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RUTGERS / Computer Science and Engineering / CS 198 / rerunning a program with the same data produces

rerunning a program with the same data produces

rerunning a program with the same data produces


School: Rutgers University
Department: Computer Science and Engineering
Course: Computer Applications for Business
Professor: Professor stoll
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Computer Science, comp, JavaScript, and HTML
Cost: 50
Name: Final Exam Part 1 and 2 Study Guide
Description: These are study guides for the first two sections of the exam which is based on html, javascript, history of computers and technology, and basic tech knowledge
Uploaded: 05/04/2017
52 Pages 222 Views 1 Unlocks

∙ A machine instruction uses how many bytes of memory?

∙ What must be the step size of the loop below, to ensure that it repeats exactly 5 times?

∙ How many interactions will occur in this loop?

Multiple Choice ∙ A big factor of the speed of a computer is dependent of the number of cycles  of: o The Fetch/Execute cycle ∙ In terms of CPU, the PC o Stands for “Program Counter” and it holds the value of the next  instructions to be executed ∙ If each instruction iIf you want to learn more check out comm 2000
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s 32 bits long, jumping 4 instructions ahead will increment the PC by: o 16 bytes (8 bits = 1 byte, 4 bytes times 4 instructions = 16 bytes) ∙ One component of the hardware implementation of the Fetch/Execute Cycle  is the  o Control Unit ∙ 4 Parts of the memory o ALU, Control Unit, Registers, Program Counter ∙ Which component is considered the brain of the computer? Describe 2 of its  subcomponents. o The CPU is the brain  Control Unit: Is in charge of all operations it receives from the  instructions as well as receiving that some memory from the  instructions  ALU: Algorithm Logic Unit is in charge of the mathematical  computations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and  division ∙ Name and explain 3 of the 5 steps in the Fetch/Execute Cycle o IF: Instruction Fetch- takes the instructions from the address and sends it to the control unit for processing o ID: Instruction Decode- pull apart the instruction set up the operation  in the ALU, and compute the source and destination operand addresses o DF: Data Fetch- move the operands from the memory to the ALU o IE: Instruction Execute- the mathematical computations such as  addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication, is performed by the  ALU o RR: Result Return- the value is computed and is given back ∙ Which of the following is a valid JavaScript variable name? o taxRate o has to begin with a letter o no symbols can be in it ∙ An example of a branching instruction is: o If(a>6) {……} o Has to have { } ∙ Write a valid assignment statement that performs the following operations o Subtracts c from b and divides this result by 7 and results in a  a = (b-c)/7 o Multiplies a by 150 and stores the result in b  b = a*150Short Answer ∙ Use HTML to produce the HTML code for a BMI calculator <body> <script> <h1><b><p>BMI Calculator</h1></p></b> <br> <p> Weight</p> <input type=”text” id= “weight” readonly placeholder= “ “/> <br> <p>Height> <input type=”text” id= “Height” readonly placeholder “ “/>  <br> <p>BMI</p> <input type=”text” id=”BMI” readonly placeholder=” “/> <br> <input type=”button” onclick=”function calcBMI()” readonly  placeholder=”Calculate”/> <input type=”button” onclick=:delete messages” readonly  placeholder=”Clear”/> </script> ∙ Evaluate the following Conditional Tests and determine the outcome o a=4 b=10 c=-3 d=15 o (a<b ││c>d ││d>=a)  TRUE,  o (a<b && (c>b││a>=d))  False  ∙ Match the terms with the expressionso New line \n o And && o Comparison == o Or ││ o Greater than or equal to >+ o Not equal != o Statement terminator ; o Assignment = ∙ To get y=mx + b to work with givern numbers o Var mX = 2 o Var mY = 4 o Var b = 1 o Var x = 1 Function linearEquation(mY, mX, B, x) { Var m= my/mx Var y= m*x+b Return y } Var valA= linearEquation(4,2,1,1); Multiple Choice & True or False ∙ A JavaScript if statement must have a: o semicolon ∙ In JavaScript, output displayed in a group box can be produced using the  _____ command o Alert ∙ The JavaScript function that retrieves the current date and time in numeric  form: o Date() ∙ Scoding output directly onto a Web page from JavaScript is done using: o Document.write() ∙ A for loop is controlled by a(n): o Control variable ∙ The variable names declared in a function  o Can only be used in that function ∙ How many interactions will occur in this loop? o for (again=1; again<=5; again= again+1;){…} o 5 ∙ Which of the following is an infinite loop? o For (i-1;i<=4; i=i-1) ∙ What must be the step size of the loop below, to ensure that it  repeats exactly 5 times? ∙ C=c+2o 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 o 3 5 7 9 11 ∙ Which of the following is a correct way to declare an array? o Var= new Array(10); ∙ The program counter points to the ____ instructions. o Next ∙ The Arithmetic Logic Unit resides in the _______. o CPU ∙ During the Fetch/Execute cycle, an instruction interpretation is performed by  the: o Central Processing Unit (CPU) ∙ On traditional personal computers, a word is made up of: o 4 bytes ∙ Modern cell phones and laptops use computer clocks running at speeds  between 1 and ineligible number o Megahertz ∙ The Data Fetch step of the Fetch/Execute Cycle transfers date from _________ o ALU ∙ Which of the following is not a well-established operating system? o Turn (Windows, Linux, and Android are all well-established) ∙ Which of the following is not an input device? o Speaker ∙ The following loop: for{i-1; i<+5; i= i+2) will iterate ____times o 5 ∙ To display a text box we may use the ______ HTML tag. o Input ∙ The logical “OR” operator is ____ o ││ ∙ A JavaScript look may interate infinite times o True ∙ Global variables cannot be accessed from inside a function o False ∙ *cars is a proper name for a variable o False ∙ The <javascript> tag is used to add JavaScript code to an HTML program. o False <script> ∙ A function declaration may have more than one parameter in it. o True ∙ The following x= “true”; assigns the Boolean value true to x o False ∙ The assignment x = 2**3; assigns 8 to x o False x= 2*2*2 ∙ Comments can be entered on JavaScript by typing ?? at the beginning of the  comment o True ∙ I=-5 cannot be used as initialization variable on a loop o False∙ Built-in functions such as Math.random() do not have to be declared o True ∙ Relational operators can be used to compare strings. o True ∙ Sport car is a valid identifier for a variable. o False ∙ The function calcGa(x,y,z) requires at least 2 arguments to run properly o False ∙ An empty string is written as “\empty/” o False ∙ Hours*60= minutes is a valid assignment statement. o False (minutes=hours*60 ∙ Strings must be enclosed by a single () or double () quotes o True ∙ Only programs are loaded in memory o False ∙ Most hard drives are mechanical devices with rotating platters o True ∙ Memory addresses are numbered consecutively starting at 0. o True ∙ The Result Return step of the Fetch/Execute cycle sends a result to memory o True ∙ A clock tick is used only to maintain the current time and time zone on a  computing device o False ∙ The ALU performs only arithmetic operations such as additions  multiplications, etc. o False ∙ The Operator != can be used as an alternative for >= comparisons o False it means does not equal ∙ An event handler is a program that handles events such as the click of a  mouse o True ∙ The Fetch/Execute Cycle consists of 7 steps. o False 5 steps ∙ As ADD instruction starts the addition processes by adding the affress  numbers of the memory locations involved in the operation. o False ∙ A byte can hold the value of a number as large as 16 million o False ∙ The flexibility of sharing data and instructions in memory provide computers  with great flexibility when executing diverse combinations of data and  applications. o True ∙ Linux and iOS are two of the several operating systems available for use in  our time. o True∙ A device driver is a very important component of the CPU. o False ∙ Each memory address is numbered consecutively starting at 0. o True ∙ In JavaScript, variables must be declared only at the very top of the program. o False ∙ The statement terminator in JavaScript is the colon: o False, it’s the semicolon ; ∙ A Boolean value can either be true or false o True ∙ Relational operators cannot be sent on strings of JavaScript o False ∙ In general, JavaScript code is added between script tags. o True ∙ In programming, equality comparisons between strings are not case  sensitive. o False ∙ Scripts tags are not needed for event handlers such as onclick.  o True ∙ The name of a function identifies it and must be used when the function is  called. o True ∙ Function names cannot contain numbers and must not be more than 5  characters long. o False—they can have numbers, just must start with letters. ∙ The parameter list of a function must include at least one parameter o False ∙ The value produced by the return statement of a JavaScript function is called  the function’s value result. o True ∙ A function declaration is made up of two parts, the name and the parameters o False ∙ The hardware component that decodes or interprets instructions during the  Fetch/Execute Cycle is the _______.  o Control Unit ∙ A peripheral used by the computer for both input and output is the: o Hard disk is what google had. It might be touchscreen ∙ In the Fetch/Execute Cycle, the action of retrieving a machine instruction from the memory address given by the program counter occurs during the  o Instruction Fetch (IF) step ∙ In a JavaScript calculation, 17%5 is o 2 (the remainder) ∙ A machine instruction uses how many bytes of memory? o 1 byte ∙ Converting code that a programmer writes into assembly code is called o Compiling ∙ What has made computers faster? o Making the F/E Cycle more complicated ∙ Which of the following is used for input and output? o Hard disk ∙ The processor has how many moving parts? o 8 ∙ From smallest to largest, the correct order of prefixes is  o Kilo, mega, giga, tera ∙ Modern computers know o About 100 instructions ∙ Rerunning a program with the same data produces o The exactly same result every time ∙ Which of the following characteristics of a computer depends on the number  of F/E Cycles it performs per second? o Speed ∙ Random Things to Know ∙ Memory stores both a program while its running and the data on which the  program operates ∙ The Control Unit is found within the CPU o The control unit controls the Fetch/Execute Cycle ∙ The ALU is also found within the CPU o It performs mathematical operations and comparisons ∙ Input and Output Units are necessary for a computer to be useful ∙ Peripherals handle the physical parts of operation o Input: mouse, keyboard, scanner o Output: screen, printer, monitor o USB memory and Hard Drives are used for both input and output ∙ Program Counters is used to keep track of the next instruction ∙ Branch and jump instructions allow instructions to skip addresses ∙ Computer clock determines the rate of the Fetch/Execute Cycle o It is measured in megahertz of cycles per second ∙ Each step of the cycle executes with a tick of the computer clock. 5 ticks ∙ Variables can have changing values ∙ When a program is running variable is a memory location and the value is  what is stored at the location ∙ When a program is written variables are referred to by their names and  values are assigned. ∙ Identifiers must begin with a letter, are case sensitive, can’t have spaces. ∙ Keyword var followed by a list of identifiers for the variables to be declared,  separated by commas o Example: Var area, radius; o Identifiers = area and radius ∙ Sometimes there is an initial value for identifiers o Var taxRate= .088; o Var balanceDue= .0; o OR for multiple initialization: Var taxRate= .088, balanceDue= 0; ∙ Numbers: must be written in decimal form o .33 rather than 33 percent; 10.89 rather than $10.89 ∙ Strings are sequences of keyboard characters o Surrounded by quotes (‘’) o Var answer= ‘He said, “Wait up!”’ o Var book= “Guide to B&B’s” o Empty string= “” ∙ Boolean: there are only two Boolean values, true and false o these values are not strings ∙ Assignment Statements o Changes a variable’s value o <variable> = <expression>;  <variable> is any declared variable in the program  <expression> o Var price_burger; o price_burger= 5; o the price of the burger is made equal to $5 ∙ Arithmetic o price_t= price + price*1.50 o total= exams + assignments; o Example:  var x, y, z, w;  x = true;  y= !x; //value of y is false  z = x || y; //value of z is true  w= !( y && z); // ∙ <script></script> tags to enclose code o Var s=prompt(‘Enter your name’); ∙ Write to the page with document.write() o document.write(“Hello World!”); ∙ Conditional Statements o The if statement  if(waterTemp <32) ∙ waterState = “Frozen”; o The if/else statement  if(waterTemp < 32)∙ waterState = “Frozen”;  else ∙ waterState = “Fluid”; Text Boxes ∙ text boxes are used to input or output numbers or words ∙ <input type=”text” id=”ref_name” value=”displayed_text” size=”n”  onchange=”event_handler”/> Radio Buttons ∙ Give a selection of preprogrammed settings.  ∙ <input type="radio" name="identifier" onclick="event_handler" />label text <input type="radio" name="pick" onclick=" ... "/> choice 1<br/> <input type="radio" name="pick" onclick=" ... "/> choice 2 Buttons ∙ Clickacble and have a single response ∙ <input type=”button” value=”label” onclick=”event_handler”/>Chapter 9 – Computer Operations Fetch Step Cycle: 5 Steps These operations are repeated in a never­ending sequence  1. Instruction Fetch (IF) ∙ Move instruction from memory to the control unit  2. Instruction Decode (ID) ∙ Pull apart the instruction, set up the operation in the ALU, and compute  the source and destination operand addresses  3. Data Fetch (DF) / Operand Fetch (OF) ∙ Move the operands from the memory to the ALU  4. Instruction Execute (EX) ∙ Compute the result of the operation in the ALU  5. Result Return (RR) / Store (ST)  ∙ Store the result from the ALU into the memory at the destination address  Execute cycle/Machine Cycle Memory: Memory stores both:  ∙ A program while it is running ∙ The data on which the program operate  Addresses:  ∙ Every memory location has an address, whole numbers starting at 0  Values: ∙ Memory locations record or store values Finite Capacity:  ∙ Memory locations have a finite capacity (limited size) ∙ Data may not “fit” in the memory location  ∙ Byte Size Memory Location:  o Discrete locations have 1 byte each o 1 byte memory locations can store one ASCII character or a number less  than 256  o Memory Words: blocks of four bytesCPU: Control Unit ∙ “Central Processing Unit” > within the CPU is the Control Unit ∙ The control unit controls the Fetch/Execute Cycle  ∙ ADD 4000, 2000, 2080 o Numbers stored in the locations 2000 and 2080 are combined and then  stored in the location 4000 CPU: ALU ∙ “Central Processing Unit” > within the CPU is the ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)  ∙ Performs mathematical operations and comparisons ∙ It uses logic gates or simpler circuits that implement operations like AND and OR ∙ These circuits are combined to perform more complex operations  Input Unit and Output Unit ∙ Circuits and connections through which information moves into and out of the  computer  ∙ A computer without an input/output is useless  Peripherals:  ∙ The keyboard encodes our keystrokes into binary form for the computer ∙ The monitor decodes the information from the computer’s memory and displays it on screen ∙ The peripherals handle the physical part of the operation  o Input: mouse, keyboard, scanner  o Output: screen, printer, monitor  ∙ Portable Memory & Hard drives  o Some peripherals are used by computers for both input and output   USB memory  Hard disks/drives o They are storage devices o The hard disk is the alpha­peripheral being the most tightly linked device  to the computer  ∙ Device driver for every peripheral:  o When the computer receives information that I’ve pressed the w and the key  simultaneously, the computer—not the keyboard—converts the w keystroke to an  uppercase W. Similarly, keys like and are just keys to the keyboard. Added  processing by a piece of software called a device driver gives the keyboard its  standard meaning and behavior.Hard Disk:  ∙ Essential ∙ It stores programs and data permanently  Program Counter (Instruction Counter) (next instruction address) ∙ How does the computer determine which instruction that it should execute next? ∙ Address of the Next Instruction o The next instruction is stored in memory and the computer has its address o Computers use this address (known as the program counter or PC) to   keep track of the next instruction Branch and Jump instructions ∙ Not all instruction follow a strict sequence ∙ The instruction may include another memory location (address) to go next  ∙ Instead of going to PC+4: the computer jumps or branches to the specified  location (address)  Instruction Interpretation Computer Clock ∙ The rate of the Fetch/Execute Cycle is determined by the computer’s clock  ∙ Measured in megahertz of cycles per second  o Mega = millions; Hertz = cycles per second   Clock Tick ­ Each step of the cycle executes with a tick of the computer clock ­ 5 ticks Assembly Language ­ taylors code = source code ­ bits processors need = object code ­ intermediate between 2 = assembly code Compiling­ going from source to assembly to binary Integrated circuits ­ complex technology made cheap and reliable ­ miniaturization: very small, processor chips are tiny­ allow for fast processing ­ integration: active and connective parts of a circuit are built together, saves space (promoting speed)  ­ integrated circuits made by photolithography ­ photolithography (printing process): begins by depositing a layer of material on the silicon o photoresist­ light sensitive material hardens when exposed to UV o other parts can get etched away by hot gas o repeat process of patterning and etching 1. A machine instruction uses how many bytes of memory? a. 1 b. 2 c. 4 d. 128 2. Converting code that a programmer writes into assembly code is called a. compiling b. assembling c. F/E cycle d. integrating 3. What has made computers faster? a. making everything out of silicon b. making everything smaller c. making everything farther apart d. making the F/E cycle more complicated 4. Which of the following is used for input and output? a. keyboard b. hard disk c. mouse d. printer 5. The processor has how many moving parts? a. too many to count b. 8 c. 2 d. 0 6. From smallest to largest, the correct order of prefixes is a. giga, kilo, mega, tera b. kilo, mega, giga, tera c. tera, kilo, mega, giga d. kilo, mega, tera, giga 7. Modern computers know a. only a few instructions b. a couple dozen instructionsc. about a hundred instructions d. thousands of instructions 8. Rerunning a program with the same data produces a. different results depending on the time of day b. exactly the same result every time c. different results depending on which computer it is run on d. the same results most of the time but sometimes it is different Review Questions 265 266 Chapter 9 Principles of Computer Operations 9. If this.Opacity += 1.0; increases the opacity, what line of code would decrease the opacity? a. this.Opacity = 1.0; b. this.Opacity –= 1.0; ­­­­­­ c. this.Opacity ++ 1.0; d. this.Opacity – – 1.0; 10. Which of the following characteristics of a computer depends on the number of Fetch/Execute Cycles it performs per second? a. memory size b. price c. speed d. ALU Short Answer 1. _______ deterministically execute instructions to process information. Computers 2. Without the _______, the processor is not capable of doing anything interesting 3. _______ is an acronym for the name of the location where computer programs run and data is stored. . RAM (random access memory) 4. The _______ part of the computer is the hardware part of the Fetch/Execute Cycle. 5. In addition to fetching instructions, the F/E cycle also fetches _______.DATA 6. The math in the computer is done by the _______. 7. The _______ encodes keystrokes into binary form for the computer. Keyboard 8. The computer’s clock speed is measured in _______. 9. Every memory location has a(n) _______. Address 10. The _______ keeps track of the next instruction to execute. 11. A(n) _______ sometimes conducts electricity and sometimes does not. Semiconductor 12. The flow of electricity in a channel in a semiconductor is controlled by a(n) _______. 13. _______ is a long list of words, more accurately, a long series of 0’s and 1’s that make up a computer program. Binary object  file 14. A_______ is required for every peripheral connected to your computer. 15. _______ is a program that extends the operations a computer can perform beyond the hardwired machine instructions. Operating system 16. The active and connective parts of a circuit are built _______.    Chapter 17 ­ Programming Concepts  Names (including rules for identifiers and case sensitivity), values and variables  Variables & Values: ∙ A variable can have changing values ∙ When a program is running: o Variable is a memory location o Value is what is stored at the location ∙ When a program is written o Variables are referred to by their names  o Values are assigned Rules for Variable Names  Identifier: a unique identifier for a variable’s name  ∙ It must begin with a letter ∙ Any sequence of letters, numerals, or the underscore symbol ∙ No space inside identifiers ∙ Case sensitive  Initialization and Declaration  Variable Declaration Statement: This command declares that two identifiers will be used  at variables  ∙ The keyword var followed by a list of the identifiers for the variables to be  declared, separated by commas. ∙ The statement is terminated by a semicolon.Example: Var area, radius;  ∙ Identifiers = area and radius  ∙ No values yet assigned to these variables Initializing A Declaration:  ∙ Sometimes there is an initial value for identifiers o Javascript allows setting the initial value as part of the declaration o This is called initializing the variable ∙ Declaring variables with initial values are written as: Example:  One Initialization: var taxRate = .088;  var balanceDue = .0;  OR  Multiple initializations: Var taxRate = .088, balanceDue = 0;  Data types: numbers, string literals, Booleans (Three Basic Data Types of  JavaScript)  Types of Data used: Numbers, Strings, and Booleans Numbers: numbers must be written in decimal form 1 Example: 0.33 rather than 33%; 10.89 rather than $10.89 Strings: are “sequences of keyboard characters” ∙ Surrounded by single (‘) or double (‘) quotes ∙ Double quoted strings can contain single quotes and vice versa o To use double quotes in a string enclose the string in single quotes   Example: var answer = ‘ He said, “Wait up!” ‘  o To use single quotes enclose the string in double quotes  Example: var book = “Guide to B&B’s”  o Use double quotes as default  ∙ Empty string: “” Examples:var answer_1 = "No"; var answer_2 = 'I said, "No!"' var good_book = "Guide to B&B's" var empty_string = "" var single_space = " " Surrounding quotes are removed when a string is stored ­ Called a “string literal” Boolean: there are only two Boolean values – true and false ∙ These are values not strings ∙ Used implicitly throughout the programming process  Assignment Statements  ∙ It changes a variable’s value ∙ <variable> = <expression>; o <variable> is any declared variable in the program <expression> ∙ An initialization is an assignment too! ∙ Three parts that always occur in this order:  <variable> <assignment symbol> <expression>;  Examples: var price_burger; price_burger = 5; //The price of a burger is made  //equal to $5 price_burger = 7;  //price increase! price_burger = price_burger + 1.50 ; Equal sign ‘=‘ is the assignment operatorOperators: Assignment, Arithmetic, Relational, Logical, operator overload  Arithmetic: ∙ Expressions usually follow rules similar to formulas ∙ Nothing for powers.  o Use x*x etc ∙ Precedence of operators ∙ By pass order using parenthesis Examples:  price_t = price + price*1.50; total = exams + assignments; Relational: Logical:  ∙ logical and operator && o a && b is true if both a and b are true.  ∙ logical or operator || o a || b is true if either a is true or b is true, or both are true ∙ logical not  operator ! o !a has opposite truth value of a o It is a unary operator (takes a single operand) Example: var x, y, z, w; x = true; y= !x; //value of y is false z = x || y; //value of z is true w= !( y && z); // Operator Overload: ∙ + means addition when operands are numeric∙ + means concatenation when the operands are strings ∙ The meaning of + is overloaded: Example: Get user input from a webpage and respond. Use the following: • <script> </script> tags to enclose code • Get input via a prompt box var s=prompt('Enter your name'); • Write to the page with document.write() document.write("Hello World!"); Example (Implementation): We will discuss and improve on code similar to: <script> var name = prompt(“Enter your name"); var s = prompt(“Enter your score"); var p = s*(100/90); document.write("Hello" + name); document.write("You got" + p + "%"); </script> Expressions  Conditional Statements: The If Statement: if (<Boolean expression>) <then­statement>; <Boolean expression> has true or false value<then­statement> is any statement that will be executed if the Boolean statements  evaluates true if (waterTemp < 32)   waterState = "Frozen"; The If/Else Statement if (<Boolean expression>) <then­statement>; else <else­statement>; if (waterTemp < 32)   waterState = "Frozen"; else   waterState = “Fluid"; Compound Statements  {} collects single statements together to become a compound statement if (score == 100) {  extra_credit = extra_credit + 5;  total = total + extra_credit;  document.write(“Perfect!”); } Example: if( percent >= 90 ) { grade = "A";}else if( percent >= 85 ) { grade = "B+";} else if( percent >= 80 ) { … else if( percent >= 60 ) { grade = "D";} else { grade = "F";} An Expression and Its Syntax  Keywords (reserved words – you do not have to memorize all of them), escape  mechanisms  Escape Mechanisms: ∙ The escape symbol is the backslash (\) Embedding JavaScript in HTML5, document.write(), prompt() and alert()  Short Answer 1. A(n) ________ terminates every statement in a program. Semicolon 2. The ________ symbol cannot be used to name identifiers. 3. A(n) _______ is a systematic way of solving a problem so that an agent can follow the instructions and get the correct result. Program 4. A(n) _______ is the letter sequence of a variable’s name. 5. Variables are created using a(n) _______ statement. Declaration  6. To _______ a variable is to assign a value to a variable. 7. +, –, *, and / are called _______. Binary / arithmetic operators 8. A(n) _______ operator has only one operand. 9. _______ are used to make comparisons. Relational Operators 10. The _______ command changes the value of a variable. 11. Joining two strings together using the + is called _______. Concatenation 12. In programming, the if statement is called a _______. 13. When an else statement follows an if statement and the if statement is false, the_______ statement will execute. Else  14. _______ are used to group several statements into a compound statement. 15. Natural languages are too _______ for directing a computer. Ambiguous     Chapter 18­ Creating Graphical User Interfaces using forms How to refer to forms within a page Event­Based Programming – button, text box, radio button; events associated with  them and how to use event handlers  Event­Based Programming Text Box ­ The text box can be used to input or output numbers or words. Its general form is: <input type="text" id="ref_name" value="displayed_text" size="n"  onchange="event_handler" /> <input type="text" id="eg" value="Initial Entry" size = "10" onchange=" ... "/>Radio Buttons ­ Radio buttons give a selection of preprogrammed settings. Their general form is: <input type="radio" name="identifier" onclick="event_handler" />label text <input type="radio" name="pick" onclick=" ... "/> choice 1<br/> <input type="radio" name="pick" onclick=" ... "/> choice 2 Buttons ­ Buttons are clickable and have a single response <input type="button" value="label " onclick="event_handler" /> <input type="button" value="Click Me" onclick=" ... "/> Buttons must be within the form tags To make buttons larger, add spaces before and after the name ­ &nbsp is the symbol we use, stands for nonbreaking space 1. ________ are the tags that should enclose JavaScript text. <Script> </Script> 2. The _______ tags surround the input elements. FORM 3. A(n) ________ occurs when a button is clicked on a UI. Event 4. The _______ needs to be named in order for the input tags to be associated with the correct form. Form tag 5. A(n) event _______ responds to an event. Handler 6. The ________ is being changed by the assignment statement disp.value = "0.00". 7. _______ elements are used for both input and output. Input 8. Event handlers can refer to values in other tags by using the _______. Id9. Automatic highlighting as you move from button to button in a form is called Focus _______. 10. HTML replaces all white space with one ________. White space Text Fields:  <form> <input type="text" id="your_id" value=""> </form> id attribute Used to get the the value of the data collected by the input element, e.g.  x = your_id.value; Example: <form> Temperature F: <input type="text" name=“temp_f"><br> Temperature C: <input type="text" name=“temp_c"> </form> Radio Buttons: <form> <input type=“radio" name=“gender" value=“Female"> <br> <input type=“radio" name=“gender" value=“Male"> </form> Buttons: <form> <input type=“button" value=“Convert"> onclick= “event_handler” </form>The event handle refers to the code that will be executed when the button is clicked        Chapter 19  Input Elements: An HTML form can contain input elements: ∙ text fields ∙ checkboxes ∙ radio­buttons ∙ submit buttons and more ∙ Can also contain other elements:∙ select lists, textarea, … JavaScript rules for: functions, declarations, return values, function calls, scope of  reference, and local/global variable reference, Forms and Functions  Functions: ∙ If we have a lot of code, onclick can get unmanageable ∙ Functions help us by putting the code in one place ∙ Just call the function when we need it Anatomy of a Function: Syntax: • Parentheses always follow a function name • <parameter list> is a list of names for the inputs separated by commas • Curly braces Parameters: • Follow rules for identifiers • Used inside function body (as variables) Example:  function convertF2C(temp_in_f){   var temp_in_c;   temp_in_c = (temp_in_f ­32)*5/9;   return temp_in_c; }Returning a value: ∙ There must be a way to say what the result is function convertF2C(temp_in_f){   var temp_in_c;   temp_in_c = (temp_in_f ­32)*5/9;   return temp_in_c; } ∙ Possible to return the value of an expression too! Calling A Function: • How do you use a function? – write the function’s name  – and put the input values in parentheses – Then reference it in your onclick Example: convertF2C(76); convertF2C(temp_f.value); Then… <form> … <input type=“button” value=“convert” onclick= “temp_c.value=convertF2C(temp_f)” /> </form>Function Location In A Code: <head> … <script>   function convertF2C(temp_in_f){  var temp_in_c; temp_in_c = (temp_in_f ­ 32)*5/9; return temp_in_c;   } </script> </head> You should be able to write and use simple functions  Built­in functions: Date(), Math.random(), Math.floor(), Math.round()  Reasons for using functions 1. _______ are variables in a function that do not need to be declared with a var statement. Parameters  2. The two major benefits of using functions are _______ and _______. Reuse and simplification  (complexity control) 3. From the perspective of the function body, input values for a function are called _______. Arguments 4. JavaScript uses _______ dates. UNIX 5. A random number generated in JavaScript is always between _______ and _______. 0 and 1 6. There is a strong tradition in coding to _______ code. Share 7. A _______ is a request to the computer to execute the statements inside the function. Call 8. The minimum number of parameters when writing a function is _______. Zero               Chapter 20  Iteration Principles:  ∙ Repeat o 5 repeats, means you may have done it once followed by 5 more times  ∙ Iterate o 5 iterations means that you do it 5 more times ∙ Iteration means looping through a series of statements to repeat them  ∙ In JavaScript, the main iteration statements is the for loop  JavaScript Rules for ‘for Loops’.  The parts of the for loop including what is allowed and not allowed in each part for ( <initialization>; <continuation>; <next iteration> ) {<statement list>}  Loop Syntax:  for ( <initialization>; <continuation>; <next iteration> )  { <statement list> Performed the right number of times  } ∙ The whole statement sequence is performed for each iteration ∙ Control Specification o Initialization, continuation, next iteration o Controls the number of times the loop iterates  for (j=1; j < = 3; j=j + 1) { <statement list> } ∙ Use an iteration variable  ∙ Iteration variables are normal variables and must be declared ∙ This example uses j as the iteration variable  For ( var j=0; j<n; j++) {<statement list> } Example: Produce an Alert box  Iteration Variables: ∙ Iteration variables are normal variables but just used in an iteration ∙ They must be declared using the same rules for identifiers ∙ Programmers tend to choose short or even single letter identifiers for iteration o I, j, k are the most common What can go wrong in a loop: (Never ending or not running...)  Be able to trace through a loop and be able to figure out the values of the variables  during an iteration.  Arrays  var <identifier> = new Array(<number of elements>) var week = new Array(7); has elements week(0) to week(6)Indexing and rules for Arrays  Array declaration, initialization, indexing, length  Using an array with a for loop  Short Answer 1. The _______ is the browser’s data structure for the page. Document Object Model 2. The first step of the second iteration of a loop is the _______ test. Continuation 3. The shortcut to add 1 to i and store it back into i is _______. I++4. A loop that never ends is known as a(n) _______. Infinite loop 5. A loop inside a loop is called a(n) _______. Nested Loop 6. Math.abs() is used in JavaScript to find _______. Absolute value 7. The elements of an array are accessed by their _______. Index 8. The number of elements in an array is its _______. Length 9. The _______ is the number of frames per second that are displayed in an animation. Frame rate 10. The highest valid index in an array is its _______. (elements­1)∙ Language o Binary- 1 or 0 (groups of 4) o Decimal- 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15, o Hexidecimal- 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F ∙ Why is a computer a computer? o it computes o processes inputs into outputs o Doesn’t have do by electronic o Not analog ∙ Acronyms (2014 test) o DNS- Domain Name System o URL- Universal Resource Locator o IP- Internet Protocol  o TCP- Transmission Control Protocol  o WAN- Wide Area Network o WWW- World Wide Web o GIF- Graphic Interchange Format o MP3- MPEG Level 3 ∙ Meta data o Information describing information. /react-text  o It does not require its own binary encoding. /react-text  o Metadata is separate from the information that it describes. o Used with tags ∙ Board o (foundation) where you lay all components to work together o RAM- volatile, doesn’t save when computer shuts down, fast o Hard drives- hold storage (even when computer is off) ∙ Software stack o Layers of different programming o Hardware to kernel to OS to Apps top layer is for user  o Developer doesn’t have to worry about lower layer, only OS o Feedback is what the user sees rather than the code that’s  running  ∙ Algorithm o Precise and systematic method  o Set of instructions to get something done o Computer program uses algorithms  ∙ GUI-graphical user interface o Webpage- how it looks and how you interact with it o Metaphor- saying something in an easier way  Oldest is the desktop metaphore  Touch metaphor- sliding an ipad with your finder to scroll  through cover flow ∙ How Digital sound is obtained from analog waveso Sound is broken a number of samples expressed by Hertz  measured per second o Sample represented by bits (bit depth) of resolution of the  sample. More bits, better fidelity obtained on the frequencies  range o More samples per second, better reproduction of the original  wave ∙ Lossy o Ex JPG- human eye can see fine small pixels so it compresses  into bigger/less pictures. To the human eye it looks the same with less memory o Can’t be recovered ∙ Lossless o Can be recovered exactly ∙ Colors o Digital images are made of pixels that are made of 3 colors each  RGB which combine to a single color. Each pixel is 3 bits and  each color can have 256 different combos .224 2563=16. Different colors/combinations o #FFFFFF o #00FF00 or (12,210,124) - RGB most dominate in green o to make brighter or darker, increase the values of RGB by equal  amounts o to add color to black and white picture  add a number to some  sub-pixels and subtract from other sub-pixels o to increase contrastequalize pixels by adding large amounts to  small pixels and small amounts to large pixels ∙ Samples o Nyquist rule- sampling frequency should be twice highest  frequency o Hz = something per second o how many samples? 16000 samples per second o number of sample * how big the sample is * time  o must be sample because can’t process  o bit depth vs sampling?? ∙ 8 bits= 1 byte ∙ 1 pixel= 3 bytes ∙ How many transistors from 15 values o One transistor is 2 values, needs 8= 16 ∙ Conversions  o Bin right to left, add zeros to front if necessary ∙ Internet o Biggest to smallest: internetWWWLAN o Network protocols are the set of rules which networks devices  meet to follow in order to make communication possibleo When documents are requested by a client the server will start  answering the request and sending packets out into the network  which will be assembled by the client in the right order o Information travels by packets o Network of networks- constantly growing o Client- requesting information o Server- answers response, may go to another server  ∙ IP Address o Address of clients in network o 32 bits=(four groups of 8 bits) (each can be from 0-255) o IPv4 addresses are canonically represented in dot-decimal  notation, which consists of four decimal numbers, each ranging  from 0 to 255, separated by dots, e.g., Each part  represents a group of 8 bits (octet) of the address. In some cases of technical writing, IPv4 addresses may be presented in various  hexadecimal, octal, or binary representations. ∙ TCP o Set of rules ∙ URL vs IP o Google.com vs IP (00.10.12)  http- protocol   www.website.com- domain  /specific/web/page.html- pathnames o Holds mapping between server and IP ∙ Searching o A web crawler is a piece of software that scans the World Wide  Web. It functions are to create indexes of webpages and to  calculate their Page Rank  Index tags to help website: <title>, anchor texts, <meta>  <h1>, alt pic tags o Tokens=words o Page rank is a number used to rank web pages o OR- one or the other, not both o AND- one and the other o “-“do not associate o “my name is” make words a string, rather than my AND name  AND is ∙ HTML  o latest version is HTML5 (better or smartphones) o files must be text files o Skeleton tags- <hr> <br> o Not case sensitive, not all tags come in pairs o Basic Body o Comments o Head vs Bodyo Escape symbol – ex; “&” can be used as an and sign but is also  used in HTML code o <pre> preserves white space needed for “How are you  today”  o Basic Tags <p> <br> <img> o <hr><br> are singleton tags <DOCTYPE! html> <html> <head> <!--comment--> </head> <body> <h1> Biggest </h1> <h6> Smallest </h6> <a href="https://www.website.com”> THIS IS THE TEXT UNDERLINED  BLUE</a> <img src=”images/apples.png” alt=”apples” style=”width: 500px”/> <ul> <li>This is a</li> <li>List</li> <ol> <li>this is an</li> <li> ordered sub list</li> </ol> </ul> <table border=”1” style="color: red; font-family: times"> <caption>TABLE</caption> <tr> <th>Header A1</th> <th>Header B1</th> </tr> </tr> <td>A2</td> <td>B2</td> <tr> </table> </html>------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------- Comp Apps for Business: Study Guide Chapter 1: Defining Information Technology Hardware: Computers built out of wires, rollers, and motors Software: A collective term for programs, the instructions computers perform to implement  applications.  User Experience: Together, hardware and software present a virtual world that doesn’t exist, but  which we experience (we experience something that is very different from what the computer  actually does) Software Stack: Layered software development. Software gets more and more complex, and  more and more sophisticated based on the combined efforts of many programmers. ­ Software development applies a layered approach in which programs at one level apply  code for the more primitive operations from lower levels, and provide more advanced  facilities for higher levels. Algorithms: A precise and systematic method for producing a specified result Chapter 2: Human­Computer Interface Feedback: Any indication that either the computer is still working or has completed the request Consistent Interface: User interfaces­­icons, menus, etc.­­tend to be similar (user friendly) New Instance: The structure without any properties or content filled in (ex. A blank PowerPoint  file) Perfect Reproduction: Because digital information is represented by binary code, files can be  exactly reproduced, unlike things like vinyl records or newspapers Copying/Pasting: Reproduces content and other characteristics of the source value, minimizing  formatting mistakesMetaphors: An icon or image or a concept used as a representative of or symbolic of  computation (ex: the business desktop metaphor   trash can icon, “desktop” of a computer) → Graphical User Interface: (GUI) file extension (e.g. picture.gif) that specifies a graphic image  format Chapter 3: Networking Synchronous communications: Requires that both the sender and the receiver are active at the  same time (e.g. telephone conversation) Asynchronous communications: The sending and receiving occur at different times (e.g. text  messages) Types of communications by number of receivers: Synchronous Asynchronous Broadcast Multicast Point­to­Point Broadcast: Involves a single sender and many receivers (e.g. radio and television) Multicast: Many receivers, but the intended recipients are not the whole population (e.g.  magazines) Point­to­Point: One specific sender and one specific recipient (e.g. text messages and phone  calls) Client / Server Structure: Most Internet interactions use this protocol. (Your computer is the  client and the computer, which the Web page is stored, is the server computer) IP Addresses: (Internet Protocol Address) A sequence of four numbers separated by dots. Each  computer connected to the Internet has one of these unique addresses (range= 256^4) Domain Names: Used to name computers, rather than their IP addresses (rutgers.edu) DNS Servers: Hierarchical structure we used to name computers. Top­Level Domains: (.com, .gov, .edu, .int, .mil, .net, .org, etc.)TCP/IP protocol: (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)  Any information sent over the Internet is broken into a sequence of small, fixed­size units  (postcard analogy). Packets: (The Postcards)  Small pieces of information that are sent separately and are assembled in sequence   contain a  → destination address, a source address, and a sequencing number WAN: (Wide Area Networks)  Networks designed to send information between two locations widely separated and not directly  connected LAN: (Local Area Networks)  Used when computers are close enough to be linked by a single cable or pair of wires (e.g.  Ethernet connection) Ethernet: Main technology that for local area networks. Links computers in a building or  computer lab Connecting to the Internet: 2 Methods exist. (1) Via Internet Service Provider (ISP) (2) Connecting provided by a campus or enterprise network ISP: (Internet Service Provider) Companies that sell connections to the Internet Campus or Enterprise Network: The organization’s system administrators connect the computers to form a LAN or interconnected LAN’s using Ethernet Wireless Networks: A variation on the LAN connection and is often referred to by its protocol  name (802.11). A router is physically connected to an ISP’s modem and is capable of  broadcasting and receiving radio frequency (RF) signals. The World Wide Web: The sum of Web servers and their files define the WWW Protocol: The http:// part, which stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol, tells the computer how  to handle the file Server name: The (eden.rutgers.edu) part which gives the name of the server in the domain  hierarchy Page's pathname: The (/~js1681/a4_home.html) part that gives the pathname saying where to  find the page or file Describing a Web page by HTML:Advantages = Lets us build nonlinear documents, which are ideal for the dynamic and highly  interconnected Internet. Chapter 4: HTML HTML5: Benefits ­ has <audio> and <video> tags, while previous information still applies Tags: Bold, Italic, Paragraph, underline ­ <b> Bold </b> <i> Italic </i> <p> Paragraph </p>  <u>underline</u> Tags: Singleton = tags that are not paired and so do not have a matching ending tag. In those cases,  such as Horizontal Rule, the following would apply: <hr> ­ Also: break <br> document type <!DOCtype> images <img src>   Required tags: <!DOCTYPE HTML> , <HTML> </HTML> , <head> </head> , <body>  </body> Headings: The place to describe characteristics of the whole page White Space: Space inserted to make a document more readable Escape Symbol: To show angle brackets on the screen (when showing a mathematical formula,  for example), we must use the ampersand symbol (&) followed by an abbreviation followed by a semicolon.  ­ For example: &lt; displays as <, &gt; displays as >, and &amp; displays as & Markup Validation Service: A service that checks to make sure your HTML does not violate any  HTML5 rules. If there is an error, the service tells you where the mistakes are Marking links with anchor tags: There must be two parts of a hyperlink: the text in the current  document that the user sees (anchor text), and the URL of the web page (hyperlink reference) Absolute pathnames: References using a full URL Relative pathnames: References that link to pages on the same web page, and therefore only  display the file name that is being linked to     Going  “    deeper  ” in a folder: When the file containing the anchor and the referenced file are in the  same folder­­ we just give the file name.  ­ When the referenced file is “deeper” in the directory, we simply give the path from the  current folder down to the file.    Going  “    higher  ” in the hierarchy: To create a path that goes up into an enclosing folder, use “../”  (dot­dot­slash) Including picture with image tags: <img src=”filename.jpg” alt=”Title”/>This is the picture</a> Attributes: href, src, alt ­ href: hypertext reference, src: source of an image, alt: alternative name  for an image Styles: Tag to use to add CSS to a document or to a specific element (such as headers or a table) CSS (Main concepts): Cascading Style Sheets … Use <style> </style> to integrate CSS into an  HTML document List tags: Ordered, Unordered ­ Ordered: <ol> </ol> Unordered: <ul> </ul> Tables: A table is enclosed in the table6 tags, <table> and </table>. Each row is enclosed in row  tags, <tr> and </tr>. The cells of each row are enclosed in table data tags, <td> and </td> Chapter 5: Locating Information on the WWW Crawlers: The software that visits every Web page that it can find (starts with a list of URLs  [seeds] and from there finds other URLs to add to the list [the frontier]).  ­ Main work: build an index. Multiword searches: We mean that each page returned should be associated with all of these  words (this is called an AND­query) Descriptive terms: The crawler searches HTML tags for the terms we input. They look in the title tags, anchor text, heading tags, etc.   when they find a matching descriptive term, that is called a → “hit” Title: The title tags enclose a short phrase describing the whole Web page Anchor text: The highlighted link text, which is inside <a … > tags, describes the page it links to Meta: Web page creators can add a <meta name=”description” … /> tag in the head section,  which can give a several­sentence description of the content of the page Alt attributes: Recall that the <img … /> tag has an alt attribute that gives a textual description of a picture Page Ranks: The order in which hits are returned to a query is determined by PageRank. The  higher the PageRank, the closer to the top of the list a page will beAdvanced Searches: These searches use logical operators  Logical Operators: AND, OR, NOT ­ A logical operator specifies a logical relationship between  the words it connects Combining Logical Operators: Sometimes the queries we are interested in need AND, OR, and  NOT operators. We can combine them and group them using parentheses: (marshmallow OR  strawberry OR chocolate) AND sundae Site search: Searching through the Web pages of one particular site. Filtered searches: Options that allow us to search for websites with particular criteria. For  example, using filtered searches, we can restrict the results to Web pages with .edu domains Primary, Secondary and Tertiary sources: Primary: A person who has direct knowledge of the information. Secondary: People who interview primary sources, such as reporters and journalists.  Tertiary: People who watch journalists on TV or read newspaper reports Authoritative Sources: Pages that are reliable, likely to be true, and correct (what experts say) Chapter 7: Representing Information Digitally PandA: (mnemonic for presence and absence)  Describes information that is “black” or “white.” We must definitely decide if it’s present or  absent Binary system: An observation with only two possible alternatives Hex notation: (Hexadecimal Numbering System)  As a base 16 numbering system, hex has 16 numerals, which it gets by first sharing the decimal  digits and then using the first six Latin letters. Digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F Binary numbers compared with Decimal numbers: Binary numbers are different from decimal  numbers by being limited to two digits rather than the customary ten digits. The number of  digits­­the base of the numbering system­­is really the only difference. Conversions: Hexadecimal, Decimal, Binary Digitizing text: ASCII, Extended ASCII, Unicode ­ ASCII: (American Standard Code for  Information Interchange) Metadata: Data about data (ex: a library card does not just have the title of the book on it, it has  the author, publisher, pages, abstract, date published, etc.) Chapter 8: Representing Multimedia Digitally Digitizing Color: represent intensity of RGB (red, green, blue) light by a binary number; need  one byte for every color; representing the color of a single pixel requires 3 bytes (smallest  intensity: 0000 0000 highest intensity: 1111 1111) RGB lights: Red, Green, Blue lights. Can mix the 3 colors at different intensities to make any  variation of colors Black and White colors: Black (no light): 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 (00 00 00 in Hex) White (the fullest intensity of every color): 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 (FF FF FF in Hex) Intensities: How bright/luminous a color is. ­ Highest Intensity Blue would be 00 00 FF, or 0,0,255 Lighten Up: Changing Colors = changing colors by additions (to make a lighter color of grey,  change the common value to be closer to white [higher]) Increasing Intensities: increase the color intensity by making the number (associated to that color byte) larger  (1111 or 255) example, most intense green would be 00, 255, 00 Increasing Brightness: increase numbers, but keep their relative relationships: 197,197,197  becomes 213,213,213. To increase, add 16 to each pixel.  Changing Contrast: “stretch out” the intensities   add an amount to each pixel, but for darker  → pixels add smaller amount and for lighter pixels add a larger amount  Adding Color to a Black and White picture: any code with R, G, and B with the same/ equal  values will result in a shade of grey.  So if the values are unequal, you will add color. Digitizing Sound •   An object creates sound by vibrating in a medium (such as air) •   Vibrations push the air causing pressure waves to emanate from the object, which in turn  vibrate our eardrums •   Vibrations are then transmitted by three tiny bones to the fine hairs of our cochlea ­ Stimulating nerves that allow us to sense the waves and “hear” them as sound •   The force, or intensity of the push, determines the volume •   The frequency (the number of waves per second) of the pushes is the pitch Analog to Digital: Sampling•   To digitize, you must convert to bits •   SW = use a binary number to record the amount that the wave is above or below the 0 line at a given point on our graph •   Sample or take measurements at regular intervals •   The faster the rate the more accurately the wave is recorded Sampling rate: Number of samples in a second is called the sampling rate MP3 •   MP3 is really a form of computing on the representation •   It allows for compression (with a ratio of more than 10:1) •   Another key advantage of digital representations is that digital can be reproduced exactly •   MP­3 is probably the most famous compression scheme ­ MP3 is lossy because the high notes cannot be recovered Digitizing Images and Video • An image is a long sequence of RGB pixels • The picture is two dimensional, but think of the pixels stretched out one row after another in  memory Image compression • Compression means to change the representation in order to use fewer bits to store or transmit  information ­ Example: faxes are a sequences of 0’s and 1’s that encode where the page is white (0) or  black (1) Lossless: original representation can be perfectly reconstructed Lossy: original representation cannot be perfectly reconstructed JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group = lossy compression technique for images GIF: Graphics Interchange Format = encoding for icons, cartoons, simple art JPG: •   JPG (or JPEG) is a lossy compression for images. ­ Exploits the same kinds of “human perception” characteristics that MP3 does, only for  light and color Luminance: sensitivity to changes in brightness, we are sensitive to small changes in brightness Chrominance: sensitivity to differences in color, we are not sensitive to small differences in color MPEG: Motion Picture Experts Group, same idea as JPEG but for motion picturesB. Paragraph questions: 1. Explain the how modern monitors represent colors. ­ There are many ways to classify monitors. The most basic is in terms of color  capabilities, which separates monitors into three classes:  Monochrome : Monochrome monitors actually display two colors, one for the  background and one for the foreground. The colors can be black and white, green  and black, or amber and black.  Gray­scale :A gray­scale monitor is a special type of monochrome monitor  capable of displaying different shades of gray.  Color: Color monitors can display anywhere from 16 to over 1 million different  colors. Color monitors are sometimes called RGB monitors because they accept  three separate signals ­­ red, green, and blue. 2. Explain the usage of the Ethernet technology and contrast it with the Internet. ­ Ethernet is the main technology for local area networks and is appropriate for connecting  all the computers in the building. Ethernet is a term that is used to identify a group of  technologies that allows for computers to be interconnected in order to transmit data from one to the other. There are thousands of ethernets all over the world but there is only one  Internet.  3. Explain the process followed by Search Engines to produce hit lists when users perform  searches on the World Wide Web. 4. Explain how you would increase the intensity of an image. C. Multiple Choice ­ True/False Questions 1. Which of the following is an example of the computer providing feedback to the user?             a) Editing changes become visible on the screen.       b) The cursor changes to indicate an operation is in progress.       c) A progress bar shows how much of the work is done. d) All of the above2. HTML tags contain both description and content of information.       a) True b) False                                                                                                                                                3. The PandA system uses 8 bits to represent all characters and punctuation marks. a) True b) False Acronyms that must be known:TCP                           Transmission control protocol IP                          internet protocol PNG                           portable network graphic file         HREF                           hypertext reference JPEG                           joint photographic experts group GIF                           graphic interchange format MPEG                           motion picture experts group PCM                           pulse­code modulation GUI                           graphical user interface HTML                           hypertext markup language HDMI                           high definition multimedia interface ARM                           Advanced RISC machine RISC Reduced instruction set computer WAN                           Wide area network LAN                           local area network ASCII                            American Standard code for information interchange        ISP                           Internet Service provider DNS                           Domain Name system                  CSS                           Cascading Style Sheets URL                           universal resource locator TLD                           top level domain HTTP                          hypertext transfer protocol CLI command line interface WWW world wide web DSL digital subscriber line CPU central processing unit IC integrated circuit UTF Unicode Transformation FormatAlgorithm: a set of instructions to complete a task ∙ They are efficient GUI: graphical user interface—how it looks File Extension Which file extension uses lossless completion ∙ .jpg— decomposes photos into chunks, bigger pixels less memory, it is  compressed, MP3: lossless ∙ Chop the frequencies ∙ Puts a bunch of files together and compresses them into a file you can get  back #ffffff is white #00ff00 is green What is a hert (Hz)= sample/second ∙ 16,000 Hz= 16,000 samples/second # of samples times how big the sample is  What is the internet: a network of networks Client server model: client requests information (receiver) ∙ Answers request server (sender) ∙ The way people talk IP address: network address ∙ Kinda like a street address for networks ∙ 32 bits in an IP addresses o 4 parts each part is (0,256) What is TCP? What is it used for? ∙ 3-way handshake ∙ Set of rules What is the glue between a URL and an IP address ∙ DNSo Holds the mapping between URL’s and IP address Search “My name is” – Eminem Quotes tell search engine to include the string “my name is”  A minus sign will omit that string Ex: Mathematics (quantum OR “Linear algebra”) First looks at all the sites that contain (quantum OR “Linear algebra”) HTML <!DOCTYPE htm> <html> <head></head> <body> <h1> big heading</h1> <hr> line break <img src=”intsertlocalimagenamehere.png” alt=”yummy apples”  style=”width: 500px”/> <caption>title of the table here </caption> <table> <tr> <td> First column </td> <td>second column </td> <td>third column</td> </tr> </table> <ul> <li> Item A <ul><li>Subitem A</li> </ul> </li> </body>

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