Final Exam Review Study Guide
Final Exam Review Study Guide BIO 100
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Thursday April 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 100 at Arizona State University taught by Hale and Holecheck in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 769 views.
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Date Created: 04/30/15
BIO 100 COURSE FINAL 1 Compare and contrast how positive and negative feedback are used to maintain homeostasis positive feedback childbirth body pushing baby out blood clots injured tissue releases chemicals that activate platelets in the blood These activated platelets release chemicals to activate more platelets negative feedback shivering body getting your body back to a regulated temperature blood glucose levels 2 Ectotherm v Endotherm ectotherm changes temp by the environment around lizards endotherm changes temp by environment within humans 3 Herbivores have long digestive systems omnivores in the middle carnivores short explanation breaking down plants take long cellulose is found in the cell wall which is harder to break down animal cells are easy to break down with no cell wall 4 Why do vegans have to be more careful about diet than vegetarians vegetarians therefore get calcium and protein from eggs and cheese and other products 5 Describe breathing inspirationexhalation positivenegative pressure diaphragm lower pressure when you exhale and diaphragm contracts opposite when you inhale 6 How do vaccines work dead pathogen injected body creates antigens to send antibodies and combat disease Still may experience minor symptoms 7 Disintegrins bind to a class of membrane receptors called integrins Platelets use integrin receptors to aggregate at a site of tissue damage What effect do you think disintegrin has on the snake s prey it would make the animal bleed out because the clot doesn39t form with no integren receptors This also paralyzes the receptors of the animal allowing venom to flow throughout 8 Anatomical designs that increase surface area are common in the body system Why is surface area maxamized nutrients can have increased surface area to be exchanged and be absorbed more easily ex alveoli in lungs villi in intestines wrinkles in the brain 9 Body s lines of defense first skin mucous membrane ear wax etc second leucocytes nonspecific that destroy and foreign pathogens before it causes harm third specific immune responses specific the presence of an antigen triggers the production of antibodies 10 Milk released in reaction of breast feeding also inhibit the pituitary gland from releasing hormones needed for ovulation What is the logical adaptive significant of his hormone feedback system focus on nurturing born baby rather than making new babies 11 Nervous system v endocrine system nervous nerve responses from the brain electrical synapsis are mechanisms for communicating from the brain to the rest of the body homeostasis and chemical messenger cells fast and not long lasting sends electrical action potentials along neurons endocrine hormone releases based on impulses homeostasis and chemical messenger cells slow and long lasting 12 In PKU a single reaction is blocked in normal metabolic pathway sequence and the amino acid cannot be converted to the next chemical step An essential amino acid builds in the body and high levels affect the nervous system and may lead to mental retardation What would be a logical treatment of this disorder regular injections to get rid of PKU buildup reduce intake of phen 13 Most logical evolutionary argument for adaptation to recognize small changes in facial muscles to quotread others mindsquot fight or flight recognizing family safe or enemy required for social interactions 14 Serious disease damages lungs and heart Why does a respiratory disease also effect the circulatory system running increases circulation need to breathe means need to increase circulation lungs are diseased hard to breath heart beats faster 15 Where is blood produced in the body bone marrow 16 How do you measure BMR how much energy you burn to survive age weight gender activity level body fat percentage temperature lean muscle respiration rate take in food and oxygen burn with heat and give off C02 and water 17 Herbivorous insects and many medicines are connected by what line of logical reasoning plants produce chemical poisons to prevent herbivorous animals from eating them we can harness the chemical poisons and use them as advantageous diseasekilling medicines for us 18 morning after pill works because tricks endometrium with high levels of progesterone so that implantation cannot occur 19 some athletes use quotblood dopingquot adding additional red blood cells to the blood to achieve greater athleticism this increases capacity for oxygen in the blood 20 All cells from a single cell and all these descended cells have identical genetic instructions During growth however some cells become hair follicles some stomach lining some nerves etc How is this possible specialization allows for certain genes to be turned on and off epigenetics Cellular differentiation almost never involves a change in the DNA sequence itself Thus different cells can have very different physical characteristics despite the same genome 21 Ice age Humans wen from Aisa to NA in 1015000 years and large mammals and birds became extinct One hypothesis is that humans killed these animals into extinction What also may have happened ice age killed plants they ate famine disease different environment 22 Two populations of field mice surrounded by high mountains and divided by a small stream Once species is brown other is dark brown Appear on both sides but they do not mate What is the best hypothesis geographic separation 23 Caloric values for each gram of muscle fat and carbs proteins 4 fat 9 carbs 4 alcohol 7
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