Sister chromatids --------. a. Are created when DNA is replicated b. Are attached at the centromere prior to division c. Are separated during mitosis. d. In the absence of mutation, have matching copies of the chromosome’s DNA e. All of the above The major enzyme involved in the process of transcription is ------. a. DNA polymerase Don't forget about the age old question of bus 230 ole miss
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b. RNA polymerase c. Reverse transcriptase d. Peptidyl transferase e. exoribonuclease A human cell containing 22 autosomes and a Y sex chromosome is -----. a. An egg b. A sperm c. A female somatic cell d. A male somatic cell e. A haploid germ cell f. A male zygote If a human somatic (body) cell is just about to divide, it has ------- chromatids. a. 92 b. 23 c. 46 d. 0 e. There is insufficient information to answer the question What is an allele? a. The precise location of a gene on a chromosome b. A structure that appears during prophase I and consists of two paired genes c. A unique molecular form of the same gene d. A short piece of chromatid that codes for a gene e. A cell with two chromosome setsSexual and asexual reproduction differ in that ---------. a. They both give rise to genetically distinct offspring b. Offspring obtain DNA from 2 parents in sexual reproduction but only 1 parent in asexual reproduction c. Only sexual reproduction requires meiosis to complete the reproductive cycle d. Asexual reproduction occurs only in unicellular organisms but sexual reproduction never does e. Only in sexual reproduction does a parent transmit all of its genes to its progeny The egg (ovum) of a rabbit contains 22 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are in the somatic (body) cells of the rabbit? a. 11 b. 22 c. 44 d. 88 e. 132 f. None of the above Which of the following statements about homologous chromosomes is correct? a. They are found in animal cells but not in plant cells b. They have genes for the same traits at the same loci c. They pair up in prophase of meiosis II d. They are found in haploid cells e. They are found in the cells of human females but not in human males What is the function of meiosis? a. To make exact copies of the parent cell b. To make one cell with twice the number of chromosomes as the parent pairs c. To make four cells with the same chromosome number as the parent d. To make cells with a haploid (half that of the parents) number of chromosomes e. None of the above Mechanism of cell reproduction in bacteria and archaea - binary fission Offspring obtain genetic material from two different parents - sexual reproduction Discrete unit of hereditary information - gene Image of all chromosomes arranged in pairs - karyotype The complete complement of an organism’s genetic material (ie DNA) - genome/genotype The synthesis phase of the cell cycle during which DNA is replicated - S phase The union of haploid gametes to form a diploid zygote - fertilization Chromosome pairs that possess genes for the same traits; one is paternal in origin, the other maternal - homologous chromosomeA new cold remedy was given to a group of 30 subjects who had common cold symptoms. Ten hours after taking the new remedy, 23 of the subjects reported that their symptoms had disappeared. From this information you conclude: a. That the remedy is effective for the treatment of colds b. Nothing, because the sample size is too small c. Nothing, because there is no control group for comparison d. That the new treatment is better than aspirin e. That the remedy is not effective for the treatment of colds Your grandmother tells you that freckles are caused by evil spirits. This does not qualify as a scientific explanation because: a. They hypothesis that evil spirits cause freckles has been disproven b. Evil spirits do not exists c. The hypothesis that evil spirits cause freckles cannot be falsified d. You can’t see evil spirits e. It has been proven that exposure to UV radiation causes freckles Enzymes -----------. a. Are very specific b. Act as catalysts c. Are organic molecules d. Have special shapes that control their activity e. B&C f. All of the above A scientist wants to test whether or not two types of fish food (a standard feed and a new product) work equally well at producing fishes of equal weight after a 1-month feeding program. The scientist has 2 large, identical aquaria (1 & 2) to put fish in and randomly assigns 50 fingerlings of equal weight to the two aquaria. After a month he weighs the fishes in both aquaria. Analyzing the data using a two-sample t-test he obtains a 2-tailed p-value of 0.038. What exactly does this mean? (Be specific) Choose either the “Devils’ gardens” or “starling behavior” paper we discussed and, on this one page, list for either study: a. The main hypothesis and null hypothesis b. The dependent variable(s) c. The independent variable(s) d. The main results of the study List the seven (7) fundamental properties of life discussed by Daniel Koshland in his essay, The Seven Pillars of Life. Describe four (4) of these properties using fewer than 3 sentences apiece.Which of the following is an example of polygenic inheritance? a. Pink flowers in snapdragons b. The ABO blood group in humans c. Hair color in humans d. White and purple flower color in peas e. Cystic fibrosis in humans Hydrangea plants of the same genotype are planted in a large flower garden. Some of the plants produce blue flowers and others pink flowers. This can be best explained by -------. a. Environmental factors such as soil pH b. The allele for blue hydrangea being completely dominant c. The alleles being codominant d. The fact that a mutation has occurred e. Acknowledging that multiple alleles are involved The ability to hear is dependent on two different genes ( gene “E” & gene “H” ). An individual must possess at least one dominant allele for each gene in order to hear. If the individual is homozygous recessive for either gene, that person will be deaf. Two individuals that are heterozygous for both genes get married. What proportion of their offspring will be deaf? a. None will be deaf b. ¾ c. 1/16 d. ½ e. 9/16 f. ¼ g. 7/16 h. All will be deaf According to modern evolutionary theory, ------- don’t evolve, ------ do. a. genotypes….. Phenotypes b. Species…...individuals c. Individuals….populations d. Small populations… large populations Catastrophism, meaning the regular occurrence of geological or meteorological disturbances (catastrophes), was cuvier’s attempt to explain the -------. a. Evolution b. The fossil record c. Uniformitarianism d. The origin of new species e. Natural selectionA gene pool consists of ------. a. All the alleles exposed to natural selection b. The total of all alleles present in a population c. The entire genome of a reproducing individual d. All the gametes in a population e. The fittest individuals of any population Pelvic bones in snakes and whales, along with wisdom teeth and the appendix in humans, are often cited as examples of ------. a. Comparative anatomy b. Fossils c. Acquired characteristics d. Vestigial structures e. Primitive genes f. Homologous structures During a study session about evolution, one of your fellow students remarks, “the giraffe stretched its neck while reaching for higher leaves; its offspring inherited longer necks as a result.” Which statement would you use to correct this student’s misconception? a. Characteristics acquired during an organism’s life are generally not passed on through genes. b. Spontaneous mutations can result in the appearance of new traits. c. Only favorable adaptations have survival value d. Disuse of an organ may lead to its eventual disappearance e. Overproduction of offspring leads to a struggle for survival. Who was the naturalist who synthesized a concept of natural selection independently of Darwin? A. Charles lyell B. Gregor mendel C. Alfred wallace D. John henslow E. Thomas malthus Both Darwin’s and Lamarck’s ideas regarding evolution suggest which of the following? a. All species were fixed at the time of creation b. Acquired physical characteristics can be inherited c. The giraffe’s long neck is the result of artificial selection d. The main mechanism of evolution is natural selection e. The interaction of organisms with their environment is important in the evolutionary processThe smallest biological unit that can evolve over time is --------. a. The DNA molecule b. The gene c. The cell d. An individual organism e. A population f. An ecosystem Natural selection is based on all of the following except ----. a. Variation exists within populations b. The fittest individuals tend to leave the most offspring c. There is differential reproductive success within populations d. Populations tend to produce more individuals than the environment can support e. Individuals must adapt to their environment Which of the following represents an idea Darwin took from the writings of Thomas Malthus? a. All species are fixed in the form in which they are created b. Populations tend to increase at a faster rate than their food supply c. Earth changed over the years through a series of catastrophic upheavals d. The environment is responsible for natural selection e. Earth is more than 10,000 years old In order for natural selection to occur -------. a. Genetic drift must be eliminated b. Heritable variations must exist in a population c. One variety must have a competitive advantage over others in a population d. Organisms must reproduce sexually e. All of the above f. More than one of the above g. None of the above Which of the following is NOT a possible source of new heritable types? a. Genetic drift b. Mutation c. Genetic recombination d. Natural selection e. All of the above f. More than one of the above g. None of the above “Mutations” and “evolution” are two terms that are sometimes confused. What is the relation between mutation and evolution?a. They are the same thing b. The only phenomenon involved in evolution is mutations c. Mutation is dependent upon evolution d. Mutation provides the variability that allows evolution to occur e. More than one of the above f. None of the above Which of the following was NOT a part of Darwin’s explanation of natural selection? a. Most organisms commonly produce more offspring than can possibly survive b. Mutation (a change in DNA structure) occurs spontaneously and gives rise to new variations c. Species consist of individuals that vary from one another d. Some traits confer a reproductive advantage and are passed along more frequently than others e. The environment plays an important role in natural selection During drought years on the Galapagos, small, easily eaten seeds become rare leaving only large, hardcased seeds that only birds with large beaks can eat. If a drought persists for several years, then what should one expect to result from natural selection? a. Small birds gaining larger beaks by exercising their mouth parts b. Small birds mutating their beak genes with the result than later-generation offspring have larger beaks c. Small birds anticipating a long drought so eating more to gain weight, therefore growing larger beaks d. More small-beaked birds dying than the larger-beaked birds. The offspring produced in subsequent generations have a higher percentage of birds with large beaks e. Larger birds eating less so smaller birds can survive Which definition of evolution would have been most foreign to Charles Darwin during his lifetime? a. A change in allele frequency in a gene pool through time b. Descent with modification c. The gradual change of a population’s heritable traits over generations d. Populations becoming better adapted to their environments over the course of generations e. The appearance of new varieties and new species with the passage of time Which of these conditions should completely prevent the occurrence of natural selection in a population over time? a. All variation between individuals is due only to environmental factors b. The environment is changing at a relatively slow rate c. The population size is large d. The population lives in a habitat where there are no competing species presente. Some traits have greater heritability than others In a Hardy-Weinberg population with two alleles, A and a, that are in equilibrium, the frequency of allele a is 0.1. What is the percentage of the population that is heterozygous for this allele? a. 90 b. 81 c. 49 d. 18 e. 10 In peas, a gene controls flower color such that R= purple and r= white. In an isolated pea patch, there are 36 purple-flowering plants and 64 white-flowering plants. Assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, what is the value of q for this population? a. 0.36 b. 0.60 c. 0.64 d. 0.75 e. 0.80 You are studying three populations of birds. Population 1 has ten birds, of which one is brown (a recessive trait) and nine are red. Population 2 has 10 birds. In that population, ten of the birds are brown. Population 3 has 30 birds, and three of them are brown. a. Population 1 b. Population 2 c. Population 3 d. They are all the same e. It is impossible to tell from the information given In which population is the frequency of the allele for brown feathers highest? D, they are all the same In which population would it be least likely that “an accident” would significantly alter the frequency of the brown allele? B, Population 2 Which population is most likely to be subject to the bottleneck effect? A, Population 1 A trend toward the decrease in the size of plants on the slopes of mountains as altitudes increase is an example of --------.a. A cline b. A bottleneck c. Relative fitness d. Genetic drift e. Geological variation In theory, the following mechanisms of population genetics are due to random events or chance except -----. a. Mutation b. The bottleneck effect c. The founder effect d. Natural selection e. Sexual recombination f. The random meeting of gametes The Darwinian fitness of an individual is measured by----. a. The number of its offspring that survive to reproduce b. The number of supergenes in the genotype c. The number of mates it attracts d. The physical strength e. How long it lives When we say that an individual organism has a greater fitness than another individual, we specifically mean that the organism -------. a. Lives longer than others of its species b. Competes for resources more successfully than others of its species c. Mates more frequently than others of its species d. Utilizes resources more efficiently than other species occupying similar niches e. Leaves more viable, fertile, offspring than others of its species Which of the following statements about the genetic basis of evolution is correct? a. All marathon runners possess good genes for running because they are so physically fit b. Exercise can have a beneficial effect on an individual’s genes c. Any physical alterations made to a person’s body during their lifetime will not affect their genetic makeup d. Cutting the tails of mice for 100 generations and allowing inbreeding will result in a population of mice with genes coding for shorter tails e. All of the above are correct Fossil evidence indicates that horses had gradually increased in size over geologic time this may be the result of -------. a. Random selectionb. Directional selection c. Stabilizing selection d. disruptive/diversifying selection e. Genetic drift Cow breeders have improved the quality and quantity of milk produced by dairy cows over the years by which process? a. Artificial selection b. Directional selection c. Stabilizing selection d. A and B e. A and C In the wild, male house finches (Carpodus mexicanus) vary considerably in the amount of red pigmentation in their head and throat feathers, with colors ranging from pale yellow to bright red. These colors come from carotenoid pigments that are found in the birds’ diets; no vertebrates are known to synthesize carotenoid pigments. Thus, the brighter red the male’s feathers are, the more successful he has been at acquiring the red carotenoid pigment by his food-gathering efforts (all other factors being equal). During breeding season, one should expect female house finches to prefer to mate with males with the brightest red feathers. Which of the following is true of this situation? a. Alleles that promote more efficient acquisition of carotenoid-containing foods by males should increase over the course of generations b. Alleles that promote more efficient deposition of carotenoid-containing foods by males should increase over the course of generations c. There should be directional selection for bright red feathers in males d. B and C e. All of the above f. None of the above Which of the following terms appropriately apply to the situation described in the previous question? a. Sexual selection b. Mate choice c. Intersexual selection d. All of the above e. B and C f. None of the above The situation as described in the paragraph above should select most directly against males that a. Are unable to distinguish food items that are red from those of other colorsb. Are older, but still healthy c. Are capable of defending only moderately sized territories d. Have slightly lower levels of testosterone during breeding season than have other males e. Have no prior experience courting female house finches Sparrows with average-sized wings survive severe storms better than those with longer or shorter wings, illustrating --------. a. The bottleneck effect b. Frequency-dependent selection c. Stabilizing selection d. Neutral variation e. Genetic drift f. Disruptive selection The common house fly belongs to all of the following taxa. Assuming you had access to textbooks or other scientific literature, knowing which of the following should provide you with the greatest amount of detailed information about this specific organism? a. Order Diptera b. Family Muscidae c. Genus Musca d. Class hexapoda Generally, within a lineage, the largest number of shared derived characters should be found among two organisms that are members of the same a. Kingdom b. Class c. Domain d. Family e. order If gorillas and pandas belong to the same class, then they must also belong to the same -----. a. Order b. Phylum c. Family d. Genus e. Species The typical explanation for the persistence of the sickle-cell allele in the human population is -----. a. Stabilizing selection b. Neutral variation c. Genetic drift d. Heterozygote advantagee. Frequency-dependent selection Which of the following are reasons why natural selection cannot fashion perfect organisms? a. Selection can only act on existing variations b. Genetic drift randomly adds new genotypes c. Adaptations are often compromises d. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium always keep multiple genotypes, hence phenotypes, in the population e. More than one of the above f. All of the above Which kingdom has been replaced with two domains? a. Plantae b. Fungi c. Monera d. Archaea e. Protista Genetic variation that appears to confer no selective advantage or disadvantage is called ------. a. Genetic drift b. Gene flow c. Neutral variation d. Balanced diploidy A dichotomous phylogenetic trees that suggests classification based on evolutionary relatedness is called a ------------. a. Genetic lineage b. Balanced polymorphism c. Cladogram d. Scala naturae (ladder of life) e. frequency-dependent tree Small, independently replicating circles of bacterial DNA sometimes containing antibiotic resistance genes A distinct morphological difference between males and females in secondary sexual characteristics Scientific discipline concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life Idea that the physical and geological processes operating on Earth today are essentially similar and reproduction in a specific environmentStructural, functional, or behavioral feature that increases an individual’s chances of survival and reproduction in a specific environment Contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation, relative to contributions of other individuals of the same species A heritable change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA, ultimately creating genetic diversity The incorrect idea that an individual’s traits are determined solely by that individual’s genotype The extent to which variability in a phenotypic trait is associated with variability in genotype There are two alleles for a flower color gene. If the frequency of the CR allele is 50%, what are the frequencies of the CRCR, CRCW, and CWCW genotypes? Why are most traits not discrete, in other words, why are most traits not simply “either or” traits? What determines whether or not a given variation of a characteristic will be adaptive? According to Nesse and Williams, what are the two most common misconceptions associated with the phrase, “survival of the fittest”? Explain these misconceptions. List the complete taxonomic classification scheme for humans including the names of the taxa. Describe and discuss the conditions that make natural selection possible. What is the relationship between evolution and natural selection? Are they synonymous terms? What is conceptually incorrect in each of the two following statements? Explain. A. If you transplant bacteria into an environment where an antibiotic is present, the bacteria will mutate so they will be resistant to the antibiotic B. Individuals with identical genotypes MUST be phenotypically identical. Describe how phylogenies can be inferred from molecular evidence. What is meant by the term neutral variation? Provide a general example.List all species which are common ancestors of species F and species G. Which living species is most closely related to species I? Which single species is most closely related to species E? On the diagram, circle any one monophyletic clade. In the standard “scientific method”, which of the following is MOST likely to come first? a. An experimentally-derived fact b. The prediction of an experimental outcome c. An observation that resolves a question that s scientist has asked d. An observation leading to a question based on that observation A student sets up an experiment to see if road salt affects the growth of maple seedlings. She sets up18 plots containing seedlings. 9 of the pots will receive a small amount of road salt in solutions and will be placed in the sun. The other 9 pots will not receive any road salt and will be placed in the shade. All 18 pots will receive the same amount of water and will each contain thesame number of genetically identical seedlings. The student grows the seedlings for 3 months and charts the growth of each seedling every 4 days. What is the major problem with this experiment? a. The student should have a larger number of pots b. There is no way of measuring the outcomes c. There are confounding variable ( i.e. the effect of two or more processes on results cannot be separated) d. The null hypothesis has not been stated clearly e. Road salt is toxic to maple seedlings The egg (ovum) of a red fox contains 17 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are in the liver cells of a red fox? a. 8 b. 16 c. 17 d. 18 e. 32 f. 34 The information that every organism needs to survive and reproduce is found in its ------. a. Genes b. Cytoplasm c. Environment d. Organs e. brain Enzymes ------. a. Are very specific b. Act as a catalysts c. Are organic molecules d. Had special shaped that control their activity e. B and C f. All of the above The ultimate source of energy for most living things is ---------. a. Krebs cycle b. Oxygen c. Aerobic respirationd. The sun e. glucose A good scientific hypothesis should ------. a. Be testable b. Support a theory c. Have been previously tested d. Be falsifiable e. Be based on past experience f. More than one of the above In protein synthesis ----------. a. Proteins are made b. Amino acids are made c. tRNA is made d. A and B e. A and C f. All of the above When DNA replication occurs --------. a. RNA polymerase fuses the sugar-phosphate backbones of one nucleotide to another b. Each new nucleotide is added to the 3’ end of the previous nucleotide c. Both sides of the molecule are replicated d. All of the DNA is eventually copied e. ,ore than one of the above f. All of the above g. None of the above During translation ( and under normal circumstances), chain elongation occurs until ------. a. No further amino acids are needed by the cell b. All tRNA’s are empty c. The polypeptide (or protein) is long enough d. A chain termination (ie “STOP”) codon occurs e. The ribosome runs off the end of the mRNA When DNA duplication occurs ----. a. More DNA is synthesized (made) b. The two sides are build in opposite directions (one side “up” and one side “down”) c. The DNA polymerase binds the sugar-phosphate backbones of the nucleotides togetherd. It occurs inside the nucleus in eukaryotes e. More than one of the above f. All of the above In counting the number of nucleotide bases in a sample of DNA, which equation is MOST consistent with the base-pairing rules? a. A=G b. A+G=C+A c. A+T=G+T d. A=C e. G=T In a piece of DNA you discover that 38% of its bases are guanine. What percentage would be adenine? a. 33% b. 26% c. 52% d. 10% e. 33% f. 62% g. 12% h. 38% i. All (100%) j. None of the above; answer can’t be determined using the information provided The genetic material of virus is ------. a. Always DNA b. Always RNA c. Either RNA or DNA d. None of the above To be of value to scientists, hypotheses must be --------. a. Established facts b. Testable c. Proven correct d. Popular e. Reproducible f. Impossible to falsify Choose the pair of terms that best completes this sentence. Nucleotides are to ---- as ------ are to proteins. a. Nucleic acids; amino acids b. Amino acids; nucleic acids c. Amino acids; polypeptided. Genes; enzymes e. Chromosomes; carbohydrates The two strands of single DNA molecule are best described as being --------. a. Parallel to each other b. Antiparallel to each other c. Complementary to each other d. A and B e. B and C f. None of the above The three parts of every nucleotide are ----------. a. mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA b. Sugar, deoxyribose, and phosphate c. Ribose, deoxyribose, and adenine d. Sugar, nitrogenous base, and ATP e. Sugar, nitrogenous base, and phosphate f. Ribose, nitrate, and phosphate The cause of sickle cell anemia has been traced to ---------. a. A resistance plasmid b. Three DNA mutations that result in three incorrect amino acids in a hemoglobin chain c. A single base substitution mutation that results in one incorrect amino acid in the B-hemoglobin chain d. A lethal gene on the X chromosome e. A deleted section of chromosome #5 The events of meiosis II are most similar to -------. a. The S-phase of the cell cycle b. Mitosis c. Meiosis I d. Interphase e. interkinesis Ignoring crossover, how many kinds of gametes can be produced by an organism in which 2n=6? a. 2 b. 4 c. 8 d. 16e. 32 f. >32 Which of the following types of cells can undergo meiosis? a. Haploid, prokaryotic cells b. Diploid, eukaryotic cells c. Haploid, eukaryotic cells d. Diploid, prokaryotic e. B and C f. Overcrowded, jail Assume tall (T) is completely dominant to dwarf (t) in a certain species of plant. If a homozygous dominant individual is crossed with homozygous dwarf, the offspring will --------. a. All be intermediate in height b. All be tall c. Be ½ tall and ½ dwarf d. Be ¾ tall and ¼ dwarf e. All be short One allele for a gene (C) produces curly tails in guinea pigs. Another allele (S) of the same gene produces straight tails. You cross two pigs that have straight tails and get the following in the offspring: 21 straight: 10 curly. The best explanation of this is ----------. a. The C allele is dominant to the S allele b. The S allele is dominant to the C allele c. The alleles are codominant d. The alleles show partial dominance e. The S allele is lethal f. A and E g. B and E h. C and E Crossing over is one of the most important events during meiosis because this process -------. a. Produces new combinations of genes on chromosomes b. Results in separation of homologous chromosomes c. Results in replication of chromosomes d. Prevents genetic material from getting mixed up e. Results in separation of sister chromatids In a testcross, F1 hybrids are crossed to an individual known to be ------ for the trait. a. Heterozygous b. Homozygous dominant c. Homozygous recessive d. Must do cross to knowIf there are 20 centromeres in a cell, how many chromosomes are there? a. 5 b. 10 c. 20 d. 30 e. 40 f. >40 Sexual reproduction requires ------. a. Meiosis b. Gamete formation c. Fertilization d. B and C e. All of the above The example of ----- demonstrates that whether an allele is dominant or recessive is not a function of its relative abundance in a population. a. Manx cats b. Sickle cell anemia c. ABO blood types d. Polydactyly e. Hemophilia f. Eye color in fruit flies g. Flower color in pea plants The frequency of crossing over between any two linked genes is ----------. a. Higher if they are recessive b. Different between males and females c. Determined by their relative dominance d. The same as if they were not linked e. Proportional to the distance between them Males are more often affected by sex-linked traits than females because -----. a. Males only contain one X chromosome b. Male hormones such as testosterone often exacerbate the effects of mutations on the X chromosome c. Female hormones such as estrogen often compensate for the effects of mutations on the X d. X chromosomes in males generally have more mutations than X chromosomes in females e. Mutations on the Y chromosome often exacerbate the effects of X-linked mutationsIn cats, black fur color is caused by a sex-linked allele; the other allele at this locus causes orange color. The heterozygote is tortoiseshell. What kinds of offspring would you expect from the cross of a black female and an orange male? a. Tortoiseshell female; tortoiseshell male b. Black female; orange male c. Orange female; orange male d. Tortoiseshell female; black male e. Orange female; black male A recessive allele on the X chromosome is responsible for red-green color blindness in humans. A woman with normal vision whose father is color-blind marries a color-blind male. What is the probability that a son of this couple will be color-blind? a. 0 b. ¼ c. ½ d. ¾ e. ⅔ f. 1 One possible result of chromosomal breakage is for a fragment to join a nonhomologous chromosome. This is called a(an) -------. a. Deletion b. Disjunction c. Inversion d. Translocation e. duplication When a person has Down syndrome, he or she has an extra chromosome 21. Therefore, Down syndrome is a kind of --------- and results from --------. a. Polyploidy… occurrence of meiosis without cytokinesis b. Aneuploidy.. Nondisjunction of chromosome 21 during meiosis I c. replication error.. An extra cycle of DNA synthesis during the S phase d. Genomic imprint… excessive methylation of either the paternal or maternal chromosome 21 e. Monosomy…. An error in DNA synthesis during mitosis f. None of the above What is a scientific hypothesis? a. A fact based on qualitative data b. An unproven theory c. A controlled guess about why an experiment might work d. A tentative explanation that is testable and falsifiable with some level of certainty e. A verified observation that is sensed with the aid of scientific instrumentsT/F All known forms of life store information in the form of nucleic acids. A well-designed experiment will allow a scientist to disprove a hypothesis with absolute certainty. All catalysts are enzymes, but not all enzymes are proteins. Proteins are chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. In the 5 kingdom classification system, Monera is the only kingdom containing prokaryotes. Both RNA and DNA strands have polarity. All mutations are harmful. Incomplete/partial dominance is an example of “blending inheritance.” Biosphere, ----------, community, ----------, multicellular, organism, organ system, organ, -------, -------, organelle, molecule, atom Macromolecule Tissue Nucleus Electron Ecosystem Cell The universe Humans population What does it mean when we say that science is a “self-correcting” process? Define enzyme and catalyst. Give an example of an enzymatic reaction. Name the enzyme involved and briefly explain how this example illustrates the definitions given in the question above. What is a codon? List the two basic functions of DNA. After each function, briefly explain the significance of this function. (Explain why each function is important.) Define mutation at the molecular level. Explain how changing the base sequence could change the characteristics of a cell or individual organism. Use an example to illustrate your answer. Use the fragment of mRNA below to answer the following questions 3’ U G C U A C U C A C A G A U G 5’ Which base would enter the ribosome first?What is the sequence of amino acids in the protein fragment for which this mRNA codes? List the amino acids left to right. If the fifth nucleotide from the left were mutated from A to C, then what would the resulting amino acid sequence look like? Consider the DNA fragment pictured here. What would the complementary strand of this DNA look like? Using the same notation, construct the other side beneath the fragment provided below. 5’ G G G A A C A G G C A A 3’ What amino acid will be picked up by a tRNA that has the anticodon: 5’ A G C 3’ Explain the difference between sister chromatids and homologous chromosomes. Where and how do the processes of mitosis and meiosis fit into the human life cycle? In humans, red-green color blindness is inherited as a sex-linked recessive pattern. If a colorblind woman marries a man with normal vision, what is the expected genotype and phenotype of their first son? The genotype of F1 individuals in a dihybrid cross is XxYy. Assuming independent assortment of these two genes, what is the probability that the F2 offspring will be xxyy? Assuming no cross-over occurs, how many genetically distinct gamete types can be produced by each of the three diploid munchkins listed below? a. ss aa pp rr tt ll kk ff b. Ss AA pp rr Tt LL Kk ff c. SS aa PP rr TT ll KK ff Suzanne has 6 fingers in each hand. Her husband, Bob, and daughter have the normal number of digits. Extra digits (polydactyly) is a dominant trait. If Suzanne and Bob have another child, what is the probability that this child will have extra digits? Tina and Lou each have a sibling with sickle-cell disease. Neither Tina nor Lou nor any of their parents have the disease, and none of them have been tested to see if they have the sickle-cell trait. Based on this incomplete information, calculate the probability that if this couple has a child, the child will have sickle-cell disease. Consider two genes of a fish, one controlling blue (B) versus green (b) scales and the other controlling round (R) versus pointy (r) tail. You cross a homozygous blue round-tailed fish with a homozygous green pointy-tailed fish. Resulting F1 progeny are all blue with round tails. Some ofthese F1 fishes are crossed with purebred green pointy-tailed fishes. The following offspring are produced: 32 blue round-tailed, 17 blue pointy-tailed, 33 green pointy-tailed, 18 green round-tailed. Are the scale color and tail shape genes linked? Explain your answer. Two genes of a crab, one controlling blue (B) versus red (R) claws and one controlling green (G) versus yellow (Y) eye stalks, are linked and are 25 cM apart. You cross a pure bred blue-clawed green-eye stalked crab with a pure bred red-clawed, yellow-eye stalked crab. Resulting F1 crabs are all blue-clawed with green eye stalks. One of these F1 progeny is crossed with a pure-bred red-clawed, yellow-eye stalked crab and 80 baby crabs are obtained. How many crabs of each of the four possible phenotypes do you expect? In 1944, the movie star Charlie Chaplin was involved in a paternity suit. A young starlet with type A blood claimed that Chaplin, who had blood type O, was the father of her child (blood type B). At that time, blood test evidence was not admissible in california courts. Had it been admissible, however, and you had been serving on the jury, would you have concluded that chaplin was the father? Use a genotypic cross to support your answer.