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Final Exam Study Guide

by: beatrice

Final Exam Study Guide BISC 1006

The Ecology and Evolution of Organisms

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The Ecology and Evolution of Organisms
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by beatrice on Friday May 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BISC 1006 at George Washington University taught by Scully in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see The Ecology and Evolution of Organisms in Biology at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 05/01/15
BIO FINAL EXAM REVIEW 1 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Overview of tissues Respiratory Structures Function and principles of gas exchange Evolutionary connections Cardiovascular connection f Respiratory diseases 0 A network of cartilage bone and mucous membranes 0 Purpose of having a respiratory system Gas exchange 02 enters C02 is expelled Tissues Epithelial Homeostasis regulates change of materials with the outside heat regulation acts as a barrieir and protects Muscle Movement body blood and other substances 99 0 Muscle fiber associated with the skeleton 0 Cardiac Muscle interconnecting branc 0 Smooth Muscle Nervous Complex and quick communication detection of outside environment Connective Support connects separate types include blood bone cartilage tendon ligament collagen and adipose Respiratorv Structures Entry ways Mouth leads directly back to the entrance of the respiratory or digestive system nasal passageways pharynx and larynx qualities of sound by contracting muscles affecting vocal chord location within the air stream Air Flow from pharynx through the larynx to the trachea into the bronchi 0 Lower respiratory system trachea bronchi lungs 0 Each bronchus leads to a lung Gas Exchange Bronchus bronchioles alveoli 0 The human trachea carries air into the lungs divides into progressively finer branches 0 Small clusters of sacks filled with air wrapped in a network of capillaries 0 Why do we need oxygen Aerobic cellular respiration the use and production of gases in a cell to create energy 0 Danger of C02 gets converted into acid will prevent your body protiens from working properly 0 Difference between breathing and respiration Breathing is a contractionrelaxation of diaphragm and intercostal muscles 0 Inhalation process of taking air into the lungs contraction of diaphragm and contraction of rib cage muscles intercostals 0 Exhalation expelling air from the lungs relatxation of diaphragm and intercostals decreases volume and size of lungs increase in pressure 0 Principles of gas exchange 1 Follow the rules of diffusion moves from high concentration 02 is low in the body s cells I oxygen ows into cells C02 is high in the body s cells I C02 ows out of cells air With C02 dec With 02 inc body s cells go C02 inc 02 dec 2 Greater the surface area equals the greater the diffusion oxygen demands on lung surface area size and level of activity metabolic demands 3 Distance of diffusion the shorter the distance a gas travels the faster it can reach it s destination gases require assistance in larger multicellular organisms gases transported through tubes andor blood 0 21 oxygen content in the atmosphere 004 C02 in the atmosphere Evolutionary connection diffusion alone single celled organisms and smaller multicellular organisms 0 Respiratory With little need for circulatory tracheal system outer opening leads to tube trachea Trachea delivers oxygen to tracheoles Tracheoles diffuse gases directly to cells Terrestrial animals lungs infolding of body surface to bring air inside 0 Aquatic animals Gills outfolding of the body surface Qrdiovgsculgr System bloodstream transports to and from lungs hemoglobin in blood transports gases are exchanged near cells and at the lungs 0 Hemoglobin is the protein found in red blood cells Which binds oxygen 0 Blood plasma may transport oxygen temporarily 0 25000 hemoglobin molecules per red blood cells 0 Picks up oxygen in lungs delivers it to cells through diffusion 0 Air decreases in C02 increases in 02 Lungs increase in C02 decrease in 02 O Bloodstream carries deoxygenated blood because of the low levels in the blood oxygen will diffuse from the alveolus to the blood While C02 Will diffuse out Why aren t your lungs as efficient at high altitudes Evolution to survive at higher altitudes larger lungs hemoglobin concentrations higher affinity for oxygen acclimatization increase in in hemoglobin concentration increases ability of hemoglobin to unload oxygen How many hemoglobin molecules can be found in a single red blood cell 250000 W 0 Common types of respiratory diseases asthma types of COPD cancer 0 Asthma constriction of smooth muscle affecting the tubes of the respiratory tract and blood vessels in ammation of respiratory tract and blood vessels increased production of mucus 0 COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease any disease that restricts the air ow Which makes it hard to breathe reduced gas diffusion 0 Emphysema 0ver production of enzyme Which degrades alveoli OOO 0 Cancer Lung cancer mesothelioma II CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Blood Heart and blood vessels Circuits Blood ow regulation Evolutionary connection Cardiovascular diseases 99 0 Made of plasma 55 and cellular elements 45 0 RBC 99 percent of the cellular component lifespan of 120 days 0 WBC Variety of immunte cells 1 day to a lifetime 0 Platelets small cell gragments involved in clotting lifespan of 6 days 0 Original of cellular components bone marrow 0 Fluid component plasma 0 Of water proteins clotting factors and other components gases ions nutrients wastes 0 Blood clot Platelet RBC and network of clotting proteins Heart and blood vessels 0 Four chambers each side has atrium and ventricle 0 Atrium upper chamber receives blood 0 Ventricle lower chamber pumps blood away 0 Blood vessels arteries capillaries veins 0 Arteries carry blood my from heart small arteries are arterioles have thicker smoother muscle and connective tissue 0 Capillaries narrow network of vessels small veins venules capillary bed is a network of the narrowest arteries and veins 0 Veins carries blood back in to the heart have valves to promote blood ow in one direction low pressure oneway valves ow aided by skeletal muscles Circuits 0 What is a circuit heart artery arteriole capillary bed venule vein heart 0 Purpose pulmonary and systemic 0 Pulmonary circuit to lungs and back picks up 02 releases C02 0 Systemic circuit delivers blood to the body picks up C02 releases 02 Blood ow regulation 0 Heart valves bicuspid and tricuspid valves 0 Semilunar valves 0 Chamber contracts gtgt pushing blood out gtgt valve opens chamber relaxes gtgt blood in the vessel tends to ow backwards gtgt presses against valve valve shuts gtgt preventing a back ow of blood The lub sound is when the one way valve between each atrium and ventricle close The dub results when oneway valve between each venricle and artery carrying blood from the heart snaps Sinoatrial SA node pace maker Atrioventricular AV node passes signal to ventricle Heart beat Cardiac cycle heart rate blood pressure 0 Cardiac cycle relaxation diastole blood ows into heart contraction systole chambers contract 0 Heart rate BPM hypertension is high BPM 0 Blood pressure pressure in arteries Decrease in pressure arteries high pressure large pulse pressure capillaries lower pressure constant ow veins lowest pressure Diameter and blood ow surface area friction smaller vessels have larger surface area larger vessels lead to faster blood ow 0 Shunt blood and sphincters open and close Responding to need 0 During exercise blood ow to organs of the body decrease when we are exercising the ow to the major muscles increase dramatically Evolutionary connection Open circulatory system heart circulates blood inside body cavity Organs have large surface areas Cardiovascular diseases III Anemia RBC levels iron deficiency sickle cell Erythropoietin EPO hormone produced in the kidney Stimulates red blood cell production EPO supplement increases RBC volume and increases oxygencarrying capacity Varicose veins formed by incompetent valves Fat carrying proteins 0 LDL low density lipoprotein carries cholesterolfats into cells 0 HDL high density lipoprotein excess cholesterolfats to liver for removal Knowing signs of a stroke FAST face arm speech time 0 Stroke cut off blood ow to portion of the brain Aneurysm clot moves from heart to the brain SENSORY SYSTEM a Structures and signaling b Sensing the environment c Evolutionary connection 1 Human disease The Nervous Svstem High speed internal communication Composed of neurons the instantaneous transmission of information coordinates rapid contraction of muscles detectsintegratestransmits sensory information Type of control 0 Automatic involuntary O Somatic voluntary Structural and functional units 0 Peripheral nervous system PNS sensory neurons and motor neurons 0 Central nervous system CNS spinal cord and brain The neuron information ow 0 Receives information dendrites and cell body terminals and synaptic cleft Transmits signal over a distance Relays information to another neuroncell Transmits signal over a distance axon myelinglial cells 0 The axon terminals transmits information to other cells Nerve vs Ganglion 0 Bundle of axons of many neurons 0 Bundle of cell bodies of many neurons Resting membrane potential inside a cell negative charge 0 Because of positive ions moved out while negative ions and substances are inside 0 Ions like chloride 0 Substances like proteins and DNA Electrical signals cell body triggers action potential sodium rushes in depolarized caused by a stimulus Action potential undirectional propagation does not weaken with distance all or nothing stronger stimulus more action potential digitizes input 0 Transmitting neuron s synapse releases signal neurotransmitter O Synaptic cleft space where neurotransmitter acts 0 Receiving cell response only acts if it has correct receptor OOO Interneurons found in spinal cord CNS 0 Accepts input from sensory neurons 0 Transmits information to brain motor neurons or both Re ex arc 3 neurons sensory intemeuron motor neuron fast reaction Sensing the environment 5 senses seeing hearing smelling touching tasting sensing positions balance and positions of limbs 0 Shared features conversts stimuli into nerve impulses 0 More receptors to produce greater detail 0 Detects surrounding conditions and distance to stimuli Hearing detection of sound waves compressed molecules spread out from a source diminishes with distance Sound waves depend on pitch and loudness frequency and amplitude 0 The ear pinna auditory canal eardrum Eustachian tube cochlea 0 Pinna auditory canal outer ear 0 Ear drum three bones Eustachian tube middle ear 0 Cochlea organ of Corti inner ear 0 Body position and balance position of our body parts proprioceptors responds to pressure in joints muscles and tendons 0 Vestibular apparatus inner ear 0 Vestibule chambers With mechanoreceptor cells 0 Otoliths respond to pull of gravity 0 Touch Mechanoreceptors pressure and vibrations depths location amounts thermoreceptors moderates temperature skin and mucous membranes nociceoptors pain injury extreme temperatures critical for survival 0 Sight light detection photosensitive pigment forming an image focusing light on photo receptors 0 Single lens eye cornea iris pupil lens 0 Integration the brain integrates signals compares and responds 0 Eating food smell taste sight texture 0 Evolutionary connection O Invertebrate visual systems paired simple eyes light distance and color compound eyes many images compounded 0 Field of vision eyes on the sides or front of the head 0 Human disease Alcohol impairment 0 Lowers your body temperature 0 Interferes With normal sleep patterns 0 A full stomach Will prevent fast absorption of alcohol 0 Disinihibition alcohol induces behavioral excitement 0 Nervous system diseases 0 Alzheimer s 0 Lou Gehrig ALS O Myelin Sheath Multiple sclerosis MS Tay Sachs disease Niemann Pick Disease etc 0 Parkinson s Disease IV MUSCLE AND BONE MOVEMENT 3 Bones and growth b Supporting tissue c Evolutionary connection 1 Human disease Bones and growth 0 The human skeleton 0 Axial skeleton long axis of the body head to tail skull spinal column ribs protects vital organs 0 Appendicular skeleton appendages and pelvis motion and movement 0 Bone structure nonliving mineral matrix calcium and phosphate compounds constantly changing tissue with blood and nerve supply 0 Compact bone hard white outer regions of the bone 0 Spongy bone at the ends and lines the interior of the long bones O Marrow storage and production 0 Cells of bones O Osteocytes specialized bone cells within compact bone 0 Osteoblasts building bone 0 Osteoclasts breaking bone down 0 What stimulates bone growth hormones exerciseweight nutrition Supporting tissues 0 Cartilage cells that produce collagen exible supporst and supplements bone nose ears rib cage joints respiratory tubes 0 Ossifiation human fetus is composed of cartilage 0 Ligaments joints connects bone to bone 0 Tendons connects bone to muscle 0 Joints junctions in the skeletal system that let the skeleton move in specific ways 0 Knee ones muscles cartilage ligaments tendons synovial sacs 0 Muscle tissue structure muscle bundles of mscle fibers bundles of myofibrils 0 Muscle pairs muscles that are designed to contract myosin sliding pulls in one direction 0 Paired muscles contraction of one relaxes the other arm muscles triceps contract biceps relax 0 Increasing muscle tissue strength differences in muscles 0 Crosssectional area of muscle greater crosssection more muscle fibers contract 0 Increasing strength fibers work more effectively together 0 Fast muscle fibers all or nothing response to action potential 0 Slow muscle fibers supplied by myoglobin Evolutionary connection 0 Elastic tissue and uid pressure stiffening of tissue with uid under pressure 0 Diversity of skeletons maintains shape joints provide ability to move tissues produced by specialized cells minerals amino acids sugars 0Endoskeleton supports tissue inside the body soft tissues surround skeleton larger animals 0 Exoskeleton external skeleton encloses soft tissue Human diseases 0 Joint injuries Osteoarthritis is a condition that wears down the cartilage and the underlying bone because of age injury age or genetic disorders 0 Affecting muscles botulism toxin prevents muscles from contracting botox tetanus amplification of signals to contract V DEFENSE Immune system 1St line of defense 2nd line of defense 3rd line of defense Immunity f Medical issues sup99 Immune system Target disease causing agents germpathogen living parasiteorganism nonliving viral protein Goal Eliminate pathogen to prevent infectious diseases Protective and defensive elements cells and molecules Transmission entering through openings crossing the barrier Immunity in vertebrates 0 1st line of defense external defenses physical barriers chemical barriers 0 2nd line of defense internal defenses innate immunity phagocytosis in ammation 0 3rd line of defense internal defenses adaptive immunity antibody meditated immunity cellmeditated immunity 1St line of defense chemicals tearssurface glands uid provides washing action and lysozymes Respiratory mucus and lysozyme Digestive stomach acid enzymes mucus Reproductive acidic environment Urinary urine Physical barriers outer layer of skin linings of lungs and digestive system cilia of respiratory system bacteria 2 Line of Defeng Crossing the barriers cuts deep wounds allow entrance of bacteria insect bites penetrates through skin Cells detects foreign invader antigens internal defenses attack foreign but not self Innatenonspecific immune system white blood cells defensive molecules 0 White blood cells macrophages phagocytosis neutrophils smaller phagocytic mast cells natural killer cells destroys tumors and viral infected cells 0 Defensive molecules Complement proteins develops holes in membranes of foreign cells acts a smarkers to identify foreign cells histamines reddening swelling heatfever pain Response to tissue damage 1 Release chemicals histaminecytokines 2 Seal off damaged area plateletsclotting factors 3 Call for backup neutrophilsmacrophages 3rd Line of Defense SpecificAdaptive immune system 0 Ability to resist specific pathogens 0 7 trillion white blood cells 0 Defensive proteins Lymphatic system 0 Lymphatic ducts network of tubes 0 Lymph nodes pockets of tissue traps bacteria and viruses 0 WBC B cells mature in bone marrow antibodes T cells mature in thymus 0 Antigens Foreign molecule unique ID recognizes a specific antigen Immunity 0 2 weeks to develop 0 Antigens enters body 0 BT cells are produced 0 Encounters pathogens for a second time 0 Active and passive immunity another individual produces antibodies mother to baby is natural artificial immunoglobulin shotsvaccination Medical Issues 0 Immune response or reaction ot a harmless substance 0 Body destroys its own tissues rheumatoid arthritis antibodies attack cartilage in the joints multiple sclerosis attacks myelin sheath of neurons HIV and AIDS VI REPRODUCTION Gametogenesis Male reproductive structures Female reproductive structures Fertilization Hormone control of oogenesis Development g Medical issues Gametogenesis 0 Overview of reproductive system 0 Male testes 0 Female ovaries wrap939 0 Fertilization oviduct sperm encounter egg 0 How do we make our gametes meiosis spermatogenesis testis oogenesis ovary mle renroductive svstem O Epididymis seminiferous tubule testis corss section of seminiferous tubule 0 Spermatogenesis seminiferous tubules precursor cells after first stage of meiosis sperm after second stage of meiosis need to mature four haploid cells 0 Primary spermatocytes undergoes meiosis How many sperm does an average male donate to semen 300000000 Sperm head tail acrosome enzymes nucleus chromosomes midpiece mitochondria Ej aculate O Epididymis sperm 0 Seminal vesicle nutrients O Prostate basic substance 0 Bulbourethral gland preej aculate Female Renroductjve Svstem How many viable eggs does a woman produce through their lifetime Oogenesis ovaries prior to birth Ovulation released into oviduct during ovulation Ovaries contains the egg making cells that undergo oogenesis Oviduct egg released into tube fertilization that results in pregnancy usually occurs here Uterus contains endometrium wlining that recycles each month to allow the embryo to develop Cervix entrance to the uterus Vagina canal leading from the outside to the uterus Fertilization Two gametes bind together zygote creating the first new cell of an organism Secondary oocyteovum cellular elements proection follicle cells Sperm only has DNA that needs to get in Fertilization sperm gets passed barriers sperm fuses with the ovum Hormone control of ooaenesis How does an ovary know when to produce an egg 0 Hormones brain follicular stimulating hormones FSH lutenizing hormone LH ovary estrogen progesterone Early development single cell zygote multiple divisions 3 early stages cleavage gastrulation organogenesis Embryonic development human blastocysts trophoblast outer lauer of blastocysts inner cell mass Implantation into endomentrium lining of uterus placenta develops mom and embryo aminon sac around the mbryo yolk sac produces blood cells Fetal development development of human fetus 1st trimester vulnerable to disruption miscarriages genetic problems environmental impacts 2nd and 3rd trimesters further development of existing organs growth in size Child birth estrogen levels increase oxytocin produced by fetus and mother s pituitary gland placenta produces prostaglandins O Cervix opens fetus is pushed out of a mother s body placenta follows Why do human females undergo menopause Increased lifespan but not enough time to increase and adapt the reproductive lifespan too much energy involved in offspring grandmother hypothesis 10 Female reproductive issues 0 Endometriosis Endometrial tissue presence inon other dissues 0 Pelvic in ammatory disease bacterial infection 0 Prolapsed uterus protrusion of uterinecervical tissue Male reproductive issues 0 Cryptorchidsm hidden testicle lack of descent of one or both testes O Begnign prostatic hypertrophy O Prostate specific antigen 11


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