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CSU / Political Science / POLS 241 / What are the economic variables of the development of russia?

What are the economic variables of the development of russia?

What are the economic variables of the development of russia?

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School: Colorado State University
Department: Political Science
Course: Comparative Government and Politics (GT-SS1)
Professor: Marcela velasco
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: Global Comparative Politics, Comparative Politics, Duncan, and POLS241
Cost: 50
Name: Final Exam POLS 241- Duncan
Description: Here's all you need to know for Pamela Duncan's final exam! One you purchase the material, email me and I will give you free material to help you ace the final.
Uploaded: 05/04/2017
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Study Guide: Final Exam POLS 241  Spring 2017 Duncan


What are the economic variables of the development of russia?



Lecture material on Russia:  

• Trends in Russia’s history:  

o Widespread corruption

• Economic variables of development

o Trying to join capitalist market— Privatization  

o GPA= relatively high  

o Apart of WTO

• National integration, especially with respect to religion and ethnicity; important religious/ geographic cleavage(s)

o Religion:  

▪ Russian Orthodox (70-80% of population)  

• Relatively new due to 75 years of communist rule that suppressed  

religion  

▪ Muslim (10-15%)  


What is the national integration of russia?



• Not widely dispersed & is in a geographic pocket (coinciding cleve)  

o leads to conflict— Chechnya: separatist movement and  

suppressed, still have acts of terrorism & want independence  

o Ethnicity: Ethnic Russians (78%)  

▪ Over 200 ethnic groups in Russia  

▪ Non-Russians= over 20% splinted among themselves  

• History of expansion

• Demographic trends and their primary causes

o LOW birthrate & HIGH death rate  

▪ life expectancy is 71 (77 for females & 65 for men)  

• Death from= high alcoholism, smoking and dangerous jobs


How many ethnic are there in russia?



• Immediate consequences of the Soviet Union’s collapse

o Loss of legitimacy  

▪ Unstable

• Discussion of legitimacy

o Structure of institution= little legitimacy  If you want to learn more check out What model shows the flow of memory between 3 different types of memory?

o State= legitimate

• Status of democracy as reported from the Economist Democracy Index

o Authoritarian regime: constant decline— Putin’s hold on power, flawed election process  o Lowest score: function of government  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the albedo in climate?

▪ Checks and balance (accountability) is low  

o Low on political culture  

▪ People perception on strong leadership & trust

• Features of Russian political culture

o Lack of ethicacy: feel like you personally do not have an impact  

o Strong nationalism: should be a major player on the world stage  

o Russian Orthodox church: major role player  

▪ anti-materialism— anti-Western  

o Electoral process & pluralism corruption

• The international context, including current tensions on Russian activities o Try to join capitalist market BUT they were kicked out of G8 & G20 due to their  actions in Ukraine  We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of slum?

o Military issues on the rise  

▪ violating air space, moving takes the the border

• Discussion of the interest group system

o A combination of pluralist, corporatism & controlled  

▪ pluralist: multiple groups about the same issue, voluntary, autonomous  • people tend to not want to join due to ethicacy  Don't forget about the age old question of What influenced music in america the most during the 1960s?
Don't forget about the age old question of Why is xuanzang important?

▪ corporatism: place at the policy table  

▪ controlled: Putin (Kremlin) youth group

• Vertical power distribution, including official designation and actual status o Formally: Federation  

▪ States: vote for president & lower chamber  

o Actually: Unitary  

▪ Rigged elections & rubber stamps

• Horizontal power distribution, especially executive roles; terms and term limits; why Russia  looks so different from France

o Prime minister: head of state— appointed by president (was 2 four year terms, now 2  six year terms)  

o President: head of gov— elected by the people (was 2 four year terms, now 2 six year  terms)  

o Federal Council— actual nominated by president, formally elected by people  o Duma— elected by the people  Don't forget about the age old question of What is money and how can money be classified?

o Different from France: cohabitation is present online France— due to a dominant party  system in Russia— Duma, President and Prime Minister are United Russia • Notes from the film “Putin’s Way” as instructed in class

o Putins Background:  

▪ KGB officer  

▪ Then deputy chair of the committee of state security  

o Putin’s Rise To Power  

▪ Putin supported Sobchak, a corrupt major in Moscow, Yeltsin saw his loyalty  and appointed him as Prime Minister  

o Culture of Corruption  

▪ 20th Trust: money from the gov used for vacation homes in Spain  

▪ Criminal immunity of the president  

▪ Spag— money laundering from St. Petersburg mafia group  

o Apartment Bombings  

▪ Bombing every several days— Russians 9/11  

▪ 5th bomb found from FBS and the detonator was military  

• Ignored and thought as “utter nonsense”  

• Those who investigated ended up exiled or dead  

o Duma investigations shot down  

o Arab Spring  

▪ Worried Putin because maple of a country who over throws the leader  

• Protests in 2011 when Putin said he was running for president again

o Attitudes of Western Leaders in the Beginning  

▪ Bush: “committed to best interest of his people”  

▪ Tony Blair: approved & charmed  

▪ Germany: economics entangled  

o Appeals to Russian Nationalism:  

▪ Want the USSR back & to be a world leader  

▪ Humiliation, resentful, defensive of the fall of USSER

• Brief discussion of post-Putin Russia

o 80% approval rating because he “saved” the people from the Yeltsin years  o Leaders promote those who are loyal to them— rotation of Putin & Medvedev  o Judicial system is not independent  

▪ CIVIL law BUT has come COMMON law  

▪ used to suppress political opposition  

Posted reading 9:  

• First article: Nature and cause of the protests in March; what makes them more alarming than  those of 2011-2012

o Protest in Vladivostok about gov corruption

o Navalny started opposition and was arrested or “organizing an unauthorized demonstration” — wanted to run for 2018 presidential election but cannot have a  criminal record to run  

o Alarming because the younger generation is leading the opposition because they only  know as Putin as a rule, unlike other generation who went through USSR & Yeltsin • Second article: Alexei Navalny and his role in Russian politics; implications of the protests for  2018 elections

o Police detained 1,000 protestors lead by Navalny

o Navalny— blogger: posted a video of prime minister Medvedev’s corruption of  housing, cars and boats

• Third article: General trend in how the Russian State deals with opponents; the Magnitsky Act o Kills people against the Russian gov  

o Magnitsky Act: expand economic sanctions against Russian gov  

▪ Created by Kara-Murza— gov tried to kill him

• Fourth article: Assassin’s identity

o Russian Agent killed lawmaker because of his disagreements of the gov

• Fifth article: Features of the proposed bill on domestic violence; reasons for opposition o Decriminalize Wife Beating: must be a repeat offense within a year or cause serious  medical damage ($500 fee)  

▪ For: Poboi-battery that doesn’t have lasting harm— creates “strong families”  ▪ Against: can beat 1 time a year

Lecture material on China:  

• Historical background on the fall of the last dynasty

o Oldest continuous civilization  

o Ruled by dynasties until 1911 (Qing Dynasty)  

▪ Fall: population exposure & surpassed carrying capacity

▪ Taiping Rebellion: came from famine, local armies tried to stop the rebels,  communist won the civil was in 1949— economic reforms with markets to  grown economy

• Economic development variables, especially regarding economic growth, poverty and equality o Largest economy in the world— GPD $21 trillion  

▪ Per capita- low ($15,400 a year)— due to high population and 2 Chinas  • 2 Chinas: Urban population (55%) versus rural population (45%)

• Social variables, especially urban/rural split; hukou

o Urbanization: 45% live in the country side (villages)— growing rats due to migration  o hukou system: system of resident identification  

▪ in order to move fro the country side to the city— MUST HAVE A PERMIT  ▪ To receive permit— must give up all land for either little/no compensation • Political culture, especially legitimacy and its sources; relevance of Confucian philosophy o National integration & unity  

▪ Ethnic Han= majority  

▪ Uighers= Muslim population  

• Suppressed by Chinese gov  

o Legitimacy= high  

▪ comes from culture, tradition and social welfare  

o Confucian philosophy: harmonious society—> hierarchal set of relations  ▪ the emperor (moral authority) above the public  

• NO individualism  

o Gov penetration undeveloped in goods & services  

▪ Due to 2 Chinas

• Discussion of policy values within Chinese political culture

o Authoritarian— 0/10 in democracy  

o Policy Values:  

▪ Hard to receive information because of the regulated speech  

▪ Policy makers— Communist Party  

▪ Economic growth— materialism  

o Little freedom of expression, no competitive elections  

o Economy liberalism does not equal political liberalism

• Political socialization

o No individualism —> changing due to consumerism/materialism

• International context, especially current events

o important and rising economic development  

o 1 of the nuclear powers  

o 1/5 who hold a permanent veto in UN Security Council  

o Expanding role in the world  

▪ challenge US dominance in Asia  

▪ Financial networks  

• Alternative World Bank  

▪ Building up military  

• South China Sea disputed waters & laying claims with new islands  

▪ Expanding foot print in the world  

• Paris Agreement leader

▪ North Korea nuclear program—> china doesn’t sponsors their nuclear program  but supports the trade alliances  

• Won’t drop them due to refugees

• The interest group system, the concept of “guardianship” and the shangfang system; recent  action on foreign organizations

o Guardianship: the people do not know what’s good for them  

▪ Communist party leadership who’s most educated— opposite of individualism  o Shangfang system: formal petition process that a controlled safety view and makes them  feel heard, when they really aren’t  

▪ Used for personal (pay checks) and local (road repair)  

o Foreign organizations: foreign IG’s aren’t allowed unless they are sponsored by state  and are registered with the police

• Popular elections: for what offices?

o Local Congress: people vote for candidates (has to be 1.5 seats candidates per seats—  creates competition  

▪ Candidates MUST have similar values of the Community Party  

o Village committees: put in place because of financial reforms due to agriculture  ▪ Collectivized: dying of famine  

▪ Made village leaders accountable  

• Party system

o One-party system: Communist Party

• The basic constitutional principle on the relationship between Party and government o Party > Government  

▪ Nomenklatura: all gov officials are overseen by party officials

• General vertical power distribution, including status of Taiwan and Hong Kong o Unitary— power concentrated in Beijing  

o Taiwan status: ambiguous— One China Policy: not a legitimate state  

▪ Still considered a party of China even though they are self governed (multiparty)  o Hong Kong status: turned over to China by British a few years ago  

▪ made clear they will be self governed  

▪ During election the Communist Party greatly interfered

• Very top levels of the CCP and state hierarchies; where is policy made? (TOP TO BOTTOM  LIST)  

o Politburo Standing Committee: primary decision makers  

▪ Where general secretary is— AKA leader of China  

o Politburo: broad authority of certain policies  

o Central Committee: bureaucrats and have a stake in implementing policy  ▪ Ratify policy decisions  

o National Party Congress: large & ineffective, ratify devisions  

o Local Party Congress: oversee implementation of policy

• Xi Jinping’s roles and titles

o General Secretary  

o Corruption purge: people sent to prisons— used to rid of his enemies  

o “Core Leader” cult of personality and trying to get support behind him

• National People’s Congress and its role

o Legislative branch— policy making & unilateral

• Status of democracy as reported from the Economist Democracy Index

o Authoritarian  

o 0/10 democracy score

Lecture material on Iran:  

• Economic development variables

o GPA= low and also low per capita— NOT as low as China’s  

o Inequality  

▪ unemployment greater than 10% & widespread underemployment

• Brain drain= educated youth with no jobs so they flee the country to find  

jobs elsewhere  

o #5 in oil production  

o Fairly urbanized  

o Media is controlled & internet censored  

o Never colonized by European powers

• Literacy

o Low 86.8%  

▪ Males: 91%  

▪ Females: 82%

• Political culture, including the degree of consensus/conflict; legitimacy; trust; policy values o HIGHLY conflictual  

▪ Different views on what gov should look like, how democracy should look like  and whether democracy is good or not  

o Legitimacy:  

▪ HIGH as a state entity— National pride because “Frontline” of Islam agains the  West  

▪ LOW as a theocracy  

o Trust: lacking, no business risks because people are scared of stolen ideas  

o Policy Values  

▪ Highly distributive: material benefits  

• Like China in the sense of buying citizens things but no political freedom  

• PROBLEM: austerity measures when oil crashes  

• Discussion of political socialization in Iran by differing agents

o Political socialization: media and school coverage is about the state of Islam education  ▪ decentralization: clerics— state version BUT learned at home= unstable

• Status of democracy as reported from the Economist Democracy Index

o 0/10

• Discussion of interest articulation, political parties and factions

o Patron-client networks  

o WEAK pluralism with corporatist tendencies  

▪ Protests are repressed

• Vertical power distribution

o unitary

• Roles and responsibilities of the Majles, the Council of Guardians and the Expediency Council o Majles: (parliament)  

▪ popularly elected

▪ Multi-member districts— similar to US Senate  

▪ Some seats are reserved for minority religions; otherwise must be Muslim  ▪ Women may served but no more then 5% at a time has taken up the Majles  o Council of Guardians:  

▪ Pass judgement of laws passed by Majles  

• Decide if it’s constitutional AND compatible with Islam  

▪ Call shots on behalf of the leader  

▪ Vet candidates for elected offices  

o Expediency Council: (3rd party)  

▪ Advice on state policy  

▪ Supervise other gov  

▪ Overrides law if it breaks religion BUT is in the state’s best interest

• General points about theocracy and its inherent tensions

o Theocracy— a state government ran through religion  

▪ Tensions: not everyone is Twelver Shitte  

▪ Many times the state cannot do what’s best for them due to religion

Posted reading 11:  

• First article: Current economic trends in Iran; domestic obstacles to business and job creation;  who suffers the most from unemployment

o Increasing economy due to oil output  

o Unemployment: oil is capital rich NOT labor intensive  

▪ domestic issues: money is owned by public/semi-public enterprises  

o Less employment per unit of growth than other emerging markets

• Second article: Why Total is sending money to Iran; obstacles to business; uncertainty over  Trump

o Total is spending money to Iran because Iran has a lot of natural gas reserves and are  2nd trove of oil in the Persian Gulf  

o Obstacles: Americans are barred from any Iranian investments  

▪ Banking restrictions: lack of access to leans & credit and cannot use  

international credit and debit cards  

o Trump suggested that he may tear u the nuclear deal once he’s in the White House • Third article: Upcoming election, and Rouhani’s prospects; hopes and tactics of hard-liners;  importance of social media

o Telegram: social media that has encrypted messages for reformist to get out of vote in  par elections  

▪ Previous leader banned Twitter and Facebook  

o Rouhani prospect: Raeisi— protege of the Supreme Leader  

o Tactics:  

▪ Targeting social media  

• Telegram: uncensored news channel

• Fourth article: Guardian Council’s action on Ahmadinejad

o Will not let Ahmadniejad run for reelection due to how he left the country divide  domestically, isolated them internationally and were struggling economically

Powell et. al. Chapter 12:

• Terms including

o oligarchs: ruled by few  

o glasnost: the need for greater openness

• Recent economic trends, including the “resource curse”

o Resource curse: the paradox that countries with an abundance of natural resources, tend  to have less economic growth, less democracy, and worse development outcomes than  countries with fewer natural resources.  

• Circumstances leading to the Soviet Union’s collapse

o 1990 election of deputies stimulated popular nationalist and democratic movements  o Gorbachev’s power weakened and Yeltsin declared the USSR resolved and took over. • Parliamentary election rules

o Federation Council (Like US senate)  

▪ 2 members per district (leg and exec)  

• executive: one elected by governor  

• leg: one elected by regional legislature  

• approve presidential nominees for high courts  

o Duma: ONLY ELECTED BODY  

▪ PR and SMD combination  

• Once was challenge by Putin to be only PR— united Russia did not get a  majority so they switched back to the combination

• Dominant values in Russian political culture, especially with respect to democracy o Skeptical of democracy: democracy & market economy represented misguided of  malicious effects to remold Russia along Western lines.  

o dominant:  

▪ Strong State: leader on the world stage  

• stability, prosperity, security  

▪ Deep mistrust of state institutions

• The Orthodox Church: current status and role in political socialization

o Church of Russia  

▪ builds patriotism, national pride and ethical values  

▪ Only 20% of family are teaching their children Russian Orthodox

• Discussion of social capital and political participation

o Pay to play, if you wanted to have a say, you would give loyalty to a politician  ▪ Patron-client relationship  

o Political Participation: many don’t vote due to large fraud in elections

• Consequences of privatization and the resulting social conditions

o Shock therapy program  

▪ Gave 10,000 rubles to each citizen to be share holder of the land  

• No value, no right to vote  

o Sent government into debt

• Discussion of the Russian party system

o Dominant party system

• Obstacles to the rule of law

o FSB has never been prosecuted for violating citizens’ rights  

o Suppress political opposition  

o Bankruptcy laws— state taking over private businesses

o Corruption through bribing officials  

Powell et. al. Chapter 13:  

• Terms including democratic centralism, fragmented authoritarianism

o Democratic Centralism: it requires that party leaders provide opportunities for  discussion, criticism and proposals in party organizations as part of the normal process  of deciding important issues or policy making  

o Fragmented Authoritarianism: the fragmentation of formal authority and its resolution  by formal and informal coordinating mechanisms at the top of the system

• Introductory discussion of Chinese reforms  

o Mao Zedong— wanted a transformation designed to lead to a largely backward agrarian  people to modernization, prosperity and a communist utopia.  

▪ People disagreed after he died

• Social conditions in China

o 1.3 billion in population  

o Geography: land shortage— only 1/4 of the land is arable  

o Multiethnic  

▪ 92% Han  

▪ 55 ethnic minorities

• The Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution and their consequences

o Great Leap Forward— resulted in famine & natural disasters; drought, flooding  ▪ Simultaneous development of industry and agriculture to be achieved in  

• the labor intensive mass mobilization of peasants to increase agricultural  

output by building irrigation facilities  

• the organization of primitive production processes to give inputs to  

agriculture without taking resources from industry Chinese legal  

practices, especially criticisms and recent reforms  

o Cultural Revolution: simultaneously a power struggle, an idealogical battle and a mass  campaign to transform culture— severely impacted the society  

▪ Maoism was interpreted personally  

• Many killed, worked to death, committed suicide

• Political culture, especially with respect to democratic values

o Men are more interested in politics— highly in Beijing  

o East Asians support democracy  

▪ Chinese introduced to socialist democracy  

▪ Democracy is introduced differently than what it actually is

• General policy performance on economic growth and the environment

o Achieving more by directly controlling less  

▪ includes environmental protection  

o Economic Growth: decentralization & dependence on investment  

▪ Replacing collective farming with household farming  

▪ employees urban workers

• Chinese population control policy and its consequences

o One child policy— lead to a shortage of workers and a large amount of men and a small  amount of women

Powell et. al. Chapter 16:  

• Current policy challenges, especially the economy and education

o Iran Nuclear Deal with United States  

o Need to increase economic output to provide employment for a rapidly growing labor  force  

o Corruption  

o Academics expanded & youth are educated  

▪ “brain drain”

• Iran’s history, especially with respect to colonization and the revolution of 1979 o Ended in the abolition of the monarchy  

▪ Activist drove out Shah in 1979  

o Was never colonized by the West

• Predominant religion in Iran

o Shitte Islam

• Positions of authority in Iran, especially the Leader and the presidency, their respective powers  and how they are chosen

• Leader— “Supreme Leader” is the head of the Islamic State

o Cleric= religious leader  

o Chosen by assembly of experts  

▪ its over all policies  

▪ interprets the Koran  

▪ nothing can happen unless he says so  

• President— low level of power  

o Runs whatever the leader lets him  

o Appoints cabinet and signs bills into laws  

o Elected by universal suffrage  

▪ MUST be Twelver Shitte & male

• Political culture, including predominant system values, process values and policy values o Iran compares itself to dominant countries of the West rather than 3rd world countries  ▪ System Values:  

• Disagreement over theocracy— some did not want it after the Revolution  

• Disappointment— economically and freedoms  

o against democracy because they’re religious and government is  

“dirty”  

▪ Process Values:  

• Participation embraced and active— echoed from Revolution  

• Extreme individualism  

• Lack of trust  

• Vulnerable to demagogues— charismatic figures  

o Twelver Shitte is looking for the last 12th man  

▪ Policy Values:  

• Highly distributive

Posted reading 10 (see Pop Quiz 3):  

• First article: Historic status of China and how the Chinese people feel about it; China’s current  goal and recent actions

o

• Second article: Chinese efforts to establish a civil code; primary challenge facing legal  reformers

o

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