BIO 106 FINAL STUDY GUIDE
BIO 106 FINAL STUDY GUIDE 2570
Popular in Bio 106- Organismal Biology
Popular in Biology
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Austin Horner on Friday May 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 2570 at Washington State University taught by Asaph Cousins & Raymond Lee in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 152 views. For similar materials see Bio 106- Organismal Biology in Biology at Washington State University.
Reviews for BIO 106 FINAL STUDY GUIDE
I was sick all last week and these notes were exactly what I needed to get caught up. Cheers!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 05/01/15
Keywords Reading Ch 45 General De nitions i is the collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism growth and development tissue function sexual function reproduction sleep and mood among other things any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behavior a type of neuron or nerve cell whose function is to translate neural signals into chemical stimuli any of a large group of fatsoluble organic compounds as the sterols bile acids and sex hormones most of which have speci c physiological action steroids get secreted by their speci c cells and transported throughout the body through the blood stream the balance of insulin and glucagon to maintain blood glucose secreted by the pancreas in response to elevated blood glucose following a meal Peptide hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas raises concentration of glucose in the blood stream adrenaline secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands Increases heart rate muscle strength blood pressure and metabolism Fight ight response hormone and neurotransmitter synthesized by dopamine Also ght ight response like epinephrine Corticotropin polypeptide hormone secreted by anterior pituitary gland Releases cortisol to control stress and low blood 0 TO C O 0 U1 9 O 0 signal outside of organisms A small often volatile chemical signal that functions in communication between animals emitted by female American cockroaches Human pheromones I used for chemical sensing in animals is present in humans chemical in human sweat I steroid found in human sweat 0 Will focus on chemical signals inside organisms O 0 Chemical signal secreted into body uids usually blood Effective in minute amounts 13 to 23 nanomoles per liter 5 millimoles per liter 0 2 to 4 million glucose molecules for every one testosterone Ratio of water molecules to testosterone molecules is 43 billion to one 0 O Steroid Amino acid derived 0 0 Made from cholesterol Include sex hormones 0 Single amino acids 0 Peptides 0 Proteins o Glycoproteins 0 Surface receptors 0 Within target cells internal receptors 0 Chemical signal bonding to receptor on plasma membrane 0 httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvqOVkedXDqQo o Glucose homeostasis 0 Stress and the adrenal gland The normalsteady physiological state of the body 0 Major fuel of cellular respiration 5mM High blood glucose causes pancreas beta cells to release insulin Body cells take up glucose liver cells take up glucose and convert it to glycogen a starch polymer made from man glucose molecules Blood glucose returns to normal insulin production stops This is an exam le of ne ative feedback regulation Low blood glucose causes pancreas alpha cells to release the hormone glucagon Glucagon stimulates the liver to break down glycogen releasing glucose O O O copious urine honey Autoimmune disorder cells of pancreas are targeted no ability to produce insulin usually occurs during childhood Reduced responsiveness of target cells or insulin de ciency usually occurs after age 40 O O O Shortterm response Epinephrine adrenaline and norepinephrine Longterm response ACTH and corticosteroids Know the gure showing the hypothalamus adrenal glands etc Spinal curd i mss section L Adrenal medulh secretes epinephrine and myrepn nuphrine Ad renal codex secretes mirwraloconicoids and giummnimdds kidney 9 secretes epinephrine adrenaline and norepinephrine 9 rapid response ght or ight response Some of the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine I Glycogen broken down to glucose I Increased BP breathing metabolic rate I Decreased blood ow to non essential organs I Increased alertness Longterm stress Stress 9 hypothalamus secretes releasing hormone 9 anterior pituitary secretes ACTH into bloodstream 9 ACTH stimulates cortex of the adrenal gland 9 cortex secretes corticosteroids into the bloodstream 9 prolonged increase in corticosteroids Corticosteroids Mineral and gluco corticoids released by adrenal cortex o Alpha baboons have lower circulating corticosteroids compared with betas low status but can raise their corticosteroids to higher levels than betas when under threat 0 Alphas have higher levels of corticosteroids all the time maybe continuous dominance struggles in their social groups or alphas are always poised to ght off outside threats to the groups Keywords 0 Nervous system functions Structure of a neuron Membrane potential Sodium potassium ATPase Action potential Depolarization Voltage gated ion channels Action potential propagation Node of Ranvier 00000000 Drmlritv um 39l39crmlnal I 4 1 21 D VIVAiiiquot Soma quotdcmlkfmm g ltkl I Ull 533 P 4quot 4 Nucleus Cell body Dendrites input Axon output 0 Living cells have an electrical potential across their membranes Sclmann oll ly lin Sheath 0000 o The inside of the cell is more negatively charged than the outside 0 This difference in charge is called the membrane potential 0 Usually between 50 to 100 mV 0 Two causes I Differences in ionic composition of intracellular and extracellular uid I Selective permeability of the plasma membrane 0 positively charged ions composition I Intracellular uid primary cation is K Na is low I Extracellular uid primary cation is Na K is low 0 negatively charged ion composition I Intracellular uid proteins amino acids sulfate phosphate A I Extracellular uid Cl 0 Flow of K gt Na therefore net loss of positive charge from cell 0 K will ow out of the cell until the force of the concentration gradient is balanced bi the oiiosini electrical force of around 70 mV from the membrane iotential o Negatively charged ions will want to follow to balance the loss of charge but since the intracellular anions are large molecules like amino acids and proteins they cannot diffuse out I This makes the inside of the cell more negatively charged than the outside But there is also a gradient favoring the diffusion of Na into the cell from the outside This could prevent ne ative char e from building up inside but it doesn t Why not H 0 Low Na permeability due to few open Na channels 0 Sodiumpotassium ATPase 0 Active transport 0 Each pumping cycle pumps 3 Na out and 2 K in at the expense of 1 ATP 0 You notice that this could potentially contribute to the membrane potential It does but is minor about 5mV 0 Most cells have a stable membrane potential of around 70 mV 0 Excitable cells can generate changes in their membrane potentials o Excitable cells include neurons and muscle cells 0 Excitable cells can change their membrane potential 0 When signaling becomes more positive depolarization o The depolarization is called an action potential 0 The action potential is the basis for electrical signaling change in a cell39s membrane potential that makes it more negative It is the opposite of a depolarization It inhibits action potentials by increasing the stimulus required to move the membrane potential to the action potential threshold A 39 I I I I I I II I o I I S 4 5 3 r O 5 0 r a n O L 9 D E S 55 70 J39lClCIShOO Stimulus O l L 0 lingo ms 3 quotSchematicquot Action Potential 0 loss of polarization especially loss of the difference in charge between the inside and outside of the plasma membrane of a muscle or nerve cell due to a change in permeability and migration of sodium ions to the interior 20 Rapid influx of Ca2 Depolarization Outflux of K Repolarization Slow influx of Na Membrane 20 Prepotential potential quotM 40 Threshold 60 80 Time s is a shortlasting event in which the electrical membrane potential of a cell rapidly rises and falls following a consistent trajectory Action potential 40 Voltage mV o If the stimulating potential causes the membrane potential to rise about 15 20 mV an action potential results 0 This is due to the opening of voltage gated ion channels 0 Voltage gated channels open brie y then shut 0 Since there is a large concentration of Na outside the cell Na rushes in making the intracellular uid less negatively charged 0 This causes the peak of the action potential 0 But they are much slower than Na channels 0 They are fully open after the peak of the action potential 0 K flows out of the cell and the membrane potential becomes more negative again 0 Produced by pufferfish 0 Blocks Na channels 0 What would be the effect of ingesting tetrodotoxin I Blocks diffusion of sodium through the sodium channel thus preventing depolarization and propagation of action potentials in nerve cells I Tetrodotoxin acts on the central and the peripheral nervous systems 0 Action potential travels along the axon to the other end of the cell 0 The speed of transmission can be as high as 100 meters per second 225 mph 0 Propagation is a series of new action potentials that travel along the axon What happens at the level of the ion channels 0 First action potential gives rise to depolarization further along the axon o Depolarization at second segment results in the opening of voltage gated Na channels and a second action potential occurs 0 Second action potential triggers a third action potential etc o Faster signal conduction allows more rapid coordination between sensory input and motor output 0 2 ways to increase action potential transmission speed 0 Increase axon diameter 0 Nodes of Ranvier French word doesn t need to be memorized o Axons of vertebrates are myelinated o Insulating layer on axon results from Schwann cells 0 Small gaps of exposed axon surface are present between Schwann cells 0 presynaptic cell 0 postsynaptic cell in some invertebrates used for fast signaling focus on chemical 0 Narrow gap between the neurons called the synaptic cleft 0 Action potential results in release of neurotransmitter by presynaptic cell 0 Neurotransmitter in some cases causes depolarization of postsynaptic cell and can result in another action potential 0 Depolarization at the synaptic terminal results in Ca in ux o Ca causes vesicles containing neurotransmitter to fuse with presynaptic membrane 0 Neurotransmitter diffuses into synaptic cleft o Neurotransmitter binds to ion channels on the post synaptic membrane This is the case for cholinergic synapse 0 Ion channels open 0 This results in either depolarization or hyperpolarization inside becomes more negative 0 De olarization is stimulato H The neurotransmitter stgnnr n tnrrnrnntnn 0 Enzymatic degradation of the neurotransmitter in the case of acetylcholine o Uptake of neurotransmitter by other neurons 0 Neurotransmitter diffuses away 0 Nerve gas and some insecticides block the enzyme that degrades acetylcholine at the end of the signal 0 2 subthreshold signals from a single presynaptic cell can sum together if signals are within milliseconds of each other and generate a threshold stimulus l stimulatory and l inhibitory signal can cancel each other if they are simultaneous 1 Excitatory to vertebrate skeletal muscle other effects at other sites I Low levels linked with Parkinsons disease I High levels linked to schizophrenia I Reward center of brain I Social power stimulates it I Low levels linked to clinical depression I Prozac Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor 0 GABA o Glycine savory to taste receptors 0 Glutamate excitatory stimulates taste receptors 0 Aspartate o Excitatory signals that give rise to pain perception o Decrease perception of pain like morphine Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRI Example Prozac I SSRI blocks the uptake of serotonin back into the presynaptic cell after signal This makes serotonin signal last longer in the synaptic cleft I Monoamine oxidase inhibitor prevents mitochondria from breaking down serotonin in the synaptic terminal making more serotonin available 0 NO causes smooth muscle relaxation 0 NO signal lasts several seconds then the signal ends 0 Viagra strengthens the NO signal by blocking the enzyme that terminates the signal
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'