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king of pleasure and avoidance of pain. 301. Troland divided stimulation of the nervous system into three categories: beneception, nociception, and neutroception. Briefly describe each term. (p. 207) Beneception occurs when pleasant feelings are aroused by stimuli, while nociception occurs as the result of stimuli that arouse unpleasant feelings. Neutroception exists when stimuli cause neither pleasant nor unpleasant feelings.D.Arellano 2 302. What are the three properties of the affective processes represented by Young’s continuum? (p.207208) Sign positive affect is associated with approach behavior while negative affect is associated with avoidance. Intensity use a preference test. Duration how long it lasts with sensory stimulation or outlasts. 303. What paradigm is do researchers often employ to observe affective intensity differences of substances? (p. 207) Preference tests. 304. According to Young, the range of the hedonic continuum extends from the maximum negative end (_distress_) through a neutral __indifferent__ zone, to the extreme positive end (_delight_). (p. 208)D.Arellano 3 305. When lab animals are given a choice of sugar solutions, they prefer higher sugar concentrations up to what point? (p. 208) As far up as the concentration scale can go. 306. Positive and negative affect are closely associated with what types of behavior? (p. 208) Positive affect is closely associated with approach behavior and negative affect with withdrawal. 307. Pfaffman’s research indicates that __taste sensations__ are sufficient to trigger approach or avoidance behaviors without being tied to physiological change. (p. 209) 308. True or False: Pfaffman stated that hedonic intensity and sensory intensity are the same. (p. 209) FAUX.D.Arellano 4 309. When may hedonic explanations of motivation prove to be less useful? (p. 210) When applied to behaviors associated with the stimulation of distance receptors. 310. Why is pain useful? (p. 210) Because it tells us we have been injured and often causes us to alter our behavior so that the injured part of our body has time to heal. 311. How did Melzack’s research lead him to describe the relationship between injury severity and pain experienced? (p. 210) Because of examples like 65% of men wounded in battle feel no pain when brought to the combat hospital and 80% of civilians with similar injuries typically report sever pain and ask for pain medication etc.… that Melzack to realize that no simple and direct relationship existed between the severity of an injury and that amount of pain experienced. D.Arellano 5 312. “Disconnection” surgery attempts to abolish certain types of pain but is often unsuccessful. What does this suggest (according to the text)? (p. 210) That the experience of pain is more than just a simple perception of painful stimulation. 313. Participants in electric shock experiments reported that the process was painful more often when something existed in the experiment’s instructions. What was that something? (p. 211) When the word pain was in the set of instructions. 314. Which area of the brain stem may also influence the perception of pain at the spinal cord level? (p. 211) Preiaqueductal gray matter.D.Arellano 6 315. Nonutilitarian problemsolving games like chess or bridge seem to be motivated by what? (p. 213) By the sensory stimulation they provide 316. What was different about the performance of monkeys that received food rewards for solving puzzles? (p. 213) Delivery of food actually tended to disrupt performance on the puzzles and the reward group lost interest in the puzzles. 317. Berlyne argued that we attempt to maintain an optimal level of arousal. What happens when the level gets too high or too low? (p. 213) If stimulation drops too low (as in boredom), we become motivated to increase our arousal level. On the other hand, if out arousal level becomes too high, we will be motivated to lower it.D.Arellano 7 318. When Montgomery’s rats explored two mazes, what seemed to determine the length of time they spent in the second maze? (p. 213 214) The amount of time spent in exploring related to the color (rats are color blind so their responding must have been based on grayscale differences between the three mazes) thus the rats seemed controlled by the degree of stimulus change involved. Such as white to black vs white to white maze. 319. When Thompson and Melzack kept puppies isolated for many months, what did they note about the exploratory behaviors of the isolated pups? (p. 214215) Continued to explore environment after the control subjects had grown bored and explored mote maze tests. Thus sensory restriction apparently altered the normal motivation behavior of the dogs. D.Arellano 8 320. How did the isolated puppies in Thompson and Melzack’s studies compare to normally raised pups on problem solving? (p. 215) Control group could choose the box which had just seen a piece of food hidden within four min isolates could not. Isolates made approximately 50% more errors than the normal. 321. What problems were noted when Riesen’s darkreared cats were exposed to a normal lighting environment? (p. 215) Perceptual deficits and violent emotionality. They showed hyperexcitability, increased incidences of convulsive disorders and localized motor impairment. 322. What does research on sensory restriction indicate about stimulation during development? (p. 215216)D.Arellano 9 Indicates that adequate stimulation is necessary for normal development. 323. Derived motives usually extinguish quickly when _association__ with the primary __motive__ is cut, but the infantmother attachment seems __lifelong__. (p. 216) 324. Of what were surrogate mothers constructed? (p. 216) Either of wire or soft terry cloth. 325. Harlow and Suomi stated that facial design of their surrogates was not important. According to them, what does an infant believe about his/her mother’s face? (p. 216) To the baby the maternal face is beautiful regardless of how others might judge it.D.Arellano 10 326. The effects of isolation were minimal and reversible when a monkey was isolated from birth to what age? (p. 216217) Isolation from birth to 3 months produced effects that were later reversible, and the effects of isolation appeared minimal, but monkeys isolated from birth to 6 months developed strange behaviors that appeared more permanent. 327. According to Harlow & Harlow (1966) and Sackett (1967) what is apparently necessary for normal development? (p. 217) Experience with both mother and peers is apparently necessary for normal development. 328. The indifference and abuse noted in Harlow & Harlow’s “motherless monkey mothers” bears a striking resemblance to _incidents of human child abuse_. (p. 218)D.Arellano 11 329. What appears to prevent the anaclitic depression common in institutionalized infants? (p. 219) Close interaction with an individual responsible for their care if they are develop normally. 330. Children suffering from deprivation dwarfism are deficient in height and appear to be malnourished even when they have adequate diets. Describe their emotional states. (p. 219) Their faces are sad, rarely smiling, and they typically avoid contact with other people. 331. It appears that the mechanism suppressing the secretion of growth hormone by the pituitary gland in children suffering from deprivation dwarfism is actually a disruption of what? (p. 219) Normal sleep pattern.D.Arellano 12 332. What two types of interactions are apparently important for normal development of an organism? (p. 220) Motherinfant and peerpeer interactions. 333. Other than behavioral tests (IQ, digit span, associative learning tasks, etc.), what did participants also experience during the isolation period? (p. 220) A propaganda talk on the existence of psychic phenomena (telepathy, ghosts, etc.) was also given, periodically interrupting the isolation period. 334. In the McGill University adult sensorydeprivation experiments, how long did most outside participants stick with the study? (p. 220221) 2 to 3 days. 335. The studies of pilots cited in the text reported feelings of confusion, loss of contact, D.Arellano 13 isolation, illusions, etc. According to Clark and Graybiel, what three conditions were associated with the disorientation? (p. 222) Flying alone, flying at high altitude, and a minimum of activity. 336. Sensory deprivation effects are probably not confined to highaltitude flying. Cite the example from the text. (p. 222) Any situation that provides reduced or monotonous stimulation and little activity may be a candidate for disorientation effects. For example, driving alone at night on an arrow strait interstate highway might produce effects similar to those produced by high altitude flying. 337. For what does REST stand and with which researcher is it associated? (p. 223) REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) Suedfeld &KristellerD.Arellano 14 338. What are two of the most influential factors observed in sensation seeking? Explain. (p. 224) Age and sex. Men are consistently higher in sensation seeking than women, and both men and women sensation seeking declines with age. 339. Breslin et al. found that _alcohol use_ did not affect gambling choices, but __sensation seeking_ did have an effect. (p. 225) 340. The opponentprocess model assumes that the physiological process that triggers the initial hedonic reaction will be opposed by what? (p. 225) Aversive feelings generated by the process; conversely, stimuli that initially give rise to aversive feelings will be opposed by pleasant feeling generated by the process.D.Arellano 15 341. For addicts, stimuli associated with both the pleasurable state A and the aversive state B (withdrawal symptoms) reinforce the same behavior. What behavior? (p. 226) Maintain drug use. 342. It appears that the tolerance that develops to a continuallyused drug can be partly explained as what? (p. 227) As the result of conditioned A and B states. 343. Describe the ‘afterreaction’ noted by Solomon which occurs after a first parachute jump. (p. 227) Upon landing safely, the chutists initially appear stunned for several min then began to interact socially, often in quite animated ways. Which can last up to 10 min is a highly positive state B that is the opposite in emotional quality to the fear producing state A.D.Arellano 16 344. When the time interval between occurrences of “state A” is long enough, it retains its original qualities—whether they are positive or negative. What does this lead us to predict about skydiving once a year? (p. 227) With repeated jumps state A is reduced to eagerness. Chapter 8 345. Tolman argues that in order to understand behavior we must __study it as a phenomenon in its own right_ (p. 236) 346. What does Tolman mean when he calls behavior molar? (p. 236) Something to be studied as a whole and not reduced to its component parts.D.Arellano 17 347. What does the author’s cat do when he/she wants to go outside? (p. 237) Claws the furniture. 348. Tolman’s approach emphasized the idea that organisms develop what? (p. 237) Cognitive map of their environment. 349. The important point for our purposes is that when place learning occurs it suggests something. What does it suggest? (p. 239) That expectations do develop concerning where rewards can be found. 350. Lewin’s approach was a dynamic one, emphasizing what? (p. 239) That forces acting to initiate behavior are constantly changing. 351. The reaction of an object is the result of all the forces acting upon that object within the D.Arellano 18 field containing it. What is this idea called? (p. 239) Field theory 352. Why does the central core of the innerpersonal region have a greater influence on behavior? (p. 240) Because the core regions are in contact with many other regions. SM} IPC 353. What is Lewin’s concept of tension? (p. 240) Tension is the motivational construct that Lewin used for internal motivation of the person. It can be accomplished one of two ways: it can be spread evenly through the entire inner personal region, or it can be alleviated through a process called locomotion, in which some particular region of the psychological environment dissipates the tension. D.Arellano 19 *example you “need” (want) a soft drink. Your on a diet you deny yourself the calories. OR you eliminate your tension that has spread by going to a soft drink machine and being a product of needs. 354. What is one way of summarizing Lewin’s approach? (p. 242) To note that to understand behavior one must understand all the forces that are related to that behavior… meaning that behavior must be understood as a whole rather than from small behavioral components. 355. Briefly, what are four problems with Lewin’s analysis of behavior? (p.242) First, many of his terms are not clearly defined and are therefore open to differing interpretations. Second, psychological facts can change from moment to moment, but Lewin does not inform us of the conditions that cause their change. Third, several theorists have pointed out that Lewin’s analyses are post hoc (after the fact). Finally, although he conducted experiments in order to test his ideas, Lewin’s often lacked proper control groups, thus making the database for his ideas rather weak.D.Arellano 20 356. What is the basic idea underlying expectancyvalue theory? (p. 243) Is that motivated behavior results from the combination of individual needs and the value of goals available in the environment. *the probability of behavior depends not only upon the value of the goal for the individual but also upon the person’s expectancy of obtaining the goal. 357. According to Rotter, what determines our preference for an event? (p. 243) 1. Reinforcement value it’s desirability to us. 2. Subjective estimates of goals 3. Situational factors – base on past factors 4. Generalized expectations use past as a guide. 358. Our reactions in new situations will be based on generalized expectations from the past. Explain. (p. 244) Even though we may never have been in such a situation before, these generalized expectations will guide behavior. Thus, even if you have never taken D.Arellano 21 an essay exam before, you may expect to do well if you have consistently done well on other types of tests. 359. On the continuum of internality externality, where do individuals at both extremes perceive rewards and punishments come from? (p. 244245) Internal individuals perceive rewards and punishments as resulting form their own actions; that is, they believe themselves to be in control of their own behavior. External individuals perceive the rewards or punishments they receive as being beyond their control. 360. Social learning has been suggested as a factor in several behavioral issues. Name three from the text. (p. 245246) Poor social learning may contribute to the development of autism. Social learning analysis to alcohol use, violence, academic achievement, leadership, both positive and negative sexual behaviors…..D.Arellano 22 361. What are Murray’s manifest needs? [Not a list – a description.] (p. 246) Needs a recurrent concern for a goal state and believed that a need consist of a directional nature to satisfy the need and it consists of energy that drives the behavior and can be thought of the intensity of the need. A manifest of needs was made with Murray and his colleagues at Harvard of 20 major needs, latent needs inner states and general traits. Need for Achievement, Autonomy, Dominance, Understanding, and the need to be Nurturant… 362. What do subjects do in the Thematic Apperception Test? (p. 246) Asked participants to make up a story or describe a situation depicted in an ambiguous picture. 363. For what did McClelland and Atkinson’s submarine base subjects think they were being tested? (p. 247)D.Arellano 23 None of the participants knew that they were participating in a study on the effects of hunger. Participants were led to believe that they were being tested for visual acuity. 364. What did the TAT suggest the subjects in the failure condition were significantly more concerned with? (p. 247) Performing a task well in relation to a stated standard of excellence. 365. The tendency to approach or avoid achievement situations is thought to result from what four variables? (p. 248) The motive for success (Ms), the motive to avoid failure (Maf), the estimated probability of success (Ps) and the incentive values (Is). 366. The incentive value of success is the value of actually achieving the goal and represents what fact? (p. 248) That some goals are worth more than others.D.Arellano 24 367. What is the difference between mastery goals and performance goals? (p. 251) Someone motivated by a learning goal will seek to master a task for the sake of increasing personal competence. With performance goals, on the other hand, how one’s level of competence compares to others is the primary motivator. 368. Give two reasons why attitudes do not always predict behaviors well. (p. 253254) Attitudes are more strongly correlated with patterns of behavior than they are with individual behaviors. EX:Like a girl with a positive attitude towards energy conservation doesn’t turn off the lights but, with in a longer time period you see she takes the stairs, drives a hybrid ect… therefore consistent with her believe. Another reason for the inconsistency between attitudes and behavior is that some attitudes are more important to us (i.e., hold more value) than others. EX:Like a person may hold a positive attitude toward energy conservation, but this attitude may not be strong enough to motivate behavior.D.Arellano 25 369. In Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior, what is the difference between perceived behavioral control and actual behavioral control? (p. 254) Actual behavioral control is used to denote factors such as time and ability. Perceived behavioral control is one of the precursors of intentions and as a direct predictor of behavior (one’s ability to successfully perform a given behavior and, when one’s perception is accurate provides a very close approximation of actual behavioral control.) 370. What are the three major components of intention according to Ajzen? (diagram on p. 254) Attitude toward behavior, Subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. 371. What is social loafing? (p. 257) Working collectively also provides individual group members with an opportunity to slack off based on the expectancy that the rest of the D.Arellano 26 group will work hard enough to accomplish the valued goal. 372. Describe the Ringelmann effect. (p. 257258) Ringelmann was the first to find empirical evidence that individual performance within a group decreased as group size increased. The effect could be due to a loss of motivation among individuals in the groups but more likely a lack of coordination of effort. 373. The sound of __12 hands clapping__ is not even three times as intense as __the sound of 2_.” Why? (p.258) Because the Ringelmann effect is occurring in the task of clapping too. Social loafing a decrease in individual effort due to the social presence of other persons. 374. What does the collective effort model predict? (p. 260)D.Arellano 27 That individuals will be motivated to perform well in tasks if they expect that their effort will lead to obtaining a valued goal. 375. Why does performance in a group decrease, according to social impact theory? (p. 264) Because the pressure to work is dispersed among the members of the group. Larger the group, less pressure each member of the group feels to perform. 375a. What does one expect in a nation that contains a large number of persons high in need for achievement who become entrepreneurs? (ExpectancyValue Theory, Slide 16) McClelland: what distinguishes those societies with high entrepreneurship and economic growth? Folklore that stresses work, knowledge, and freedom instead of family, tradition, and relationships.D.Arellano 28 375b. How did Horner conceptualize the fear of success construct? (ExpectancyValue Theory, Slide 17) Horner (1965): added verbal item to TAT of “After firstterm finals, Anne (John) finds herself (himself) at the top of her medical school class.” Women responding to Anne cue (but not men responding to John cue) wrote fearofsuccess stories (Anne dropping out, marrying, etc.) Chapter 9 376. What are the three problems of balance theory, according to the text? (p. 270) First, it is undoubtedly true that people resolve cognitive inconsistencies in various ways, but balance theory has little to say about how a person will resolve the imbalance. We cannot predict from balance theory how a specific situation is resolved. Second, balance theory does not take into account D.Arellano 29 the importance of the items that are out of balance. Third, problem involves the question of how much imbalance must occur before behavior is triggered. 377. What is cognitive dissonance? (p. 271) As a concept stresses the idea that we attempt to maintain consistency of our beliefs, attitudes, and opinions with our overt behavior. 378. The text cites three ways to reduce dissonance. Briefly describe the three. (p. 271) First, one may change one of the cognitions in order to reduce the dissonance. For example, the dissonance created by smoking could be reduced if we change our cognition about the effects of smoking: “smoking can’t be that bad; after all cigarettes are not illegal.” A second way is to alter behavior in order to reduce inconsistency between cognitions. One can quit smoking to reduce dissonance, but this is more easily said than done. A third way is by adding consonant cognitions, which effectively reduce the dissonance without changing any of the conflicting elements. “Smoking relaxes D.Arellano 30 me by the time I get cancer science will have a cure for it.” 379. What did Festinger & Carlsmith’s subjects actually do during the experiment? (p. 272) Three groups of participants perform repetitive, unproductive, and highly boring tasks (packing and unpacking spools and turning pegs in a peg board). After an excruciating hour of performing such tasks two such groups were asked by the experimenter to convince waiting participants that the experiment was interesting! 20$ for lying in the 1950’s…. 380. Which group found the taped discussion more interesting in the Aronson & Mills study? (p. 273) The group subjected to the severe initiation of reading lurid passages and fourletter words D.Arellano 31 aloud rated the tape discussion as more interesting than did the mild initiation group. 381. Dissonance theory predicts that we may selectively expose ourselves to information about a choice after one has been made. Explain. (p. 274) You will be sensitive to advertisements or information that supports your choice that will attempt to avoid information indicating that your choice was wrong. 382. What is the main idea of Bem’s self perception theory? (p. 276) An alternative to dissonance theory emphasizing the idea that we observe our own behavior much as an outsider might do, then make judgements based on these observations. These selfdescriptive statements, then, are reported as our attitudes. 383. Name one of Pepitone’s several reasons why some organisms seem to be D.Arellano 32 inconsistency seeking rather than inconsistency reducing. (p. 278) We might increase inconsistency so as t maximize our pleasure when the inconsistency is finally reduced. Example: sexual foreplay. Also, we may seek inconsistency in order to mask more serious or painful inconsistencies. 384. What is meant by the “social facilitation of behavior”? (p. 279) The presence of others energizes the behavior of the contestants (to higher levels). 385. The energizing of behavior as a result of others competing in the same task is called what? (p. 279) Coaction effect. 386. Describe the results of the running roach experiment. (p. 279) Roaches that had an audience ran significantly faster in a simple maze than those that did not.D.Arellano 33 387. Coactors and audiences will facilitate performance if _the performer’s correct response is highly likely (a dominant responses, in psychological terminology), whereas the presence of others will lead to a worsening of behavior if the performer’s correct response is low probability__. (p.280) 388. Performing a welllearned task in front of an audience increases two physiological measures but not a third. Name the three. (p. 280) Challenge response, vasodilation, and threat response. 389. What is meant by conformity? [… and don’t use the word conform!] (p. 281) Is a change in one’s believes or behaviors as a result of real or imagined pressure from a group or individual.D.Arellano 34 390. What happened when Sherif put subjects together in the lightjudgment experiment? (p.281) The autokinetic effect illusion happened where participants differed and judged how far the light had “moved” then with a confederate were convinced of their estimates. 391. When subjects in Asch’s experiments did not conform to the group decision, what feeling did they seem to experience? (p. 282) Selfdoubt and a desire to agree with the group. 392. What effect did the presence of another individual who differed from the group have on subjects in Asch’s studies? (p. 283) It had a substantial disinhibiting effect on the participants, so that judgements were more likely to be what the individuals actually perceived than a conforming response to the group pressure.D.Arellano 35 393. Explain the final criticism of the Asch studies. (p. 284) That the Asch studies may no longer be relevant; that they occurred many years ago in a time and in a place where conformity was much more prevalent then it is today. 394. Explain the footinthedoor effect. (p. 286) The idea that people are sometimes more likely to consent to large requests if they previously agreed to a smaller, related rewquest. 395. Ditto for doorintheface effect. (p. 286287) Presenting people with very large requests can sometimes increase compliance motivation provided that you are seeking compliance to a second smaller request.D.Arellano 36 396. How did Milgram’s subjects think they were “teaching” the other subjects (confederates)? (p. 288) By delivering increasingly painful electric shocks for incorrect answers in a verbal memory task. 397. What percentage of the Yale undergrads escalated the shocks to the 450volt maximum? (p. 290) 26 of the 40 participants (65%) went all the way to 450volts. 398. Milgram’s subjects were put into a conflict situation where they had to choose between two alternatives. What were they? (p. 290) Open defiance of an authority figure and obedience to a personally immoral behavior.D.Arellano 37 399. What does Zimbardo call the ability to avoid responsibility for one’s behaviors? (p. 290) Deindividuation 400. Although we do not like to admit it, obedience to authority can override our _ethics_, _morals__, and _sympathies__ toward other human beings. (p. 292) 401. Bystander intervention is not a question of people not helping others. What is it? (p. 292) because sometimes they do But rather of the conditions under which helping behavior is likely to occur. 402. What are the five stages in Latane and Darley’s model of deciding to help in an emergency? (p.296)D.Arellano 38 Notice the situation? No. YesDefine situation as an emergency? No. YesAccept responsibility to help? No. Yes Decide how to help? No. Yes Decide to act and provide help. 403. Why do we tend to keep calm, non emotional expressions on our faces in public? (p. 294) Because we don’t want to embarrass ourselves by declaring an emergency when none exists. 404. What is pluralistic ignorance? (p. 294) By remaining expressionless and unemotional as we survey reactions of others, fooling each other that an emergency does not in fact exist. 405. Subjects paired with a stranger helped _20% of the time, while two friends paired together offered help _70% of the time. (p. 294)D.Arellano 39 406. Latane and Darley believed that the lack of intervention can be understood as resulting from what? (p. 295) Diffusion of responsibility 407. While 85% of the ‘alone’ participants and 31% of the ‘one of four’ reported the seizure quickly, what happened after the 2 minute tape ended? (p.295) The participants who did not report the seizure were anything but apathetic they were very nervous and concerned about the seizure victim. 408. True or False: Seminarians who were to speak about the Good Samaritan helped people more often than those speaking on other topics. (p. 297) Faux.D.Arellano 40 409. Some have suggested that helping behavior is not altruistic, but egoistic. Why? (p. 298) Because the helper always get some type of benefit from their benevolence. Chapter 10 410. What is the first of the three basic assumptions of attribution theory? (p. 304) 411. Ditto … the second? (p. 304) 412. And the third? (p. 305) 413. Expectancies and attributions are generally the same. How do they differ? (p. 304 305)D.Arellano 41 414. How are Heider’s dispositions divided? (p. 305) 415. The tendency to attribute behavior to stable characteristics rather than temporary states is called the _______________________________________ _______________________. (p. 306) 416. What is a major problem with Heider’s approach? (p. 306) 417. Behavior that is not socially desirable is more likely to be attributed to ______________ __________________________ rather than D.Arellano 42 ___________________________________. (p. 308) 418. In Jones and Davis’s terms, non common correspondences provide us something. What? (p. 308) 419. Kelley developed another attribution theory. What did he believe? (p. 308309) 420. By using the principle of covariation across time, what can we do? (p. 309) 421. Kelley articulated three dimensions of past behavior that help us to make attributions. What are these three? (p. 309)D.Arellano 43 422. Weiner argued that at least four elements are important in our interpretation of an achievementrelated event. Name the four. (p. 311) 423. What is interesting about our judgments about the effort we have put into a task? (p. 311) 424. We tend to analyze our behaviors in regard to a stableunstable dimension. Which items are stable and which are unstable, according to Weiner? (p. 311312) 425. Based on Weiner’s causal dimensions, if you attribute a good score on a test to your abilities, what will you expect on future tests? (p.312)D.Arellano 44 426. Failure resulting from lack of intense effort elicits _____________________ and ______________________ as _____________________________ toned associations. (p. 313) 427. What is the selfserving bias? (p. 315) 428. We are motivated to accurately assess our ______________________, but we are also motivated to maintain a ________________________ ______________________________________. (p. 315) 429. Describe the false consensus effect. (p. 316)D.Arellano 45 430. What was the result when researchers asked firstyear students to estimate the percentage of other students who had used illegal drugs? (p. 316) 431. Jones and Nisbett noted that part of the difference between the attributions of the actor and the observer results from _______________________________________ ________ _______________________________________ __________________________. (p. 317318) 432. What were subjects in Storms’ experiment asked to do? (p. 318319)D.Arellano 46 433. How do the results of the study of essays about Castro show the Fundamental Attribution Error? (p. 320) 434. One cause cited for the FAE involves salience. Explain. (p. 321) 435. Sabini et al. argue that all behavior is the result of _________________________ _______________________________________ ____________________. (p. 323) 436. Children classified as helpless in the 1978 study attributed their failure to ____________ __________________________________. (p. 324)D.Arellano 47 437. What kind of attitudes did those same children develop and what did they seek? (p. 324) 438. Helpless individuals seek _______________________________ goals, while masteryoriented individuals seek _________________________________ goals. (p. 324325) 439. Differentiate between entity theorists and incremental theorists. (p. 325) 440. In the reformulated model of learned helplessness, focus is placed on the attributions made about the lack of control experienced. Behavioral differences are found when the lack of control is seen as stable vs. unstable. Explain. (p. 326327)D.Arellano 48 441. What two alternate models did Baltes and Skinner present in response to the hospitalization study by Rapp et al.? (p. 328) 441b. What is the utility of the synthesized model of Kelley and Weiner’s theories (as derived by Martinko and Thomson)? (Attribution, Slide 11) Chapter 11 442. Describe Rogers’ idea of unconditional positive regard. (p. 332) 443. Describe Rogers’ conditional positive regard. (p. 333)D.Arellano 49 444. What do we need to become fully functioning individuals? (p. 333) 445. What are the five characteristics of the fully functioning individual? (p. 333) 446. Full functioning does not guarantee happiness, nor is it an easy process. What CAN we expect of (and as) a fully functioning individual? (p. 333) 447. Briefly describe one of the criticisms of Rogers’ approach. (p. 334) 448. How does Maslow’s view of the unconscious differ from Freud’s? (p. 334)D.Arellano 50 449. What must we understand about the arrangements of needs in Maslow’s hierarchy? (p. 334) 450. The selfactualized individual has satisfied all the deprivation needs of the first four levels. What motivates his behavior? [‘different conditions’ is not the answer] (p. 337) 451. Selfactualized people are not perfect, and are subject to the same problems as others. From where do their feelings of guilt, anxiety, sadness, etc. appear to arise? (p. 337) D.Arellano 51 452. Maslow later decided there were two types of selfactualized individuals. What are the two? (p. 337) 453. Why is it that most people fail to self actualize? (Choose one of the listed reasons.) (p. 337338) 454. Briefly describe the four criticisms of Maslow’s selfactualization that are presented in the text. (p. 338) 455. What does Shostrom mean by ‘time competence’ in reference to the selfactualized person? (p. 338)D.Arellano 52 456. Differentiate between the terms flow, peak experience, and peak performance as used in the text. (p. 338339) 457. Why are people reluctant to talk about their peak experiences? (p. 339) 458. How does Kenrick’s notion of the hierarchy of needs differ from Maslow’s? (p. 340) 459. What does White believe about the play of children? (p. 342) 460. What are origins and pawns, according to deCharms? (p. 342) D.Arellano 53 461. Explain Bandura’s reciprocal causation. (p. 343) 462. Both negative and positive behaviors are a result of _______________________________________ ______. (p. 343) 463. What are the four core features of human agency (also according to Bandura)? (p. 343344) 464. What are proxy agency and collective agency? (p. 344345) 465. Define competence. (p. 345)D.Arellano 54 466. What are relatedness and autonomy? (p. 345) 467. Differentiate between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. (p. 346) 468. What happens if we reward someone for doing what they love to do? (p. 347) 469. _______________________________________ _______ occurs when we begin to see the value of an activity for its own sake. (p. 348) Chapter 12D.Arellano 55 470. How did Darwin propose that emotional expressions evolved? (p. 357) 471. Describe the principle of antithesis. (p. 357) 472. What is Darwin’s principle of direct action (of the nervous system)? (p. 357) 473. What is the order of operations in the JamesLange theory of emotion? (p. 358359) 474. Cannon had several arguments against James and Lange and developed his own theory. Diagram what happens according to Cannon. (p. 358 diagram)D.Arellano 56 475. In Schachter’s theory, perception precedes two occurrences and emotion follows them. What are the two events between perception and emotion? (p. 358 diagram) 476. Schacter and Singer’s data support which notion? (p. 361362) 477. What does Schachter’s analysis of emotion suggest about the presence of a label in the absence of arousal? (p. 362) 478. What are intention movements and what has evolved from them, according to ethologists? (p. 363)D.Arellano 57 479. What was the result when the rhesus monkey in control of the button saw the face of the monkey receiving a shock? (p. 364) 480. How did monkeys who had been raised in isolation perform on a similar task? (p. 364) 481. Why do we suspect that women may be better at expressing emotion nonverbally? (p. 365) 482. What did researchers report about gaze fixation of 35 vs. 7weekold infants? (p. 365) 483. Of what does the amygdala appear to be the primary structure? (p. 366)D.Arellano 58 484. Phineas Gage retained motor and intellectual abilities but lost what as a result of his accident? (p. 367368) 485. Connections between amygdala and hypothalamus serve what purpose? (p. 368) 486. Baldwin et al. have found that DA and NMDA glutamate receptors in the mPFC of rats also play a crucial role in producing __________________________ /___________________________ conditioning. (p. 370) 487. To what elements of emotional arousal are we sensitive in others, according to Bandura? (p. 370)D.Arellano 59 488. Events that can be easily and quickly associated are called _________________ _______________________________________ ____, while those that an organism cannot learn are called _______________________________ ________________________________. What lies between the two extremes? (p. 372) 489. Briefly define phobia. (p. 372) 490. Most phobic reactions occur to what type of objects? (p. 373) 491. What did Lazarus mean by the importance of cognitive appraisal for the understanding of emotion? (p. 374)D.Arellano 60 492. Describe what is meant by self monitoring. (p. 375) 493. Zajonc has argued for the primacy of affect. What does that mean? (p. 376) 494. What are Zajonc’s three arguments for this idea of affect primacy? (p. 376) 495. What did Tomkins propose? (p. 377) 496. Each of Izard’s ten fundamental emotions has three components. What are the three components? (p. 378)D.Arellano 61 497. What are the two distinct bipolar dimensions of emotion in Russell’s circumplex model? (p. 380) 498. What did Ekman and his colleagues discover in crosscultural studies of emotion related facial expressions? (p. 384) 499. What aspect of emotion appears to vary based on culture? (p. 385) 500. Describe the facial feedback hypothesis of emotion. (p. 386) 501. What happened when Kraut’s participants were told to compose their faces as if odors were pleasant or unpleasant? (p. 386)D.Arellano 62 © D. Arellano 2005, 2006, 2007; D. Levine, 2009, 2012