■ Social interaction■ Communication ■ Behavior and interest ■ Table 121 ○ More prevalent in males (34x) ● Asperger’s Disorder: ● In DSM 4, autism and asperger’s were diagnosed separated into 3 categories. In the DSM 5, they are now diagnosed together into 1 category, which is Autism Spectrum disorder. *Know DSMV criteria for schizophrenia? ● A. Characteristic symptoms: two or more of the following, each present for a significant portion of time during a 1 month period: ○ Delusions ○ Hallucinations ○ Disorganized speech (example: frequent derailment or incoherence) ○ Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior ○ Negative symptoms (example: affective flattening, alogia or avolition) ● **Only one Criterion A symptom is required if delusions are bizarre or hallucinations consist of a voice keeping up a running commentary on the person's behavior or thoughts, or two or more voices conversing with each other.** ● B. Social/occupational dysfunction: ○ Since the onset of the disturbance: one or more area of functioning (i.e. work, interpersonal relations, or selfcare) must be marked below the level of achieved prior to the onset. ○ In a child/adolescent: failure to achieve the expected level of achievement in the same function as above. ● C. Duration: ○ Continuous signs of the disturbance persist for at least 6 months. This 6month period must include at least 1 month of symptoms that meet Criterion A. ○ A prodromal period is when some symptoms occur but not long enough for diagnosis. ● **Schizophrenia side notes: People with schizophrenia are more likely to harm themselves rather than others. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors are very common among people with schizophrenia; those who take their prescribed antipsychotic medications regularly are less likely than those that don’t. ** ● FACTS on Schizophrenia: ○ Very difficult to diagnose and very rare in youth/kids ~ about 1% of population ○ Hallucinations and delusions are common in children with schizophrenia ■ Auditory hallucinations are most common form of hallucination ■ Delusions occur in majority of children with schizophrenia ■ Hallucination and delusions become more elaborate with age ● Onset late 20mid 30 in males; may be more common in males ● Very uncommon to have first episode after age 45 ● Unknown cause; full recovery very uncommon ● Amgadalya ● Higher rates for twins ● ON EXAM: ○ Define/list differences in positive and negative symptoms ■ Positive symptoms (extra): “lose touch” with some aspects of reality; delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, catatonic behavior ■ Negative symptoms (reduction in function): flat affect, poverty of speed (alogia), lack of goal directed behavior (avolition) ● Imaginary friends do NOT count as a hallucination/delusion unless the imaginary friend interferes with functioning. *Differentiate hallucinations and delusions. ● Delusions are mostly false beliefs rooted in the mind that seem real, but are not; may include a theme. ● Hallucinations are sensorydriven incidents that involve hearing or seeing something that isn't reality based; i.e. sensory experiences may be seen, felt, heard, and even smelt or tasted. *Know the likely course of schizophrenia (e.g., insidious). What does insidious mean? ● Insidious means gradual. ● Likely course? ● Childhood onset forms are typically insidious with nonpsychotic symptoms appearing first. *Understand components of an assessment for schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. Possible essay question only need to know one ● Autism assessments: ○ Standardized checklists for autistic behaviors ■ CHAT ■ CARS ■ ADOS ○ Intellectual assessments ○ Adaptive behavior Assessment ○ Observations ○ Good history ● Schizophrenia assessments: ○ Good, historystructured clinical interview ○ Assessment of positive and negative symptoms ○ Observations ○ General interview ○ MRIs, brain scans, and medication reviews = medical clearance Final Exam Study Guide Part 2 Houston & Grych (2016)1. How does exposure to violence affect child and adolescent development? ∙ Research suggests that youths who have been exposed to violence are at increased risk for developing aggressive and antisocial behavior, as well as other negative psychosocial outcomes. 2. Why is it important to understand the ways in which protective factors influence child development and exposure to violence? ∙ It has critical implications for theory and for enhancing the effectiveness of prevention and intervention programs. One way protective factors could interrupt the mediating processes that lead to aggression. 3. To what extent does community violence affect children and adolescents’ health and development? ∙ Approximately 3050% of children are exposed to community violence in their lifetime and around 19% experience or view violence in the home. Therefore, these children and adolescents experience a higher risk of developing potential aggressive, antisocial, or attitudes/behavior in addition to other negative psychosocial effects. 4. How did the idea of secure working models (beliefs) contribute to the goal of the Houston & Grych study? ∙ This study focused on attachment security because the working models involved with secure attachment are believed to potentially negate the tendency for witnesses of aggression to interpret it as acceptable. Therefore, individuals with secure working models tend to perceive themselves and other community members with value and may be less likely to accept aggression as justifiable and normal. 5. How do relationships with caregivers, along with violent interactions, influence justifiability of aggression or violence? How does attachment theory influence this reasoning? ∙ Relationships with caregivers can significantly impact youths’ perceptions, beliefs, and expectations about personal relationships. According to attachment theory, reliable caregiving produces secure attachment and further promotes an influential foundation for children’s long term social and emotional development. ∙ Children with secure attachment to caregivers form beliefs, or working models, that others are trustworthy, valuable, and caring, which consequently molds their expectations for relationships with others, as well as positive perceptions of themselves. ∙ The secure working models also influence the development of empathy and concern for others, and create an expectation that these youths would see hurting others as unacceptable. Therefore, secure relationships with caregivers can potentially neutralize the negative effects of witnessing or experiencing community and personal violence.Rapport et al. (2009) 1. What advantage does the nascent working memory model have over other contemporary models? ∙ The nascent working memory model predicts that increased movement in children is a process that causes the arousal necessary for task performance. 2. What do the two contemporary theoretical models of ADHD focus on? ∙ The cognitiveenergetic model focuses exclusively on information processing and consequently contains no testable or falsifiable predictions concerning the role of activity level in ADHD. ∙ A second model views hyperactivity as incidental motor behavior that accompanies attention shifts away from nonnovel tasks or activities. 3. What is the significance of the Working Memory Model (WMM)? ∙ The working memory models make specific, testable predictions concerning the functional role of hyperactivity in children with ADHD. The model postulates that challenges to underlying working memory components create increased movement in all children. 4. What was the relationship of hyperactivity to conceptualizations of ADHD in research prior to the 1970s? ∙ Though the nomenclature surrounding ADHD has changed over the years, hyperactivity was considered the disorder dominant feature. 5. What resulted in the paradigm shift that occurred during the mid to late 70s regarding hyperactivity? ∙ Douglas’s (1972) study examining attentional difficulties in children with ADHD relative to children with specific learning disabilities and typically developing children. ∙ Hyperactivity was then demoted to a secondary role and excessive movement was no longer considered a necessary criterion for diagnosing the disorder and motor activity and impulsivity descriptors were grouped together based on factor analytic findings. 6. What is Baddeley’s (2007) model of working memory? ∙ Working memory is a multicomponent system consisting of two independent subsystems (phonological and visuospatial) that are each equipped with unique input processors, which buffer for a rehearsal mechanism. ∙ The domaingeneral central executive provides oversight and coordination of the two subsystems, reacts to changing attentional/multitask demands, and provides a link between working memory and longterm memory.∙ The distinct functioning of the two subsystems, their storage/rehearsal components, and the domaingeneral central executive are supported by extensive neuropsychological, neuroanatomical, neuroimaging, and factor analytic investigations. 7. What is an actigraph and why was it beneficial for the Rapport et al. (2009) study? ∙ An actigraph is an accelerationsensitive device that measures motor activity. Actigraphs have an estimated reliability range of .90 to .99, are moderately correlated with parent and teacher ratings of activity ratings, and have superior predictive validity relative to parent and teacher ratings of hyperactivity for differentiating among children with ADHD, typically developing children, and children with other psychological disorders.