PSY260 Final Exam Study Guide
PSY260 Final Exam Study Guide PSY260
Popular in Personality Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
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Date Created: 05/01/15
Chapter 12 Personality Development in Childhood and Adolescence 1 2 NP SNPFDNT people who are able to withstand difficult upbringings it is the capacity to survive and thrive in response to tough circumstances refers to how the parts of personality and their organization grow and change throughout the lifespan emotional responsiveness biobehavioral elements of an individual such as tempo activity level and positive emotions that form building blocks of later traits and behavior Developmental psychologists often divide life span into time periods and discuss each time period in turn a relatively fixed phases or units of development into which a person s growth can be divided i Erik Erikson s 8 Stages Trust versus mistrust infancy Autonomy versus shame toddler hoodearly childhood Initiative versus guilt early childhood lndustry versus inferiority Middlelate childhood Identity versus role diffusion Adolescence youth Intimacy versus isolation young adulthood Generativity versus stagnation middle adulthood Ego integrity versus despair maturity b Research designs in developmental studies i in which children adults of two or more different ages are examined at a single point in time so as to compare and contrast their various personality characteristics ii follows the same people across a period of time Do infants have personality a Infant s challenge i Newborn brain and mind already possesses substantial organization at minimum the mind is prepared for social contact ii Newborn infants studied in labs presented with sets of faces and abstract patterns will gaze nearly twice as long at the face like image than at similar on face image iii lnfants prefer to look at objects that are about 812 inches away ie mother s eyes iv between 6 to 10 weeks the infant reliably produces a broad grin v There is little evidence of much sense of self during the first year L 9393 Put a 6 month old in front of a mirror the infant will reach and touch the image of the mirror as if it belonged to another child b Infant temperament i Temperament is often described according to a range of customary responses emitted by the developing infant ii Three temperament styles The easy child The slow to warm up child The difficult child iii Temperament research is important bc it reveals the rewards of an indepth examination of infant responsiveness in temperament iv Temperament research allows for connections btwn temperament measures and adult personality traits to be made v 3 broad dimensions of temperament describes infants with high activity level smiling laughing high intensity pleasure and approach distress in response to limits fearfulness sadness high reactivity to stimuli involves long orienting toward others calmness soothability and cuddHness c Attachment patterns i Harry Harlow separated baby chimps early from their mothers and created 2 surrogate mother one made out of terrycloth and the other made of wire Baby chimps clung to terrycloth mothers for comfort but would go to the wire mother to feed only to return to the terrycloth mothers when they were anxious Contradicted a common behavioral notion of the time that the parental bond was a consequence of association btwn parents and feeding ii Studies of infants in orphanages iii a theory about the existence of an attachment system in each person that is responsible for modulating the important relationship bonds the individual has with others around then iv Mary Ainsworth s Strange situation recorded mother and infant interactions Secure attachment Anxiousresistant Anxiousavoidant attachment The young child s selfconcept a Profound changes also take place btwn the ages 3 and 4 that helps to bring about an explicit sense of continuous self i Children are able to develop permanent memories of life events for the first time ii Events before the age of 3 are what Freud called the child can t remember what they were doing or thinking at an earlier age 7 Styles of Parenting a b C concerned the degree to which the parents supported cared for and provided love and caring for the child concerned the degree to which the parents influenced the child from dictating what the child must do to allowing the child total freedom 4 different parenting styles i Authoritative parents both nurturing and controlling ii Authoritarian parents are also controlling but tend to exercise control through setting rules and enforcing them through discipline iii Permissive indulgent parents highly nurturing expressing love and caring but generally fail to set limits or exercise control over their children iv Uninvolved neglectful parents neither express caring for their children nor set limits or exercise discipline 8 Middlechildhood s challenges and selfconcept a In middle childhood the growing person is dealing with academic environment of school and the surrounding social world and starting to more seriously think about adult relationships and occupations Early temperament continues to exert influence on the child in middle cthhood Multiple features of the infants temperament appear gradually to become more organized into the growing child s traits By middle childhood parents often perceive their children in part in terms of the Big 5 OCEAN Different labs assess somewhat different features of temperament employs different sets of traits and classify children in somewhat different ways i involves sorting 100 statements concerning the child into 11 piles depending upon how well each statement describes the person 1 Initial analysis of the technique suggested that 2 broad aspects of children s psychology was most obvious a referred to the relative positivity of an individual s emotions system b referred to the type of control an individual exerts over his or her mental processes and behavior e Friendship is a crucial adjustment 9 Puberty and Changing SelfConcept Adolescence a b Estain i adolescence begins as a series of physical changes that occur with puberty a time of sexual maturation in which the individual achieves the capacity to reproduce vi vii viii shing identity in adolescence refers to who one is the group one belongs to and the beliefs that guide one s life people unable to assemble such an identity suffer either temporary or for an extended period of time involves the adolescent s conscious self exploration and selfunderstanding so as to form an identity involves whether the individual could commit to one of the identities that were explored o the outcome of an identity seeking process individual has not yet conducted any self exploration and has made no commitment to an identity of any sort or another lowest level person appears to make an commitment but has done so with no selfexploration refers to the absence of a coherent sense of who one is in relation to the worlds of relationships and work 39 reflects the person who is interested and engaged in selfexploration but is not yet ready to make an commitment reflects the individual who had engaged in selfexploration and does understand what he or she wants to do Chapter 12 Personality Development in Adulthood 1 Levinson studied the life stages of 40 men from different occupations and social strata in depth He divided early adult life into a series of stages 1722 The early adult transition 2228 First adult life structure 2833 The age thirty transition 3240 Setting down 4045 midlife transition 4065 middle adulthood nweoce During adulthood and individual s traits are relatively stable The environment that an person experiences or creates for him or herself also may exert control on personality and cause it to change 3 The tasks of young adulthood a Finding a desirable partner i in terms of personal relationships both men and women share the desire to marry someone who is kind and understanding and who has an exciting personality ii general psychological arousal heightens sexual attraction to a potential sexual partner iii falling in love 1 involves intense arousal and longing for joining with another refers to the caring and desire we feel for another person with whom our lives intertwine iv similarity in mate selection 1 ooses someone similar to oneself 2 that opposites attract b in search of good work i one widelyemployed classification of occupations divides them into 6 broad categories RIASEC 1 Rrealistic 2l4nves ga ve 3 Aartistic 4 5 2 Ssocial Eenterprising 6 Cconventional 4 How does the individual transverse middle adulthood a Staying married b Finding occupational success i Career s success can be measured in relation to 2 good general criteria 1 One s own sense of personal satisfaction and achievement 2 Objective measures such as level of responsibility prestige of position and salary ii Positivity and job satisfaction over the lifespan iii Having a temper iv Toward greatness 1 states that given k people active in discipline the square root of k identifies the number of people responsible for half the contribution c Personality and Health i Many people believe that a positive disposition good moods and optimism will lead to good health ii 2 widely acknowledged circumstantial evidence that supports the relationship btwn good moods and beliefs 1 People in happier moods tend ti report fewer medical symptoms than people who are crankier and more irritable 2 People who are iii are often in bad moods iii 3 well substantiated relationships btwn personality and longevity 1 Depression is known to reduce longevity 2 The two clearest and largest influences on longevity is intelligence and conscientiousness 5 Helson s Typology of Growth a b Two dimensions in which this growth may occur are in peoples adaptive functioning and in their personal growth concerns the sense of working well on practical pragmatic aspects of life with a focus on achieving in life involves a more internal development that may occur apart from social norms of success and failure People can be classified into 4 groups according to whether they are above or below average in 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