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Study Guide Exam II

by: Marla

Study Guide Exam II BI 212

Marketplace > University of Oregon > Biology > BI 212 > Study Guide Exam II
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General Biology II: Organisms

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General Biology II: Organisms
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marla on Thursday April 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BI 212 at University of Oregon taught by Carrier in . Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see General Biology II: Organisms in Biology at University of Oregon.

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Date Created: 04/30/15
Sustainable development Redclif 0 Brundtland Commission 1987 0 World Commission on Environment and Development which brought together human rights and environmental rights 0 Redclif The natural environment has been closely linked to human needs 0 Redclif Shift from Keynesian to neoclassical certainties 0 Kates 4 Key themes peace freedom development and environment 0 Kates Different time horizons for development how far ahead in the future will it effect things 0 Kates Three different factors of definition 0 How is it measured 0 Values 0 Practice Sustainability 0 Rees An economy is only sustainable if it passes on the same per capita stock of capital for each generation 0 Rees Neoclassical economists believe that natural and human made capital are interchangeable while ecological economists believe they complement each other 0 Non growing finite ecosphere 0 Easter Island 0 Vague ideological theory that became too romanticized Sustainable Business Laura Strohm 0 Triple Bottom Line People Planet Profit 0 Ray Anderson carpet recycling 0 Cradle to cradle instead of cradle to grave 0 WalMart Effect Easter Island 0 Earth as large island 0 Inhabitants of Easter island over consumed natural capital at an unsta Natural limits 0 Carrying capacity 0 Easter island Substitutability 0 Natural resources vs human made resources 0 Neoclassical vs ecological economist 0 Julian Simon techno optimist Greening of Globalization 0 Economic growth from green washing globalization 0 Sustainability NeoMalthusian views 0 Global ecological management 0 Natural limits are imminent science based 0 Mathus population amp resources will eventually run out Justice First 0 Summit in Cancun Environmental Law Bern Johnson 0 New type of law founded in 1970s due to the clean airamp clean water act 0 Rio Declaration Environmental issues are best handled via the public 0 Access to information o Opportunity to participate 0 Access to judicial and administrative proceedings including redress and remedy shall be provided ELAW 0 Webnetwork connecting people from all over the world important because it s not just the USA going in to countries to fix problems they request help and get feedback from other countries aside from US 0 Use laws to address world issues 0 Marine Conservation in Panama answered by India USA and Guatemala US Clean Air 1970 and Clean Water Act 1972 0 1970s in Nixon administration 0 Because Cuyahoga River in Cleveland caught on fire 1969 0 Environmental Justice 0 Environmental Law NEPA Bern Johnson National Environmental Protection Act 0 Check on the environment EPA 0 Governs the environmental assessment process 0 EIS environmental impact statement Environmental Justice 0 Originated in Chicago correlation between land fills amp poverty 0 Fenceline minorities live near factories and are more likely to be exposed to pollution then the rich 0 Black Gold in Niger O Neil 0 Links social and environmental justice 0 Disproportionate environmental hazards for poor Polluter pays 0 Company pays for environmental damage 0 The Debt of the Nations Precautionary Principle 0 Not taking action if the process could be potentially harmful towards environment 0 Stern Report 0 Mexico doesn t want to import corn because they don t know if GMOs are bad Intergenerational Equity 0 Rees Sustainability in economy MC Metha Bern Johnson 0 Environmental lawyer and environmentalist that started his own mini ELAW in India 0 Protects environment and basic rights to clean air and clean water EIA 0 Environmental Environmental Economics 0 Sustainable business 0 Basal convention global treaty on waste management 0 Promotes efficiency not sustainability 0 The Economists Trade is not the enemy more money means people can pay for things to help the environmental 0 Four basic principles Ackerman o Grandchildren s lives are important a We need to buy insurance for the planet 0 Climate dangers are too valuable to have prices 0 Some costs are better than other ones 0 Focuses on what humans want today 0 Dismisses natural limits 0 Economic growth is assumed as good for environment Ecological Economics 0 Assumes natural limits are real and resilience of ecosystems are in danger 0 Steadystate economy Daly 0 Sustainability as resilience Arrow 0 Resource extraction waste must be less than or equal to rate of regeneration Externalities 0 Cost of environmental degradation 0 Debt of Nations Sirnivasan CapandTrade CostBene t Analysis 0 Arrow costbenefit analysis is premised on the notion that the values to be assigned to programs favorable or unfavorable should be those of the affected individuals not the values held by economists moral philosophers environmentalist 0 Issues 0 Difficult to calculate environmental cost 0 Discounts the long term problems 0 Nonmarket value 0 Who benefits Who pays cost Tellico Dam snail darter 0 Costbenefit analysis was inaacurate because there is no way to predict the effect of the loss of the snail darter o It effects an ecosystem in ways that cannot be calculated 0 What is the price of an extinct species What are ramifications in its ecosystem Triple Bottom Line people planet profit 0 Paul Hawkins Natural Capitalism 0 Approach Protect biosphere amp improve profit amp competition dramatically inverse productivity of natural resrouces WalMart Effect Laura Strohm think WalMart buying organics 0 If a large business changes its policies it can have a wide spread impact on industry Stern Report 0 Action now would cost GDP 1 0 Without action up to 200 million people could become refugees if their homes are hit by oods caused by the rising sea level 0 If no action is taken 0 Melting glaciers could cause water shortage for 1 in 6 of the worlds population 0 Wildlife will be harmed at worst 40 of species could become extinct o Droughts may create 10s or 100s climate refugees 0 First report about the dangers of environmental degradation done by an economist over a scientist 0 Claims green challenge could be economically stimulating SteadyState Economics Daly 0 The economy is a subsystem of the earths ecosystem open subsystem 0 The economy as a subsystem must adapt to the same patter of development without growth Sustainable Development 0 As an open system the economy cannot continue to grow beyond some point it must approximate a stead state in dimensions 0 Resources throughputpopulationper capita resource use constant rate means it s a steady state 0 An economy in a steady state is sustainable developed 0 Rees addresses steadystate economy Entropy Rees 0 Entropy never decreases in second law of thermodynamics reaches equilibrium 0 Dissipative structure efficiently dissipates heat generated to sustain it 0 Nongrowing finite ecosphere 0 Thermodynamic equilibrium Second Law of Thermodynamics Rees 0 In all energy exchanges if no energy enters or leaves the system the potential energy of the state will always be less than that of the initial state 0 Potential energy 0 Economy is governed by Second Law of Therm which is sustained by available energy imported form the ecosphere 0 Nature is the consumer and economy is the consumer and the economy requires a continuous ow of energy and material inputs from nature to sustain the production of goods and services 0 Neoclassical view is economy is a growing system separate from environmental 0 Ecological economist believe economy is open and depended on closed ecosphere all waste is just heat Nature s resiliency Arrow 0 Nature is unstable system 0 Inverted U equilibrium John Stuart Mill 0 The economy can grow to a certain point and then stop when the needs are met and pursue non material things Fair Trade 0 Can a business that s main focus isn t profit succeed 0 Ecological economics 0 Steadystate economy 0 Ray Anderson carpets Rees and Wackernagel ecological footprint 0 Wackernagel asses how many renewable resources we have and how much we can use and find the balance Video 0 Demand exceeds supply by 20 o Ecological deficient because we are spending more than is being restocked WCED Report 1987Brundtland Report sustainability 0 First idea of sustainable development Redclif 0 World Commission on Environment and Development a Brought together environmental rights and human rights 0 NGO s to have an impact on sustainable development UNCED 1992 and Agenda 21 Bern Johnson Rio 0 United Nations Commission on Environment and Development Ecofeminism 0 Diverging emphasis around common themes health fertility of plants is connected to the wellbeing of women 0 Three types a Liberal ecofeminism to work with in mainstream reformist environmentalism without challenging culture and economy 0 Cultural ecofeminism Gala earth goddess changing by empowering women values of nurturing not competition problem of essentialism I Essentialism women have things in common but they re not all the same 0 Social ecofeminism Chipko challenging social structures that degrade women and environment 0 Chipko Nigerian women s movement stopped the logging of trees Global Scenario Group 0 ELAWish 0 Examine prospects for world development 0 Look at scenarios globally minded Deep Ecology Naess 0 Arne Naess 0 Deep experience deep questioning and deep commitment 0 Aldo Leopold was sent to find a way to eradicate wolves from USA but had a moment while watching an old wolf die and realized that the earth needed the wolves as the green fire died in her eyes Bioregionalism Sale 0 Define identity by community of origin society divides into communities and territories where love of a place is inevitable 0 Ecocentric 0 Government lifestyle is aligned to ecology 0 No car town in Germany 0 Greensburg Kansas Tomado attened town so they rebuilt it sustainably 0 Similar to deep ecology but place based rather than experience based Arne Naess 0 Deep Ecology Harding explained many of his theories 0 8 principles Lois Gibbs Love Canal 0 Lived in town built over toxic waste site many kids were effected by cancer 0 Did research and tests 0 Radical changes within bioregionalism Chipko India 0 Bioregionalism 0 Ecofeminism Social 0 Women chained themselves to trees to stop deforestation Chico Mendes Amazon 0 Organized rubber toppers to save rainforest 0 People could have sustainable livelyhoods in rainforest without cutting it down 0 Bioregionalism Greenburg KS 0 Bioregionalism 0 Tornado attened town so they rebuilt it sustainably EWaste 0 Ladou MD Lovegrove article 0 Ghana is not apart of OECD o Loophole for US to dump our second hand EWaste there 0 Less then 10 of EWaste is recycled 0 EPR Extended producer responsibility polluter pays Basel Convention 0 Global treaty on waste management 0 Environmental economics Integrated Product Policy Carrying Capacity 0 Closed loop system economy ecosphere 0 Earth island Easter island 0 Natural Limits 0 NeoMalthusian views 0 Wackernagel Kirkpatrick Sale bioregionalism 0 No Place like Home reading Ray Anderson 0 Service Business Model 0 Selling the service of installing carpets for a life time that he recycles when they get old and uses recycled material to make new carpets 0 Doesn t throwaway old carpets 0 Business not centered around profit 0 Sustainable business Natural Capitalism Lovins and Hawken 0 Ecological Economics 0 Closed Loop Manufacturing 0 Moving to solution based business model 0 The Hypercar 0 Service Business Model 0 Selling someone a service rather than a product 0 Ray Anderson carpets Niger Delta 0 Black gold 0 Foreign oil companies taking advantage of local government and lack of regulation 0 No EPA till take 1980s but the oil companies had already been there for 50 years Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Srinivasan ecological debts Srinivasan 0 Debt of Nations 0 Externalities 0 6 major classes of ecology damage climate change ozone depletion Agriculture intensification and expansion deforestation overfishing and mangrove loss Ultimate norms


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