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TEXAS STATE / Political Science / POSI 2310 / Why did jefferson and hamilton hate each other?

Why did jefferson and hamilton hate each other?

Why did jefferson and hamilton hate each other?


School: Texas State University
Department: Political Science
Course: Principles of American Government
Professor: Joshua quinn
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: political science and Federal Government Role
Cost: 50
Name: POSI final exam review
Description: American political science
Uploaded: 05/03/2017
18 Pages 266 Views 2 Unlocks

1. US Ch. 1:

Why did jefferson and hamilton hate each other?

a. Democracy vs. Republic

i. Democracy = direct democracy

ii. Republic = people rule through representatives; their  power is limited by rights

b. Constitutional democracy = a democracy with constitutional  limits; the current form of government of the United States 2. US Ch. 2: Constitutional Democracy

a. Before Independence

i. What type of government (unitary, federal, or confederal)?  Unitary – ruled by British crown

b. Declaration of Independence

i. John Locke’s Two Treatises of Government: inalienable  rights, consent of the governed, and the right of revolution c. Articles of Confederation

i. What type of government (unitary, federal, or confederal)?  Confederal

ii. What structure did the three branches have?

What was the nullification crisis in 1832-1837?

1. Executive = no independent executive

2. Judiciary = no federal judiciary

3. Legislature = one-house legislature, equally  

distributed between states

d. Constitutional Convention

i. Three debates. What are they?

1. Stronger federal government vs. weak federal  


2. Large states (Virginia plan) vs. small states (New  

Jersey plan). Virginia wanted two-house legislature –  

apportionment by population in both. New Jersey  

wanted one-house legislature with equal  

apportionment between states. Compromise was the  

‘Great Compromise’ – two houses, House with  

apportionment by population. Senate with equal  

What 1896 supreme court case created the separate but equal doctrine?

We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of “total war”?

apportionment between states

3. Slave states vs non-slave states. Result was three

fifths compromise

ii. Baron de Montesquieu’s The Spirit of the Laws: separation  of powers and checks and balances

iii. Federalists (for U.S. Constitution) vs. Anti-Federalists  (against U.S. Constitution) We also discuss several other topics like What are the economic variables of the development of russia?

1. What were the Federalist Papers? Expressed the  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the content of baddeley and hitch's model of working memory?

Federalist position. Who wrote them? Alexander  

Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay

e. The U.S. Constitution

i. Article 1: Congress

1. Structure? How are seats apportioned? Length of  term(s)?

a. Bicameral, 2 houses. 1 is based on pop; 1  

equal among states

2. Enumerated Powers

a. Ex. Power to tax; spending power; commerce  


3. Implied Powers

a. Implied powers, specifically the implied power  

to charter a national bank, were confirmed in  

the Supreme Court case McCulloch v.  

Maryland (1819)

b. Ex. Necessary and proper clause

ii. Article 2: Executive

1. How selected?

a. Electoral college

i. Senate plus house seats

2. Impeachment process?

a. House indicts; senate decides verdict (2/3  

majority to impeach the president) (guilty or  

not guilty)

iii. Article 3: Judiciary

1. How selected?

a. nominated by president – confirmed by senate  

b. Texas- elected by pop. vote

2. Judicial review was not established in the  If you want to learn more check out What is the blackbody in climate?

Constitution itself. It was established by the Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison (1803).

iv. Other articles that are important?

1. Amendment process, Article 5: two thirds of both  house of Congress to propose and three-fourths of  

state legislatures to ratify. Vote of two-thirds of state  legislatures can call a constitutional convention.

2. Any others?

a. Article 6: supremacy clause  

b. Article 4- full faith and credit clause

v. Bill of Rights

1. Ratified after the Constitution

2. 10th Amendment?

f. Evolution of the US Constitution

i. Jeffersonian Democracy

ii. Jacksonian Democracy

1. Party system & spoil system

iii. Progressives

1. Who are they?

a. FDR; Woodrow Wilson; Theodore Roosevelt

2. What did they do?

a. FDR drastically expanded the power of the  

federal government

3. US Ch. 3: Federalism

a. Types of Government

i. Unitary

1. Ex. England

ii. Federal

1. Sovereignty is divided by the state and fed  

government  We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of slum?

2. Ex. US constitution

iii. Confederal

1. Ex. Articles of Confederation  

b. Evolution of Federalism in America. Three eras:

i. Contesting Federalism

1. Jefferson vs. Hamilton on chartering a national bank

a. Implied power to create a national bank;  

necessary and proper clause  

2. What was the Nullification Crisis (1832-1837)?

a. South Carolina right to nullify a federal law

ii. Dual Federalism (analogous to a layer cake)

1. Responsibilities of Federal government and State are  clearly separated  

2. Federal government limited in ability to restrict  

business by U.S v. E.C. Knight Co. (1895), which  

restricted the breadth of the commerce clause to  

transportation and not manufacturing.

3. State government limited in ability to restrict  

business by Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific  

Railroad Co. (1886), which applied the 14th 

Amendment to corporations and established they  

had to be taxed equally compared to individuals.

4. The Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson

(1896) permitted segregation through establishing  If you want to learn more check out How did rock and roll influence society?

the standard of ‘separate but equal’

iii. Cooperative Federalism (analogous to a marble cake) 1. Federal government shares responsibilities with the  


2. Fiscal federalism

a. block grant- money could be spent as long as it

is within a certain area, more flexibility  

b. categorical grant- money can only be spent on  

a specific program

4. TX Ch. 2: Texas Constitution

a. History of Texas Constitutions

i. Current Texas Constitution, the Constitution of 1876, is a  reactionary document. It is a reaction against the  

Constitution of 1869 (the ‘carpetbagger’s constitution’) and what it exemplified.

b. Current Texas Constitution (Constitution of 1876)

i. Legislature

1. Structure? Length of term?

a. 2 house legislature; bicameral

2. Frequency of meeting?

a. Mets every 2 years

3. Wage?

a. $7,200 paid to legislatures  


ii. Executive (PLURAL)

1. Members? Method of selection?

a. All are elected except secretary of state

iii. Judiciary

1. Method of selection?

c. Amending Process

i. Amendments proposed by two-thirds majority in Texas  House and Texas Senate. Ratified by popular vote.

ii. Texas has not option for voter initiatives to propose  


iii. Voter turnout for amendment votes is low. Mainly because  the votes are scheduled for odd-numbered years.

d. Criticisms of Texas constitution

i. List four criticisms

1. Too long

2. To broad

3. To detailed  

1. Legislative Branch (US Ch. 11) – House and Senate

a. Congress in the Constitution

i. How long is a House Representative’s term? How long is a  Senator’s term?

1. House- 2 years; no term limits

2. Senator- 6 years; no term limits

b. Elections (the incumbency advantage)

i. House elections (districts) vs. Senate elections

1. Senator- entire state

2. House- districts

3. Who draws districts?

a. State legislature (so, by the party that has the  

majority in the state legislature)

4. What is reapportionment?

a. Every 10 years a new census occurs; the states

that have gained population gain seats. States  

that have lost population lose seats.  

ii. Why do incumbents win?

1. More campaign funding; Have more big donors;

2. Service strategy: serve the people in their district by  providing jobs, better roads, helping people in their  district.

a. What is pork-barrel spending? Spending that  

has a primary purpose of benefiting a congress

member district

3. Better administrative support, as a result of having a  government-supplied administrative staff as a  

Congress member

a. Name recognition  

4. Redistricting, specifically gerrymandering

i. What is gerrymandering? Redrawing the  

boundaries of districts for the purpose of  

helping the majority party in the state  

win the elections

c. Parties and Party Leadership

i. What are the main party leadership positions in Congress?  [there are around 10 positions]. How are they selected?  Which are the most powerful?

1. House  

a. Speaker of the House (2nd most powerful in the  

Fed govt/ most powerful in the House)

b. House Majority leader/ House Minority Leader

c. House Majority whip/ House Minority whip

2. Senate

a. Senate Majority Leader (Most powerful position  

in the Senate) / Senate Minority Leader

b. President of the Senate (Vice-president)  

i. They can cast a vote if a tie occurs

c. President Pro tempore  

d. Senate Majority Whip/ Senate Minority Whip

ii. Committee membership is decided by the parties. Factors  in this decision: seniority, relevance to district, work ethic,  expertise

d. How a Bill Becomes Law

i. Five stages:

1. Introduction

a. Bill can be introduced in the House or the  

Senate. Exception: tax bills can only be  

introduced in the House

b. Must be a senator or member of the House to  introduce a Bill

c. Bills can be written by: interest groups,  executive agencies, or congress members  2. Committee Action

a. Types of Committees (4)

i. Standing committee

1. They have legislative power

2. Have a jurisdiction. Bills that fall  

under this jurisdiction get sent to  

the committee after the bill is  

introduced in Congress

3. 20 standing in the House; 16 in the


ii. Select committee

1. No legislative role

2. Serve an oversight role/ advisory  


iii. Joint committee

1. Drawn from members of the House  

and the Senate

2. No legislative role

iv. Conference committee

1. Drawn from members of the House  

and the Senate.

2. When two versions of the same bill  

have passed through the House  

and Senate, a compromise bill  

must be written to eliminate these  

differences. A conference  

committee is established to write  

the compromise bill.

3. Temporary

3. Floor Action

a. Need simple majority on the House and Senate for a bill to get to the President. If the Bill its  vetoed by the President, it must receive a 2/3  vote to override the veto

b. House  

i. No filibuster because debate on the  

house is strictly regulated by the House  

Rules Committee  

1. House Rules Committee  

determines how long a debate can  

be, when a vote happens and if  

there can be amendments

c. Senate

i. Fewer rules. Debate can be unlimited.  

This is why they have filibusters

1. Filibuster- minority party blocks a  

bill by speaking continuously until  

the bill supporters give up  

2. How can you defeat it? Invoke  

cloture (ending debate); need a 3/5


d. Log-rolling = The reciprocal practice of trading  

votes. A common practice in Congress

4. Conference Action

a. Needed only if the versions of the bill passed in

the senate and the house do not match  

i. Conference Committee is formed to  

write a compromise bill. The compromise

bill be sent back to the House and Senate

to be voted on.  

5. Executive Action

a. Presidential approval is required for a bill to  

become law

b. President can veto a bill  

c. Pocket veto. If congress is in session and the  

president sits on a bill it become a law (10 days

must pass). If the congress is no longer in  

session, the bill dies. This is a pocket veto

e. Congress’s Multiple Roles

i. Lawmaking role

ii. Representation

iii. Oversight

2. Executive Branch (US Ch. 12)

a. The Presidency in the Constitution

i. How long is the President’s term? Are there term limits?   The 22nd 

 amendment (1951) established a two-term limit in 


1. President’s term is 4 years

2. Requirements to be a candidate for president

a. 35 years of age

b. Resident for at least 14 years

c. Natural born citizen  

3. Power of President

a. Chief Executive  

b. Commander in chief

c. Chief diplomat

d. Legislative leader

b. Development of the Modern Presidency

i. Presidents today are stronger than what framers expected  ii. Whig theory = weak presidency theory

1. President should only do what the constitution  

allows; constitution does not give the president a lot  of power

iii. Stewardship theory = strong presidency theory

1. President can do anything that the constitution does  not forbid  

c. Choosing the President (nomination process AND general  elections)

i. Nomination Process

1. Has changed over time. The people have become  more involved.

2. No, nomination occurs through a national convention  a. Delegates vote for nominee  

b. Primary elections decide how a state’s  

delegates vote

ii. General Election

1. Electoral college

2. Unit rule – whoever wins the majority vote in a state  gets all that state’s Electoral College votes; they go  as a unit;

a. Except Maine and Nebraska  

d. Staffing the Executive Branch: Presidential Appointments i. Executive office of the President  

1. Appointments do not need senate confirmation

2. Includes White House Chief of Staff

ii. Cabinet

1. Heads of the executive departments (Department of  State, etc.)

2. Does need senate confirmation  

iii. Other  

1. Director of the FBI

a. Needs senate confirmation  

 e. Factors in Presidential Power 

i. Stage of term

1. In which stage of a president’s term do they tend to  have the most power?

ii. Nature of problem (foreign or domestic?)

iii. Relations with Congress

1. Presidents have the most power over Congress when  their party controls Congress.

2. Congress’s power to limit executive authority:  

impeachment process (What is it?) AND pass  


iv. Public support

1. Measured by presidential approval ratings.

2. The condition of the economy has a big influence on  presidential approval ratings, even though presidents

have little control over the economy.

3. Judicial Branch (US Ch. 14)

a. The Judiciary in the Constitution

i. The constitution establishes the Supreme Court and leaves  it to congress to create the lower courts

ii. Federal judges are appointed by the president and  

confirmed by the senate

iii. Federal judges serve on good behavior (a lifetime  

appointment) and are only removed if they commit heinous crime  

iv. Judicial review – not in the Constitution, but from Supreme  Court case Marbury v. Madison (1803).

b. Structure of the Federal Judicial System (three tiers)

i. Supreme Court of the United States

1. 9 members: 1 chief justice and 8 associate justices

2. How do these courts operate? (Juries?)

a. No jury. Cases are decided by a vote of the 9  


b. Very few cases make it to the Supreme Court,  

most cases are resolved by the lower courts  

and even those that are appealed to the  

supreme court are denied by the Supreme  


3. Supreme Court decisions: DECISION vs OPINION

ii. U.S. Courts of Appeals (‘Circuit Courts’)

1. There are 13 Circuit Courts. Eleven are assigned to  

states or groups of states. One is assigned to the  

District of Columbia. One is reserved for appeals of a  

particular types of case: cases involving patents or  

international trades.

2. How do these courts operate? (Juries?)

a. 3 judge panel

i. Except in some important cases, where  

all the judges on the court will  

collectively decide a case “en banc”

iii. U.S. District Courts

1. There are 94 U.S. District Courts.

2. How do these courts operate? (Juries?)

a. They use juries, presided over by a single judge

c. How Appointments work in the federal judiciary

i. Supreme Court

1. Appointed by the president, confirmed by the senate

2. President is typically very involved in this process.

ii. Lower courts (District and Circuit courts)

1. President delegates the decision to the Deputy  

Attorney General.  

2. Senatorial courtesy- if there’s a vacancy in a district  court in a senator’s state and the senator is a  

member of the president’s party, that senator must  

be consulted in picking the new judge

d. The nature of Judicial decision-making

i. Legal Factors

1. Law and facts of the case

a. Law has three sources:

i. Constitution

ii. Statute

iii. Precedent  

ii. Political Factors

1. Internal factors

2. External factors  

a. Popular opinion

b. Interest groups

c. Members of government (especially Congress  

and the President)

e. Judicial approaches

i. Originalism vs. living constitution

1. Originalism- Constitution should be interpreted as a  

reasonable person would have interpreted it when it  

was written

2. Living constitution – constitution should be  

interpreted in light of changing circumstances  

ii. Judicial restraint vs. judicial activism

4. Public Opinion (US Ch. 6)

a. Political socialization

i. Political socialization = how individuals acquire their  

political opinions

ii. Socializing agents

1. Early childhood opinions are particularly important.  

Future opinions are filtered through them.

2. Primary socializing agents: family, school, church

3. Secondary socializing agents: peers, media, leaders, events  

b. Divisions in public opinion

i. Party identification = does not have to be formal  

membership. Rather, just loyalty or emotional attachment  to a party

ii. Political ideology = beliefs about the scope and limits of  government. Examples in America:

1. Economic conservative = free market should solve  

economic problems; government should be small and

not intervene

2. Economic liberal = accept redistribution and believe  

government should intervene in the market to help  

the poor

3. Social conservative = government should promote  

traditional values

4. Social liberal = government should leave lifestyle  

choices to the individual

5. Libertarian = economic conservative and social  


6. Populist = economic liberal and social conservative

iii. Group membership

1. Influential examples: race (black Americans strongly  support the Democratic party), religion: white  

Protestants tend to support Republican party; Jews  

tend to support the Democratic party

2. Less influential examples: gender, economic class,  


c. Measurement of public opinion

i. Polls

ii. Representative sample, typically a random sample

d. Influence of public opinion on policy KNOW THIS

5. Media (US Ch. 10)

a. Historical changes in the media (four main eras)

i. Partisan press era (1780s-1890s) – newspapers are  

intimately connected to political parties

ii. Yellow Journalism (1890s-1910s). Yellow journalism =  sensational or false reporting for the purpose of increasing  circulation

iii. Objective Journalism (1910s-1980s)

iv. The ‘New’ News (1980s on)- high media choice  


b. The influence of journalism in politics (four functions of the  media)

i. The media has four functions: (1) signaling (2) common carrier (3) watchdog (4) partisan KNOW THESE

c. The news audience today

i. Shrinking and fragmenting

ii. Information divide = people are reading the news less;  young people read the news even less than older people iii. Partisan divide = people who identify with different parties  read different news sources

6. Political Participation (US Ch. 7)

a. Participation through voting

i. History of voting rights (suffrage)

1. Voting rights are typically set by the states

2. Founding era: men with property (mainly whites)

3. Property qualifications disappear by mid-1800s

4. 15th Amendment (1870) gives black Americans the  

vote nationally. In practice, this right is obstructed in  

the South – until the Voting Rights Act of 1965

5. 19th Amendment (1920) gives women the vote  


6. 26th Amendment (1971) set voting age nationwide at  18

ii. Voter turnout

1. US voter turnout is lower than comparable countries.  Maxes out at around 60% voter turnout in  

Presidential elections

2. Poor and uneducated citizens are least likely to vote

3. Reasons for voter turnout: frequency of elections,  

scheduling of elections (weekdays rather than  

weekends), voter registration (US voter registration is

the responsibility of individuals, rather than  


b. Electoral participation other than voting

i. Campaigning (formal or informal), participation via the  internet, community participation

c. Unconventional forms of political participation (protests and  social movements)

i. Tea Party = opposed high taxes; participated in elections –  supporting conservative Republicans against moderate  

Republicans. What is the name of Tea Party politicians in  the House? House Freedom Caucus

ii. Occupy Wall Street = targeted wealth inequality, especially the super rich; protest camps – did not participate in  

electoral system; clashes with policy damaged popularity 7. Political Parties (US Ch. 8)

a. History of US Parties

i. Three main eras

1. First Parties (1790s-1810s) – Federalists vs.  


2. Jacksonian era (1820s-1850s) – Democratic

Republicans vs. themselves and the Whig Party

3. Current era (1860s)- Republicans and Democrats

ii. What is a party realignment? [KNOW THIS – NOT  


iii. Four realignments in current era [KNOW ALL FOUR – WE  ARE ONLY REVIEWING LAST REALIGNMENT]

1. Today’s Party Alignment (since 1960s): Democratic  

Party loses the south over Vietnam War and civil  

rights. South becomes, over time, reliably  

Republican. Republicans have a slight dominance  

during this era.

b. Current Party System and Current Electoral System

i. Party system = two-party system, rather than a multiparty  (3+ parties) system

1. In a two-party system, parties seek to have moderate policies.

ii. Electoral system  

1. US has a single-member district (a.k.a. plurality)  

system = divide the country into constituencies.  

Each constituency gets one seat in the legislature.  

Party that wins plurality in the popular vote in that  

constituency gets the seat.  

2. Alternative electoral system, popular in Europe is  

proportional representation = share of seats in  

legislature equals the party’s share of the national  


iii. Party Coalitions

1. Party coalition = groups and interests that support a  


2. In a two-party system, parties want broad appeal so  

they try to build broad coalitions

iv. Third parties

1. Examples: Green Party, Libertarian, Progressives, Bull Moose

c. Party Organization (primaries and party structure)

i. Growth of primary elections has made parties weaker.  Elections are now often candidate-centered

ii. Party structure: national, state, local. No strict chain of  command between them.

d. Candidate-Centered Campaigns

i. Weak parties mean that campaigns, especially highly visible ones, are candidate centered

ii. Candidates need: money, consultants, votes

8. Interest Groups (US Ch. 9)

a. What is pluralism? KNOW THIS – NOT REVIEWING

b. The Interest-Group System (economic groups vs. non-economic  groups)

i. Economic Groups

1. Includes: business groups, labor groups, professional  groups

ii. Non-economic Groups

1. Represent a social group (NAACP), an ideology  

(American Conservative Union), or a single issue  


c. Inside Lobbying

i. Direct contact with lawmakers

ii. Operates through the provision of information, rather than  money (which would be bribery)

d. Outside Lobbying

i. Seeking influence through public pressure

ii. Two forms

1. Constituency advocacy (grassroots lobbying

2. Electoral action: Donate money to campaigns.  

Funneled through: (1) PACs (2) Super PACs. Super  

PACs enabled by Citizens United v. Federal Election  

Commission (2010). KNOW THE DISTINCTIVE  


e. Pros and Cons of the Interest-Group System

i. Con: Interest group system is not an equal playing field.  Economic groups, especially business groups, have much  

more influence than other groups

ii. Pro: The interest group system does assist in ensuring  

more groups get their voices heard.

iii. Pro: Radically restricting the interest group system would  probably require serious infringements on individual rights. Drastic changes are not likely

Texas Constitution (TX Ch. 2) 

1. Seven constitutions of Texas [KNOW THESE]

a. #7: Current constitution is the Constitution of 1876. This  constitution was a reaction against the centralization tendencies  of the Constitution of 1869

2. Description of the Current Texas Constitution

a. Bill of Rights

i. Similar to the US Bill of rights: secures freedom of speech,  freedom of religion, and the rights of the accused.

b. Legislature

i. Bicameral: House and Senate

ii. House has 2-year terms (150 members)

iii. Senate has 4-year staggered terms (31 members)

iv. Legislature must meet every two years. Sessions are 140  days in length. Special sessions (30 days) can only be  

called by governor.

c. Executive

i. Consists of six executive officers: (1) governor (2)  

lieutenant governor (3) comptroller (4) commissioner of  

general land office (5) attorney general (6) secretary of  


ii. Only secretary of state is NOT elected.

d. Judiciary

i. Two highest courts: Texas Supreme Court (civil cases) and  the Court of Criminal Appeals (criminal cases)

e. Amendment procedure

i. Two primary methods for modifying state constitutions: (1)  voter initiatives (2) proposals from legislature. Both must  

be ratified by voters

ii. Texas does NOT have voter initiatives

Texas Legislature (TX Ch. 3) 

1. Structure of the Texas legislature

a. Two-house legislature: House of Representatives and Senate.  House has 2-year terms and 150 members. Senate has 4-year  staggered terms and 31 members.

b. Salary is $7200, plus per diem and retirement benefits. And  support for staff

c. Constituents per Senate district =?. Constituents per House  district =?

2. Elections

a. Formal qualifications for House and Senate (KNOW THESE).  Informal qualifications = tend to be wealthy, mainly lawyers,  ethnically they tend to reflect their district

b. Electoral system = single-member plurality districts

c. Redistricting must meet two qualifications: (1) equity of  representation = roughly same number of people in each district  (2) minority representation can’t be weakened

3. Operation

a. Leadership positions

i. Speaker of the House = leads the Texas House. Perhaps the most figure in Texas government. Powerful because of  

ability to regulate debate in the house and through  

Committee assignments.

ii. Lieutenant-Governor = leads the Texas Senate. Influential  through managing debate and committee assignments.  

Powers are established through rules of the Senate – these  can be changed by the Senate.  

b. How a bill becomes law (six steps)

i. Introduction

ii. Committee Action

iii. Calendar Committee

1. Two tracks for scheduling bills: (1) minor bills, which  

are uncontroversial (2) major bills, where conflict is  

expected. Minor bills go to ‘Local and Consent  

Calendars’ committee. Major bills go to ‘Calendars’  


iv. Floor Action

1. In Texas Senate, before 60th day of session a simple  

majority is needed to bring a bill to the floor. After  

60th day, 2/3 vote is needed.

v. Conference Action

1. Only occurs when House and Senate versions of a bill

do not match. Serves to reconcile the two versions.

vi. Executive Action

1. Governor has veto. Can be overridden by two-thirds  

vote of legislature.

c. Sunset Advisory Committee [TEXTBOOK CONCEPTS – KNOW  THIS]

Texas Executive (TX Ch. 4) 

1. Parts of the executive

a. Consists of six executive officers: (1) governor (2) lieutenant  governor (3) comptroller (4) commissioner of general land office  (5) attorney general (6) secretary of state

b. All are elected EXCEPT the secretary of state. Secretary of State  is appointed by the Governor

c. Two important boards are also elected: Railroad Commission and  State Board of Education

2. Description of Texas governor

a. Formal qualifications [KNOW THESE]

b. Informal qualifications = experience in government, wealth,  c. Term of office: four years, no term limits

3. Powers of Texas governor

a. Legislative powers [strong – because of veto and line-item veto] b. Budgetary powers [weak – because the Texas budget is formed  by the Legislative Budget Board]

c. Power of appointment [weak – many positions are elected;  removal powers are limited – can only remove own appointees  and even this requires 2/3 vote of Senate]

d. Judicial powers [weak – governor can only stay executions 30  days]

e. Power over party [weak]

f. Informal powers [moderate – governor is the state official with  the highest visibility]

4. State agencies

a. Many are elected or appointed by someone other than the  governor

b. Many have a ‘board’ structure. Rather than single head [KNOW  THIS]

Texas Judiciary (TX Ch. 5) 

1. Introduction to Texas Judiciary

a. US has dual-court system. That means separate state and  federal courts.

2. Structure of Texas Judiciary

a. Texas has THREE levels of trial courts and TWO levels of  appellate courts [KNOW THE NAMES OF THESE COURTS, THEIR  JURISDICTIONS, AND THE ROUTES THAT APPEALS MUST TAKE] 3. Judicial selection

a. Methods of judicial selection used across the US

i. Partisan elections

ii. Nonpartisan elections

iii. Appointment by governor

iv. Appointment by legislature

v. Merit or Missouri system (KNOW THAT)

b. Judicial selection in Texas

i. Partisan elections. Exception: municipal judges

4. Removing judges

a. Impeachment

b. Texas Supreme Court can remove any judge.

Voting in Texas (TX Ch. 7) 

1. Current voter turnout in Texas

a. Voter turnout in Texas is lower than the national average across  the US (which is itself lower than the voter turnout in other  comparable countries)

2. History of voting restrictions in Texas

a. Poll taxes

i. 24th Amendment (1964) ended poll taxes in federal  

elections In 1966, the courts struck poll taxes down in state elections.

b. Property qualifications (in local elections in Texas, these  continued into the 1970s)

c. Women were excluded up until 19th amendment

d. White primaries [KNOW THESE]

3. Current factors in voter turnout

a. Voter registration. Must register 30 days before election b. Voter ID laws

c. Social and economic factors. Poor Americans vote less. Ethnic  groups vote at different rates [know this]

4. Political participation other than voting

a. Campaigning (formal and informal)

b. Donations

Elections in Texas (TX Ch. 8) 

1. Election regulations

a. Federal elections must be held in November of even-numbered  years. States tend to follow this schedule as well.  

2. Ballot access (three cases) [KNOW THESE]

a. Independents  

b. Minor parties

c. Major parties

3. Primaries

a. Texas uses open primaries

b. What are runoff primaries?

i. Occur when no individual achieves a majority of the vote in the original primary. A second primary is held between the  top two finishers.

4. Special elections

a. Elections that occur outside of November

b. Three cases:

i. Local elections

ii. Constitutional amendments

iii. Elections to fill vacancies

Political Parties in Texas (TX Ch. 9) 

1. Reasons for the weakness of parties nationally and in Texas a. Transition from labor-intensive politics to capital-intensive politics b. Establishment of secret voting

c. Progressive era changes [THREE CHANGES – KNOW THESE] i. Eliminated spoils system

ii. Established primary elections

2. History of Political parties in Texas (5 eras) [KNOW THOSE ERAS] 3. Party organization in Texas

a. Permanent Party organization [KNOW THESE]

i. Precinct chairs

ii. County Chair

iii. County executive committee

iv. State executive committee

v. State party chair

b. Temporary party organization

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