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OU / Psychology / PSY 2603 / How can unusual levels of exposure in preganancy affect later behavior

How can unusual levels of exposure in preganancy affect later behavior

How can unusual levels of exposure in preganancy affect later behavior


School: University of Oklahoma
Department: Psychology
Course: Lifespan Development
Professor: Caroline kraft
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: lifespan development, friendship, Gender, and Education
Cost: 50
Name: Lifespan Development Final Exam Study Guide
Description: This study guide includes the information covered in lectures that should be included on the final exam.
Uploaded: 05/03/2017
19 Pages 180 Views 6 Unlocks

Lifespan Development

How can unusual levels of exposure in preganancy affect later behaviors of child?

Final Exam Study Guide

Gender Development 

• Sex vs. gender

o Sex: anatomy of reproductive system

▪ Male

▪ Female

▪ Intersex: irregular inner or outer characteristics of reproductive  


o Gender: male vs. female characteristics

▪ Masculinity vs. femininity

▪ More socially or culturally oriented  

▪ Biological influences

• Estrogen 

o Produced mostly in ovaries of females

How do women get androgen sensitivity?

o Also produced in testes of males

o Estradiol: main estrogen  

• Androgen 

o Produced in adrenal glands and testes of males

o Produced in adrenal glands of females

o Testosterone: main androgen, found at higher  

concentration in men If you want to learn more check out What is meant by business promotion?

• Prenatal hormone exposure 

o Unusual levels of exposure in pregnancy can affect later  

behaviors of child

o Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

▪ Higher level of exposure to testosterone in the  

womb???? development of more masculine  

What si the expected role of women in the society?

character traits in females

o Androgen insensitivity

▪ Development of more feminine traits in males  

due to a lack of sensitivity to androgens, or  

greater estrogen exposure in the womb

▪ Evolutionary Psychology If you want to learn more check out What are the 4 components of personality?

• Adaptations in evolution of humans???? psychological diff b/w  males and females

o Different roles in sexual reproduction

▪ Males: compete for mates

• Competitive, violence, risk-taking

• Short-term strategies

▪ Females: select mates

• Long-term strategies We also discuss several other topics like What si the common view about political participation?

• Parenting and security of resources for  

family and offspring are important  

• Criticisms

o This is a very animalistic view of society and people

▪ Social Role Theory: psychological diff b/w males and females result  from contrasting roles in society

• Leads to expectation of what men/women should be like/do or  are able to do

• Women (expected role in society)

o Less power, status, and control over resources

o Domestic work

o More cooperative  

o Less dominant

o More nurturing

▪ Social Cognitive Theory: gender development occurs through  observation and imitation/rewards & punishments for gender  appropriate/inappropriate behavior

• Reinforced by parents, teachers, and peersIf you want to learn more check out What refers to the smallest distance by which two objects are separated and can still be distinguished?

▪ Parenting

• Parents are more sensitive to girls

o Communicate differently to boys/girls Don't forget about the age old question of What refers to the events that transpired before the invention of writing?

• Provide diff environments for boys/girls We also discuss several other topics like How are people interpreting the questions being asked?

o Colors and styles of clothes/rooms

o Toys

• Respond differently to gender non-conforming behaviors o Boys typically receive a tougher/more negative  

response, especially from their father

• Socialization strategies

o Mother’s socialization strategies 

▪ Socialize daughters to be more responsible,  

obedient, and have less autonomy

o Father’s socialization strategies 

▪ Pay more attention to sons than daughters on  


▪ Engage in more activities with sons

▪ Peers

• Same-sex friendship groups are common in childhood o Can lead to more negative responses to gender non conforming behavior

▪ Teachers

• Boys are more likely to be considered problematic/disruptive • More attentive/devote more time to boys when they have  questions

• Boys more encouraged than girls in math/science

• Girls more encouraged in verbal/art subjects

▪ Gender Schema Theory (cognitive psychology)

• Children develop schemas of what is considered gender  appropriate/inappropriate in culture

o Schema: network of cognitive associations that guide  perception

o Gender schema (world is organized into male/female) ▪ Masculinity & Femininity

• Male???? instrumental 

• Female???? expressiveness 

• Androgynous????high in both instrumental and expressive  qualities  

▪ Differences in Cognitive Ability

• Gender similarities hypothesis: men and women are more alike  than different

o Women score slightly higher on verbal tasks

o Men score slightly higher on spatial tasks

o Differences measured at 9-10 months of age

• Reasons 

o Adaptations (evolution)

o Gender role socialization

o Interaction w/ teachers, parents, etc.

▪ Stereotype threat  

▪ Differences in Emotion, Empathy, & Helping

• Women 

o Express sadness and anxiety

o ^ Amygdala response to neg. stimuli

o Judged more harshly for expressing anger

o More likely to help if personal safety is not at risk

• Men 

o Express anger and anxiety

o ^ Amygdala response to pos. stimuli

o Judged more harshly for expressing sadness

o More likely to help in dangerous situations/when  

feeling competent

▪ Adolescence

• Gender intensification hypothesis: psychological & behavioral  

differences b/w boys and girls is > in adolescence due to ^  

pressure to conform to traditional gender roles

▪ Aging

• Decrease in femininity and masculinity w/ age

o Especially for men

▪ Ex: more likely to help around house

▪ Gender Role vs. Stereotype

• Gender roles: set of expectations for how men/women should  

think, act, and feel

• Gender stereotypes: broad, unspecific attributions of  

characteristics applied to all members of a gender

▪ Aggression: behavior meant to harm another person

• Overt: direct physical/verbal harm

o More association w/ boys

• Relational: behavior meant to harm friendships and/or social  

standing of another person

o Gossip, rumors, etc.

o More association w/ girls


• Moral development

o Changes in thoughts, feelings, and behavior based on standards of  right/wrong over a lifespan

o Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development 

▪ Heteronomous Morality (4-7 years old)

• Justice and rules are unchangeable/above the control of people

• Rightness of actions depends on the outcome of actions, not  intentions

• Immanent justice: breaking rules always results in punishment  o Even when not seen by others

o Bad things happen as a result of bad actions

▪ Autonomous Morality (10+ years)

• Rules/laws are made by man

• Consequences and intentions are foundation of judgment b/w  right & wrong

• Rules are based on convenience and can be changed

• Punishment is not inevitable (will not always occur), even  when people witness the wrongdoing

o Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development 

▪ 6 universal stages, in 3 levels

• Preconventional Reasoning (Level 1): Rewards/ punishments  ???? morality  

o Heteronomous Morality (Stage 1): fear of punishment  

and desire for rewards drives moral decisions

o Instrumental Purpose & Exchange (Stage 2): right  

involves equal exchange

• Conventional Reasoning (Level 2): pleasing others???? morality o Mutual interpersonal expectations, interpersonal  

conformity (Stage 3): standards employed that are set  

by others (religion, government, parents, etc.)

o Social Systems Morality (Stage 4): understanding of  

social order, law, justice, and duty shape moral  


• Postconventional Reasoning (Level 3): morality transcends law o Social contract/utility & individual rights (Stage 5):  

values, rights, and principles transcend laws

o Universal Ethical Principles (Stage 6): universal  

human rights are the basis of moral standards

o Conscience > Laws

▪ Stages and Ages

• Stage 1 & 2 reasoning decreases w/ age

• Stage 3 reasoning is typical of adolescents

• Stage 4 reasoning appears after age 10, present in 62% of  adults age 36

• Stage 5 appears in 10% of adults age 22 (if it appears at all) ▪ Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory

• Too much emphasis of moral thought, not enough on moral  behavior

• Many don’t think through moral constraints when making  decisions (deliberative vs. automatic)

o People rely on their gut (Haidt, 2013)

• Emotion

o Kohlberg thought emotions negatively impact moral  


o They actually help moral reasoning

• Culturally biased

o Stages 1-4 found in all cultures

o Stages 5 & 6 not found in all cultures

o Higher level of multicultural experience???? ^open

mindedness, moral judgment, and growth mindset

• Emphasized importance of peers in moral development, but  families are also important

o Kohlberg: Morality & Religion 

▪ Natural Law Theory: universal/natural principles of justice that  guide all societies and are known to us by reason, independent of  specific religions or faith

▪ Divine Command Theory: any action commanded by God is morally  good. Morality comes from God alone.

o What fuels moral development? 

▪ Social interaction

▪ Social & personal experiences (moral questions & conflicts) o Prosocial behavior 

▪ Development

• Infancy (babies view characters who hinder/harm others more  neg.)

o As early as 4 months

• Age 2 (children offer assistance to strangers)  

• Innate sense of fairness contradicts Kohlberg & Piaget’s  

theories of moral development

• Children don’t share out of empathy/altruism for first 3 years  of life

o Damon (1988)

• Equality vs. Fairness 

o 3 year olds less likely to give more to poor than wealthy

o 5 year olds likely to give more to poor than wealthy

• Adolescence (more common than in childhood)

o Sympathy increased w/ cognitive development

o Girls have more altruistic behaviors than boys on  


o Aggression 

▪ Types

• Instrumental vs. Hostile 

o Instrumental (used to gain something)

o Hostile (angry temperament/behavior)

• Reactive vs. Proactive 

o Reactive (response to upset)

o Proactive (goal-oriented)

• Relational vs. Overt 

o Relational (directed toward person w/goal of  

damaging social life)

▪ Gossiping/rumors

▪ Exclusion

▪ Behind the scenes, not overt

o Overt: direct, often physical???? hurt someone

▪ Developmental Changes

• Toddlers vs. older kids 

o Physical???? verbal

• Preschool 

o More relational

• Older children & teens 

o Relational, increasing w/age and complexity of  


▪ Number of friends determines the severity  


▪ Peer Influence

• Deviancy training (kids????friends w/similar kids)

o Aggressive????friends w/aggressive people

• Peer status 

o Popularity (strategically using aggression)

o Being well-liked (nicest, not always pop.)

Peer & Friendship Relationships 

• Levels of Analysis

o Individual 

▪ Self report measures (“How much does ______ represent you?”) ▪ Peer nomination measures (“Who is the nicest in your grade?”)

o Dyad 

▪ Observational

▪ Interview

▪ Comparing self-reports

o Group 

▪ Peer nomination measures

▪ Network analysis (mapping out where peers fit in social circles)  • Sociometric status: Extent to which child is liked/disliked, noticed/unnoticed by  peer group

o Deciphers where child fits in social hierarchy

o Peer nomination measures???? determine  

o Five categories 

▪ Popular (liked by most, socially successful)

▪ Rejected (disliked by peers)

▪ Neglected (not disliked, but have little influence in social  


▪ Controversial (frequently nominated as best friend, often disliked) ▪ Average (both positive and negative nominations/attitudes from  peers)

o Behavioral correlates of peer status 

▪ Sociometrically popular kids

• Liked by most

• Good social skills

• Involvement in school and extracurriculars

• Prosocial behavior

▪ Sociometrically rejected kids

• Depression ^

• Aggression ^

• Impulsivity ^

• Emotional reactivity ^

• Avoidance of school activities

o Lower grades and attendance

• 10-20% are shy

• Most serious adjustment issues in comparison to other  categories

• Short-term consequences of Rejected status

o Loneliness

o Depression

o Anxiety

o Self-esteem <

o Social skills/competence <

▪ Peer-perceived popularity

• Characteristics  

o Instrumental (social power/influence involved) o More likely to engage in risky behaviors

▪ Sex, drugs, alcohol, etc.

o More aggressive

o Tend to be exclusive  

▪ Don’t allow others into friend group

o Often good-looking  

o Often wealthy

o Often good at sports/activities

o Highly influential (for good or bad)

• View by peers 

o Seen as influential, but not often liked

o Relationships full of conflict

• Gender differences 

o Popular boys = well-liked

o Popular girls = often highly disliked

• Peer Influence on Each Other

o Changes in conformity over time

▪ ^ Levels of conformity???? more desire for independence/individuality ▪ Antisocial conformity

• Being around peers who are mean???? ^Levels of meanness

• Friendship

o Functions 

▪ Companionship (someone to go through life with)

▪ Stimulation (someone to be active and involved with)

▪ Physical support (doing physical tasks together)

▪ Ego support (improved self-image/

▪ Social comparison (differences????improvement in tasks/traits  lacking)

▪ Intimacy/affection (closeness/ability to tell secrets/be yourself with  them)

o Childhood 

▪ Kids choose friends who are similar to them/like the same things they  do

o Adolescence 

▪ Loyalty is important and crucial

▪ Friends are a huge support system

• Most time spent w/them than family and others

▪ Co-rumination: replaying thoughts/memories in head over and over,  reinforced by friends

• Can lead to depression if memory/thought is negative and  

continually reinforced

o Adulthood 

▪ Social support outside of family


• Two Approaches of Education

o Constructivist Approach: students gain and construct knowledge w/guidance  from teacher and others

▪ Vygotsky  

o Direct Instruction Approach: teachers are the ones who set the standards, &  direct and control the classroom  

▪ Piaget would be against  

• Accountability

o No Child Left Behind (2002-15)

▪ Goal: allow everyone an equal opportunity in the classroom  

• States establish their own standards and objectives for  

students???? have state tests to measure whether students meet  

these standards

▪ Problems  

• Teachers are too focused on teaching information that may be  

on the test

o Limits student opportunities for critical thinking

• Different states have different criteria for passing/failing

• Underperforming schools penalized for underperformance

o Led to closing schools/converting to charter

o Firing of administrators

o Common Core 

▪ Standards that specify what students should know and skills they  should develop at each grade level

▪ Promoted by the federal government

▪ Not national policy???? would violate states’ rights to determine  


o Every Student Succeeds Act (2015)

▪ Allows states to decide what to do about underperforming schools

▪ States have more control over testing schedules

▪ Vague standards/solutions

• Early Childhood & Elementary Education

o Child-centered 

▪ Every kid has unique developmental pattern

▪ Hands-on experiences w/ people & materials are the best learning  tools for young children

▪ Play is very important to childhood development

o Montessori 

▪ Teacher is facilitator, not director

▪ Children have the freedom to engage in activities that interest them ▪ Goal???? children become “self-regulated problem solvers”  

• Educating Disadvantaged Children

o Head Start 

▪ Program for kids ages 3-5 to prepare them w/ skills they need for  school  

• Largest federally funded program of the sort

▪ 1 year in program???? better early reading, math, & vocab skills  • outcomes decreased by 1st grade

• Educating Children w/ Disabilities

o Boys are 3xs more likely to be diagnosed

o Common Diagnoses & Disorders 

▪ Dyslexia: difficulty in reading/spelling due to impairment

▪ Dyscalculia: difficulty in math computation

▪ ADHD: consistent characteristics of inattention, hyperactivity, &/or  impulsivity

• Diagnosis 

o Noticed by parents or teachers???? taken to health  


o Often over-diagnosed

• Causes 

o Not definitive

o Prenatal maternal stress, low birth weight ???? ^risk

o Alcohol/cigarette exposure???? ^risk

o Delayed development of frontal lobes (exec. functions)

o Delayed thickness of cerebral cortex (avg. is 7.5 years)

▪ ADHD person???? 10 years

o Neurotransmitters (dopamine & serotonin) may ^risk

• Treatment  

o Stimulants &/or behavior management treatment

▪ Autism Spectrum Disorders

• Boys are 5x more likely to be diagnosed

• Onset in first 3 years of life

• Causes 

o Mutations on 16th chromosome

o Abnormality in brain structure & neurotransmitters

o Lack of connectivity b/w brain regions

• Autism: severe issues w/ social interactions/communication,  repetitive behaviors, & sensory sensitivity

• Asperger’s Syndrome: milder form of autism  

o Good verbal communicative skills on average

o Mild deficit in non-verbal communication

o Restricted interests & relationships

o Repetitive routines & obsession w/ particular subject

• Developmental Challenges

o Elementary School 

▪ Cognitive changes (new obligations & responsibilities)

▪ Emotional changes

• Home???? school kid

• Negative feedback in school???? lower self esteem

▪ Social changes (new friendships & reference groups)

o Middle & High School 

▪ Puberty

▪ Social/emotional changes

• Decreased reliance on parents

• Larger, less personal atmosphere/structure

• More time w/ friends

• Most difficulties happen in transition years

o Top-dog phenomenon: going from the top of the food  

chain (8th grade) to bottom (9th grade)

o High School 

▪ Problems w/ secondary education

• Lack of counseling resources

• Lack of access to healthcare

• Passive approach to academics

• Many graduate unprepared for college courses/rigor

▪ Average dropout rate

• 11% for females, 13% for males

• Over 15% in low income/inner cities

o College Transition 

▪ Positive features

• More subjects to choose from (more diverse collection)

• True sense of independence

• More time with friends

▪ Negative features

• Major emphasis on achievement

• Feeling homesick

• Financial concerns

• Less personal structure

• Achievement

o Extrinsic vs Intrinsic Motivation 

▪ Extrinsic motivation: Doing something to attain something else ▪ Intrinsic motivation: doing something for its own sake

o Developmental Changes 

▪ Intrinsic motivation???? decline from elementary to high school

▪ Extrinsic motivation???? ^in 6th-7th grade

o Motivation 

▪ Mastery: focus on process rather than end result of achievement  ▪ Performance: focus on end result/success rather than process ▪ Learned helplessness: Attribute difficulties to lack of skill/ability • Self-fulfilling prophesy

o “I’m bad at this”???? does poorly ???? “I didn’t do well cause  

I am bad at this”

▪ Mindset: view people develop in seeing their own potential as either  fixed or capable of growth

o Should adolescents work part-time? 

▪ 80-90% do at some time during high school

▪ Advantages

• More financial stability

▪ Disadvantages

• Less school/extracurricular involvement

• Lower school attendance

• Less time to study/focus on school

• ^Likelihood to engage in risk-taking behaviors

o Work in Adulthood 

▪ Dual-career couples: both partners in the work force

▪ Recent changes

• Men are taking on more responsibility in the household

• Men are showing more interest in family/parenting

• Women taking on more responsibility in making money • But…

o Most families base decisions on man’s job/work  


▪ Unemployment

• Harmful to self-esteem

• Liked to physical problems

o Cardiovascular (stroke, hypertension, heart attack)

• Mental problems

• Substance abuse

• Marriage problems

• Stress

▪ Developmental changes in employment

• Peak employment = middle age

o More trusted due to more experience

o More clientel/loyal clients

o Strategic thinking

• 80% of people 40-59 are employed

• 32% of 65-69 employed in US

• 20% of 70-74 employed in US (especially women)

• Age-related discrimination 

o Not caught up with new technologies/slower w/them o More likely to get hurt or need workers’ compensation ▪ Retirement

• Full retirement: full time job???? full time leisure

• Partial retirement: career???? part-time/less serious job or other  activity

• Benefits of working past age 65 

o Better health

o Slower cognitive decline

▪ Post-Retirement

• Factors influencing happiness 

o Health

o Financial stability

o Social support system (family/friends)

o Interests outside of career

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