Kin 220 Exam 1 Study Guide Remember this is to be used as a guide. What is the definition of? o physical activity (PA) Any physical movement that your body has. o Exercise It is more of a structured way to stay active. Are they the same thing? No What are the PA guidelines for? o Kids 60 Minutes a day; bone strengthening o Adults 150 MiDon't forget about the age old question of Why do we sometimes have increasing costs?
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nutes a week 75 minutes of vigorous activity (every muscle group twice a week) o Older adults Same as adults it just depends on their ability. (Balance) What are the health benefits of PA? Not being obese, longer life span, less chance of stroke, diabetes, high cognitive What is behavior? Result of a person in their environment interaction What is exercise behavior science (EBS)? A subdiscipline devoted to the study and understanding of physical activity o What are the goals? Describe, Explain, Predict, Change What research methods are used in EBS? Experimental Design Answers questions, highly controlled Surveillance Ongoing systematic collection and interpretation of data Natural Observation Researchers observe without changing anything What are United States trend in physical inactivity? Trends for INACTIVITY are up where the trends for ACTIVITY are down Describe the different classifications of energy expenditure (BMR, TAF, PAEE) BMR energy used to breathe and circulate blood at rest TAF Energy used to digest and Metabolize ingested food PAEE Energy expended during physical activity (2035%) most variable. What is validity? Reliability? Validity Ablity of a test to accurately assess what it is intended to measure. Reliability Stay consistent overtime What are the three different levels of physical activity measurement? What are the tools and techniques used for each? Subjective Assessment requires judging (essay question) ExSelf Reports, Diaries interviews, Questionnaires. Objective Accelerators, Pedometers, Direct Observation Criterion (Lab) Calorimeter, Know what factors are important when choosing a physical activity measurement Age, population, race Describe the social ecological model and why practitioners use it It tells you how the environment affects a certain individual. What is motivation? What are the types of motivation? Motivation is the direction and intensity of someone’s effort Types of motivation: AmotivationLack of goal direction between behavior and outcome Externalpeople behave to attain a desired consequence from an outside source Introjected Behaviors are done for a consequence initiated by him or herself/ Identified People recognize and accept the underlying value of behavior Integrated Behavior is part of one’s identity Intrinsic Freely engaged out of interest without the necessity for an external award. What is selfefficacy? What are sources of selfefficacy? Selfefficacy An individual’s belief in his/her ability to accomplish a task. 4 Sources 1.) Mastery Experiences 2.) Vicarious Learning 3.) Social or verbal persuasion 4.) Physiological and affective states Define ‘interpesonal’ Relationships between people. Ex Friends and family The emotional tie that a person has to you. What indicators are used to assess social network index? Relationship and belief systems What is the relationship of social integration or ties with health? If you hang out with people who are obese, then you are more likely to be obese and be unhealthy. People impact your health behavior. What does Christakis conclude about obesity and social ties? He concluded that if your friends are obese you are 57% more likely to be obese. How do social relationships impact health? Increase or decrease your motivation What is the difference and health and health behavior? Health is overall wellbeing; health behavior is someone’s overall wellbeing in their environment. How is social integration related to health behavior? The better off socially you are the better your health behavior. You will be healthier. What are examples of social influence?Social facilitation improvement in a task or performance, work harder if you are going against someone Ringlemann effect Kohler Be familiar with the constructs of social facilitation, the Ringlemann effect, and the Kohler effect Socail facilitation Improvement in a task or performance Ringlemann effect People become less productive when working together Kohler When individuals put forth more effort because there is a smaller group. Know the relationship between different social conditions (individual, coactive, and conjunctive) and exercise duration Individual Working on your own Coactive People around me are doing better so I want to keep up, impress others Conjunctive Group fails, I fail (better result) Review the definition of epidemiology, John Snow, and the Cholera Outbreak of 1854 Epidemiology study of the disease. Snow discovered where the outbreak was coming from and how it was being spread What is a setting? Place bounded in space and time that provides social structure and context. What is the Manning (Undermanning) Theory Ex If you have 10 players that in a game that requires 10 people they will all be active whereas id there are 30 of you in a game for 10 people not everyone will be getting activity. How do we target settings level change? Start from the bottom and work your way up. Higher up you go the more success you have. Example Going through the school system. What are land use, connectivity, and density? How do they relate to physical activity? Land use using the amount of land most effectively. If you have nice parks and walking paths then there will be more physical activity. Connectivity How easy it is to get from one place to anotherDensity Number or people in certain area. What percentage of trips in Manhattan are made by walking? By biking? Walking 13% Biking 1.6% All of Manhattan lives within a park What is urban planning and how does it influence PA an obesity? Urban planning Technical and political process concerned with the use of land and the design of Urban environment. Influence on PA It directly affects obesity. What is land use? What kind of land use is the most conducive for physical activity? Land use The amount of land that is used effectively. Mix land use What is a policy? Laws legal actions regulations organized guidance, rules, codes, and standards. What some factors of a macrosystem? Characteristics of a given culture or subculture houses belief systems bodies of knowledge, material, resources, customs, lifestyles, opportunity structures economics How is income related to life expectancy? Physical activity? More income= longer life= more physical activity Who is the most physically active? (by income, race, gender) High Income, white, male What is the difference in gender and sex? GenderCharacteristics of men and women which are socially constructed Sex: Characteristics of men and women which are biologically determined. 1Kin 220 Biobehavioral Bases of Physical Activity Study Guide - Exam 2 Chapters 2-6, 15 Know: 1. the General Adaptation Syndrome basis of everything we study, baseline work, then train lower, and perform higher, work capacity is decreased because of training, so give time to recover components of recovery-time, rest and diet don’t over train or under train the 3rd part of the process training stress and enhance capacity 2 the proteins involved in skeletal muscle contractionactin and myosin, calcium enters into muscles cells and that is how it contracts. 3. the general structure of muscle and where energy for muscular contraction comes from sarcomere is the contractile unit of the cell mitochondria is the energy producer of the cell made of thin muscle fibers 4. the concept of muscular contraction (sliding filament theory) and key components HOW THE MUSCLE CONTRACTS!! the actin and myosin are on the opposite sides of the muscle and when the calcium enters the muscle then the actin and myosin connect to make little “v’s” At rest there is no calcium, but contraction releases calcium, sarcomere shortens when actin and myosin pull eachother 5. the characteristics and properties of skeletal muscle fiber types and type of physical activity associated with each Type 1: slow twitch oxidative- red muscle fibers, slow and AEROBIC, lower force; resistant to fatigue LONG DISTANCE Type 2a: intermediate and trainable-depending on type of training they can take characteristics of type 1 or 2b ADAPT TO TRAINING Type 2b: fast twitch glycolytic- white muscle fiber, fast and ANAEROBIC in nature, higher force; quick to fatigue FAST RUNNING JUMPING HIGH 6. the time course for muscular strength (neural vs hypertrophy) hypertrophy is when the muscle cells grow in size-no new muscle cells are ever produced-neutral muscle strength is more effective sooner but longer you train the more it goes to hypertrophy 7. the difference between isometric, concentric, and eccentric contractions Concentric- the shortening of the muscle ie: lifting a weight Eccentric- the CONTROLED lengthening of a muscle-slowly lowering the weight Isometric- tension generated WITHOUT movement 8. the basic principles of anaerobic and aerobic metabolism and what these terms mean anaerobic- immediate energy pathway; works from 0-10 seconds of hard work-no oxygen used, all based on energy stored in the cells aerobic- happens inside the mitochondria, uses oxygen, for longer more strenuous exercise, uses carbs as energy 9. the intensity and duration components of the ATP-PC, lactic acid, and aerobic energy systems and the type of exercise associated with each 1. Anaerobic- uses stored ATP 0-10, phosphate from PC is added to ADP to create ATP seconds sprinting2.glucose/glycogen, breaks down in 10 steps, lactic and pyruvic acids are created (not good), 10 seconds to 2-3 minutes, uses glycogen is broken down to form acids intense exercise long distance 3. during marathon, over 2-3 minutes, uses fat, fat is oxidized for a large ATP yield CP- Anaerobic, type 2b, stored ATP, 40 meter sprint, and squats Glycolytic- anaerobic high intensity, type 2a, glucose, 400m sprint Oxidative-over 2 min, type 1, fat, anything over 2 minutes TIME IS NOT THE DECIDING FATOR, INTESITY IS. 10. the basics of VO2max test, its significance, and factors affecting it. Measures the oxygen consumption maximal aerobic capacity is limited by oxygen consumption, the max VO2 is reached when oxygen level levels off, genetics determine 70-90% of VO2 max, the other 10-30% is by training 11. the metabolic and structural adaptations to anaerobic and aerobic training and the cardiorespiratory responses to endurance training short fast duration exercise use strength adaptation and the ATP+PC pathway, aerobic exercise is continuous training, accounts for 60-80 percent of maximal HR, muscles “learn” but they don’t change types. -respiratory adaptation-oxygen extraction works better in trained adaption -oxygen carrying adaptation- myoglobin and hemoglobin concentration increases with endurance exercise, -blood deleivery adaptation-endurance training increases the size of hear; more blood=o2; increased SV and cardiac output. 12. the best training program for training the aerobic vs the anaerobic system aerobic and aerobic exercise fight each other, you can’t successfully train in both of them. Need to train in the corresponding pathway. 13. the difference between intervals and continuous training interval training allows for rest between exercise which allows for more training 14. the process of carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis) and fat metabolism (beta oxidation) -carbs are digested in the sm intestine and is put into the blood (blood sugar) regulated by insulin, glucagon and epinephrine. It is either kept in the body for energy or used for energy in the form of heat. -fat is digested and stored as triglycerides or used for energy as heat.Fat-beta oxiditve pathway, in mitochondria, fat needs oxygen to breakdown then we get Lots of atp 15. the function and purpose of the cardiovascular system respiratory system deeply related to pulmonary circuit, used to transfer gas exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide -cardiovascular system is made of the heart and lungs 16 what blood pressure is and what systolic and diastolic pressures are blood pressure is how the blood flows from high to low contracted to relaxed. -systolic is contracted, upper number (causes SV) -diastolic is when relaxed- lower number mean arterial pressure is average of both 17. the definition of cardiac output and the components which go into its determination cardiac output is the blood pumped out per minute it is heart rate times stroke volume 18. what stroke volume, heart rate, and oxygen consumption are stroke volume- volume of blood pumped out heart rate- beats per minute oxygen consumption-VO2- oxygen used 19. what happens to the distribution of cardiac output from rest to maximal exercise and how this happens the cardiac output goes more the skeletal muscles during PA instead of the brain, gut and other places and it increases 20. the difference in CO, SV, heart rate, and VO2 between trained and untrained subjects VO2 will be lower than than trained. HR CO SV will be higher because they are not trained CO-HRxSV beats per min x volume of blood Untrained has higher HR, does this cuz stroke volume increases 21. the purpose of the pulmonary system and what are the effects of training on the lung it is a series of organs that makes blood travel, lungs work better when they are well trained 22. approximate values for breathing frequency and tidal volume CHPATER 2 SLIDE breathing frequency at rest,5-6l/min VT- amount of air moved per breath, V At rest total ventilation is 5-6l/min, frequency is 12breaths/minute, and tidal volume is .4-.5L/min 23. the significance of lactate threshold the lactate threshold will shift to the right as we train where activity goes from aerobic to anaerobic delays the time of lactate in the blood aerobic pathway for longer is better because you can perform better 24. the importance intensity, frequency, duration, mode and rate of progression for exercise intensity- how hard frequency- how often duration- how long mode- what type of exercise, people get higher VO2 max on stuff they are better at rate- how fast 25. the concept of energy balance weight remains steady if energy expended equals energy consumed 26. the importance of body composition (including the two compartment model) fat and lean muscle, allows you to know what you are made of 27. basic understanding, advantages/disadvantages (accuracy) of types of body composition measurements discussed in class Hydrostatic weight-$$$$$$ Skin caliper-getting pinched, not as accurate 7% DEXA- $$$$$ BMI-doesn’t account for body fat Circumference-doesn’t BIA-electrical shock is shot through body and the more water you drink the better it is 28. the energy values of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins carbs are 4 calories per gram protiens are 4 calories per gram fats are 9 calories per gram 29. what components (and percentages) go into total energy expenditure over a typical day thermogenic influence of food consumption=10% physical activity=15-30% Resting metabolic rate (RMR)=60-75% All this is 1500-2000 calories/day 30. factors responsible for individual differences in body fatCultural-30% Genetic (number of fate cells, metabolism, ect)-25% Other factors (lifestyle, environment ect) 45% 31. which nutrient (carbs, fats) is primarily used for different intensities of exercise high intensity exercise use primarily carbs as a fuel source you are able to train to be able to use fat longer 32. understand the importance of fluid and electrolyte intake and when sports drinks are appropriate water spreads nutrients, removes waste, and regulated temperature sports drinks help when lots of sweat happens because loss of electrolytes and carbs are burned 33. the difference between physical fitness and health health is a state of which the body is in fitness is the ability to perform 34. exercise prescription components (frequency, intensity, duration) frequency- #of times per week Intensity-rate of motion Duration- length of training session FITT Frequency, intensity, time, type 35. basis of coronary heart disease; causes, risk factors (primary, secondary) Primary risks: High BP, High cholesterol, smoking, lack of exercise, family history, males, increasing Other risk: stress, obesity, diabetes Causes: accumulation of cholesterol in the arteries that supply the heart 36. role of exercise in heart disease and hypertension exercise helps reducing some risk factors of heart disease it is an important part of increasing strength of the heart 37. what forms of cholesterol exist and recommended values of each HDL->46mg/dL LDL-<180mg/dL Total- <200mg/dL Triglycerides-<200mg/dL 38. role of exercise (type, etc) in obesity, diabetes, COPD, mental health, cancer, osteoporosis, and the immune system Obesity-GOOD, can lead to weight loss and a healthier life Diabetes-GOOD, can act like insulin but must be in balance with timing of meals, measurements of glucose, insulin treatments and amount to be effective COPD-exercise is useful in treating a deconditioned patient but cannot prevent Osteoporosis- weight bearing exercise is best, builds bone massCancer- exercise MAY have a role in treatment but it is still unsure Immune System- low intensity increase # of lymphocytes Mental Health- exercise can reduce both depression and anxiety 39. the developmental continuum applied to kinesiology comprises to all stages of the continuum not just adults, it includes youth and older adults 40. how exercise is affected by developmental changes exercise is affected by gender but is also effected in changes like puberty decreases in elderly 41. what performance related fitness components are speed-highly related to genetic factors, but improvable with training muscular power-muscle mass and body fat major contributors following puberty reaction time-improves throughout adolescence then plateaus 42. the considerations for training youth the key is children are not mini adults thermoregulation-children are more susceptible to temp related issues 43. the implications of adult development on fitness aging is inevitable, aging process is highly individualistic 44. the basics of aging physiology muscle-size and strength decrease CNS-number of synapse decrease Reaction time-slows Balance-depends on CNS Skeletal system-loss occurs through adult life but not noticeable until old 45. the factors the contribute to BMR BASAL METABOLIC RATE LEAN BODY MASS!!! 46. what is the link between muscle mass and BMR muscle burns more calories so more muscle higher BMR 47. common environmental problems heat, cold, humidity, atmospheric pressure, altitude, pollution (CANT BE CONTROLLED) 48. the body’s main ways to gain and lose heat evaporation-main way of losing Metabolic energy is main way of gaining heat 49. the role of blood flow in temperature regulation it regulates body temp-in cold it send all the blood to vital organs heat it even sends it everywhere to allow more to sweat 50. the difference in core and shell temperaturescore is in the inside in the organs, shell is your skin 51. the different types of heat transfer and how to explain them Conduction- heat transfer through physical touch Convection-transfer through movement of fluid or gas-depends on velocity Radiation-transfer without an intervening medium-based on surface area, temp 52. acclimatization and adaptations we only acclimatize to heat not to cold earlier sweat onset and lower shell and core temps kids have less sweat glads 53. the acute effects of high altitude on aerobic performance less o2 sickness, lack of performance 54. Altitude Illness sickness, just take the climb slower, can be very dangerous if not acute mountain sickness (AMS) High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) KINESIOLOGY 220 EXAM 3 Neural Control and Motor Learning Review Lecture Neural Control 3 step process to movement: Sensation, interpretation, and execution ∙ Sensation-where the ball is at ∙ Interpretation- if the ball is going left, what would I need to do to catch it ∙ Execution- which muscle, when to activate them and for how long. Define motor control ∙ The study of how neuromuscular systems function to activate and coordinate the muscle and limbs involved in the performance of a motor skill Motor Control Theory – enables practitioner to …. ∙ Identify performance problems ∙ Develop interventions to overcome problems ∙ Predict effectiveness of interventions ∙ Develop approach to increase skill performance ∙ Create new intervention strategies ∙ Evaluate intervention strategies The Nervous system : Cranial, Central, Peripheral, Autonomic ∙ Cranial- nerves go from your brain to your eyes, mouth, ears, and other parts of you head ∙ Peripheral-nerves go from your spinal cord to your arms, hands, legs, and feet∙ Central- nerves are in your brain and spinal cord ∙ Autonomic- nerve go from your spinal cord to your lungs, heart, stomach, intestines, bladder and sex organs The two parts of the Central Nervous System – Central : brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system - Autonomic and Somatic ∙ Autonomic- sympathetic division and parasympathetic division (homeostasis) ∙ Somatic Afferent or sensory pathway (to CNS) and Efferent or motor pathway (from CNS) ∙ Afferent/sensory-nerve cells that send neural impulses to CNS ∙ Motor/efferent-nerve cells that send neural impulses to muscle fibers The parts of a neuron : nucleus, cell body, axon, dendrites, axon terminals ∙ Nuecleus-in charge ∙ Cell body ∙ Axon (the conducting fiber) ∙ Dendrites (receivers) ∙ Axon terminals (transmitters) Types of neurons: sensory, motor, interneuron ∙ Sensory and motor above ∙ Interneuron-have multiple dendrites and axon branches allowing for the convergence of info or dispersal of into to multiple sites Function of an interneuron - integrate information, prevalence of info to multiple sites What is a synapse ∙ Point of contact between 2 neurons Neurotransmitters types and functions-they are chemicals located and released in the brain to allow an impulse from one nerve cell to pass to another nerve cell ∙ Acetylcholine-stimulates muscle ∙ Peptides-pain reduction ∙ Dopamine-voluntary movement ∙ Serotonin-inhibitory o Emotion, mood, anxiety, eating Neurological disorders : Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, and Alzheimer’s (characteristics) ∙ Parkinsons-dopamine is low because the transmitters are dying, body can no longer control shaking movements ∙ Huntingtons- genetic mutation- people twist and mangle because neurons in basal ganglia die∙ Alzheimer’s disease- protein build up around the neuron in the neocortex and hippocampus, that controls memory, when neurons die memory dies EMG - measure electrical activity of muscle ∙ Electromyography- measurement of muscle electrical activity and helps us understand how brain coordinates movement Highest priority of the brain - balance Vision - focal related to acuity, ambient related to peripheral – characteristics ∙ Acuity- focusing on an object ∙ Peripheral vision-side vision, Away from the center ∙ Depth perception-combining info from both eyes ∙ Visual info is preferred ∙ Visual tracking-smooth pursuit tracks slower moving objects How was it determined that visual information is dominant system moving wall experiments ∙ People were standing and the wall moved and they fell too because they thought the world was spinning Tactile sensory information use in movement ∙ Movement accuracy, consistency, force adjustment, distance estimate Cutaneous receptors : thermoreceptors, nocioceptors, mechanoceptors ∙ Thermoreceptors-sensitive to heat and cold ∙ Nociocepters- sensitive to damage or threat of damage giving rise to the sensation of pain ∙ Mechanoceptors- sensitive to pressure, touch, vibration, and bending of skin Kinesthesis/Proprioceptive information- afferent/ascending pathway ∙ Infor from the body o Various receptors, such as muscle spindle, joint receptors, and vestibular system, help brain process info about the body and its relative location in space Function of muscle spindles ∙ Stretch of muscle-detect changes in muscle fiber length, velocity Function of golgi tendon organs ∙ Muscle tension o Provide info about force levels to protect muscle form excessive force and provide movement control Function of vestibular system ∙ Provides info about orientation of the body in space-posture and balance Concept of a motor program – allow movement to occur Generalized motor program – invariant and parameters∙ Generalized(GPM)- memory representation of a class of actions that share common invariant characteristic ∙ Invariant-unique set of characteristics that define a motor ∙ Parameters-features of the GPMMP that can vary from one performance of a skill to another Feedback and feedforward : strengths and/or weaknesses of each ∙ Feedback-sensory input provides info about the movement (consequences) o Closed loop system o Accurate but slow o Most effective when corrections are small o Neural impulses from multiple receptors provides a feedback on whether or not corrections need to be made form a particular tasks ∙ Feedforward- the modification nor control of a process using its anticipated results or effects o Is faster but requires accurate knowledge in advance of movement Anticipation- planning movement prior to stimulus Using feedback to regulate and adapt to changes Regulatory versus adaptive feedback ∙ Regularity- info about output is used during movement to guide ongoing movement ∙ Adaptive-info about the output is used to correct the program to make next attempt more accurate Knowledge of Results, Knowledge of Performance (examples of each) ∙ Results-make or miss ∙ keep elbow in Feedforward and anticipation – benefits, planning ∙ faster and anticipate Reaction time/ movement time/ response time ∙ reaction time- the interval between the stimulus and the initial response ∙ movement time- initiation of response to completion of movement ∙ response time is the sum of the two Speed-Accuracy and Fitt’s law’ ∙ speed accuracy trade-off-characteristic of motor skill performance in which the speed of which a skill is performed is influence by movement accuracy demandsLecture Motor Learning Motor learning and motor skill – definitions ∙ Motor learning- a set of internal processes associated with practice or experience leading to relatively permanent changes in the capability for motor skills ∙ Motor Skill- a goal directed action that requires movement of the hwole body, limb, or muscle in order to be successfully Characteristics of a skilled performer ∙ Fast yet accurate ∙ Consistent yet adaptable ∙ Max effect with minimal attention or effort Influences on performance of a motor skill ∙ Performance environment ∙ The skill 3 levels of movement : reflex, rhythmic, and voluntary ∙ Reflex-automatic processing-rapid, stereotyped and involuntary o Sensory input send impulses to the spinal cord o Impulses are passed back to the spinal cord through interneurons back to muscles ∙ Rhythmic motor patterns- typically only initiation and termination of movement are voluntary ∙ Voluntary- purposeful and goal directed o Learned and can be improved with practice Concept of a reflex - used in movement- Somatic reflex arc ∙ Afferent-send impulses ∙ Efferent-receive impulses Motor pattern generators ∙ Neuronal circuits that when activated can produce rhythmic motor patterns such as walking, breathing, and swimming in the absence of sensory or descending inputs that carry specific timing info Information processing model - Components of the central channel of information processing : perceptual mechanism, decision, and effector Memory system (SR, ST, LT) ∙ 1st stage-sensory register-large amounts/brief time period ∙ 2nd stage- short term memory- conscious or working memory, limited to around 7 words or digits ∙ 3rd stage-long term memory- relatively permanent Episodic and Semantic memory ∙ Episodic is recall of personal facts ∙ Semantic is recall of general facts Why do we forget information Trace decay, proactive, retroactive∙ Trace decay- loss that occurs with the passing of time ∙ Proactive- old memory makes it more difficult or impossible to remember new memory ∙ Retroactive interference- when new info interferes with your ability to remember preciously learned info Errors that occur in information processing ∙ Inaccurate perception or misinterpretation of info ∙ Response delay when sensory info is deceptive o Fake moves Classification systems of motor skills – Gentiles taxonomy- Action ∙ Gentiles Taxonomy-organize movements around environmental context function o Closed action- little inter-trial variability, predictable, same movement pattern o Open- significant inter-trail variability, unpredictable, different movement patterns function/Environmental context Open versus closed skills, classifying skills by movement demands (Levels) ∙ Type 1 object and individual are at rest ∙ Type 2 individual is at rest, object is in motion ∙ Type 3 individual is in motion object is at rest ∙ Type 4 individual and object are in motion Differentiate learning and performance- learning curves ∙ Many factors determine shape of the curve o Cognitive demands o Plateaus- fatigue Fitts and Posner stages of learning – cognitive, associative, autonomous ∙ Cognitive- being or novice ∙ Associative- intermediate or practice ∙ Autonomous- advanced or fine-tuning Why do we see plateaus in learning - reminiscence/ reactive inhibition ∙ Plateaus come because of fatigue ∙ Reminiscence- learning while not doing/reflecting ∙ Reactive inhibition- reduced motivation (boredom) Information : quantitative versus qualitative benefits of each ∙ Quantitative- numbers and results ∙ Qualitative- “good job” ∙ Quantitative seems to be better Amount of information given : immediate or summary ∙ Bandwidth feedbackLimited to times when performance is “out of range”---- after is not as good, feedback during or right after is beneficial Distributed versus massed practice ∙ Distributed- rest periods may lead to better performance but not necessarily better learning ∙ Massed- better learning no breaks Random versus blocked practice – how all these factors influence learning ∙ Random-practice where different movements are alternated during practice session ∙ Blocked-performing same movement repeatedly Concept of contextual interference – have to change attention focus ∙ The fact that random practice produces better results than blocked practice ∙ the contextual interference effect in motor learning refers to the interference that results from practicing a tsk within the concept of other tasks in a practice session What is the transfer effect – negative and positive ∙ negative transfer effect is when practice task usually hurts performance like when doing baseball and golf at the same time ∙ BUT practicing similar tasks can transfer learning to actual tasks Components of ability ∙ A general trait or capacity of an individual that is a determinant of a person’s achievement potential for the performance of specific skills ∙ Stable, enduring, genetically defined ∙ Quality usually depends on ability Some motor abilities that have been identified – how used ∙ Multi limb coordination- coordination of limbs at the same time ∙ Control precision- make rabid and precise adjustments ∙ Reaction time- ability to respond rapidly ∙ Finger dexterity ability to make skillful, control manipulation of tiny objects ∙ Aiming ability to rapidly and accurately move the hand to a small target ∙ Arm hand steadiness- ability to make precise arm/hand position ∙ Rat control- time continuous anticipatory movement adjustments in response to speed and direction Concept of virtual reality and simulation ∙ Simulation and virtual reality can simulate real life and give vital practice using the transfer of learning principle KINESIOLOGY 220 EXAM 2 Review Biomechanics3 10 General Physical Skills and definitions 1.Cardiorespiratory Endurance- the ability of body systems to gather, process and deliver oxygen 2. Stamina- ability of body systems to process, deliver, store and utilize energy 3. Strength- the ability of a muscular unit, or combination of muscular units to apply force or a measure of work 4. Flexibility- the ability to maximize range of motion at a given join 5.Coordination- the ability to combine several distinct movement patterns into a singular distinct movement 6.Agility- the ability to minimize transition time from one movement pattern to another 7.Balance/stability- the ability to control the placement of the bodies center of gravity to its support base 8.Accuracy- the ability to control movement in a given direction or at a given intensity 9. Power- the ability of a muscular unit, or combination of muscular units, to apply maximum force in a minimum time 10. Speed- the ability to minimize the time cycle of a repeated movement- speed=distance/time Type of adaptation for each skill (Organic/Neurological/Both) *organic adaptation (look under microscope and see change) 1. cardiorespiratory endurance 2. stamina 3. strength4. flexibility *Neurological adaptation 1. coordination 2. agility 3. balance/stability 4. accuracy *Both organic and Neuro Speed and power Goals of studying biomechanics ∙ Performance improvement o Long term function ∙ Injury prevention o Leads to long term functionality Anatomical reference positions and terms FLASH CARDS LIT Cardinal Planes FLASH CARDS Movement Descriptions – flexion, extension, rotation etc… FLASH CARDS Axes of Rotation FLASH CARDS Mechanical Advantage ∙ Load/effort o Levers: force arm/resistance arm o Wheel and Axel: Radius of wheel/radius of axel o Pulleys: single pulley : 1 for every pulley after add 1 Newtons Laws Velocity changes when direction changes ∙ Law of Inertia (1) o A body in motion tends to remain in motion at the same speed in a strait line unless acted on by a force; a body at rest tends to remain at rest unless acted on by a forceo Muscles produce force to start, stop, accelerate, decelerate and change direction of motion o In movement inertia refers to resistance to acceleration or deceleration or change of in velocity BUT velocity has direction o Greater mass greater inertia ∙ Law of Acceleration o Change in acceleration of a body occurs in the same direction as the force that caused it. Change in acceleration is directly proportional to the force causing it and inversely proportional to the mass of the body o Acceleration is rate of change in velocity o Mass- amount of matter in the body, affects the speed and acceleration in physical movements o Greater force is required bigger you are ∙ Law of Reaction o For every action there is an opposite and equal reaction o Place force on a surface the surface provides an equal resistance back so we don’t fall through space. o Force of surface reacting is ground reaction force Velocity – definition, equation, calculation ∙ Rate of change of displacement (how long it takes from point a to point b o v=d/t m/s ∙ a runner goes 50 meters in 6 secondsvelocity is 50/6= 8.3 m/s Momentum – definition, equation, calculation (always conserved) ∙ the product of mass times velocity o M=mv kg m/s ∙ Football player weights 220bs and runs at 6m/s o Convert to kg o M=100 kg x 6=600kg m/s Acceleration – definition, equation, calculation ∙ Change in velocity o deltaVelocity/change in time o sprinter runs 200m at 9m/s at 100, the 5m/s at finish took 11 seconds to cover last 100 meters. What is acceleration during last 100. A=deltav/time ∙ 5-9 ∙ 4/11seconds ∙ .36m/ssquared Kinetic energy enther that an object possesses as a result of its motion ∙ KE=1/2m (vsquared) Work – definition, equation, calculation ∙ Force acting on an object (and gravity o Force times distance Pushes tire weighting 350lbs 10 feet 159.1kg*9.8m/ss*3.05m=4755.5Nm Force – definition, equation, calculation ∙ force=ma o k Power-time it takes to move a load through a certain distance ∙ work/time∙ An athlete (weighing 140lbs) power cleans 250 lbs with a bar path of 5 feet. The time of the movement is 1.5 seconds. What is her relative power output? o 250/2.2=113.64kg o 5*12*2.54*.01=1.52m o 113.64kg*9.8m/s^2*1.52/1.5s=1128.52W o 1128.52W/(140lb/2.2lb) = 17.73W/kg o Friction – different types and how they differ ∙ Static: amount of friction between two objects that have not yet begun to move (still friction) ∙ Kinetic friction: friction occurring between two objects that are sliding upon one another ∙ Rolling friction resistance of an object rolling across a surface such as a ball ∙ Static is greater than kinetic which is greater than rolling ∙ Coefficient of friction- ratio between forces needed to overcome the friction over the force holding the surfaces together Levers – classes, how they are used etc, calculation of mechanical advantage ∙ First class levers o Produce balanced movements Force motion is when axis is close to resistance Force is applied where mucscles inserts in the bond not in the belly of the muscle o Head and neck is a first class lever Agonist muscle groups contract and produce force and lifts antagonists o Elbow extension in triceps apply force in extending the non-supported forearm when the elbow is the axis ∙ Second class levers o Produces force movements, since a large resistance can be moved by a relatively small force Wheel barrel, nutcracker, wrench, raising body up on the toes o Plantar flexion of foot to raise the body up on the toes: ball of the foot is the axis, ankle flexors apply forces to lift the resistance which is the foot ∙ Third class levers o Most common in the human body o Produce speed and ROM o Requires great deal of force to move small resistance Biceps in elbow flexion: using elbow joint is axis, biceps apply force at insertion on radial, they lift the armn which is resistance a.what generates force in the human body? Only muscle fibers can produce force in the body Wheels and Axels - how they are used etc, calculation of mechanical advantage ∙ Fancy levers ∙ Used primarily to enhance range of motion and speed of movement in the musculoskeletal system∙ When either the wheel or axel turn the other turns as well ∙ Center is the fulcrum ∙ Radius of the when and axel correspond with the force arms ∙ Wheel radius is greater than axle, then the wheel has the mechanical advantage. ∙ MA=radius of wheel over radius of axle Pulley - how they are used etc, calculation of mechanical advantage ∙ Single pullys function to change effective direction of force application MA=1 o Ex. Lateral malleolus (ankle) acts as pully around which tendon runs Kinetic Energy ∙ The energy that an object possess as a result of its motion, a measure of an objects ability to do work ∙ KE=1/2m(v)^2 o Measured in joules ∙ A soccer player is running at a velocity of 7m/s. The athlete weighs 130lbs. What is her Kinetic Energy? o 130/2.2=59.1 o ½*59.1(7)^2=1447.72J All video questions Have a general knowledge of all of your power points! KIN 220 Lab Final Review Maura Kennedy Lab 1 Physical Activity Measurement ∙ Know the different types of PA measuremento Validity the extent which a measurement corresponds accurately to the real world o Reliability overall consistency of a measure o Objectivity ability of a measure to be unbiased o Subjectivity measurement which accounts for a subjects; internal affect about a particular construct o Measurement error difference between the measure value and actual value ∙ Know the difference between objective and subjective measures o Objectivity is the ability to be unbiased Usually true and determined by facts or numbers BP, HR, PA More reliable, mathematically Might not take into account for info like pain level or enjoyment o Subjectivity is measurements that are internal reactions to a construct Personal opinion Journals or records, enjoyment or pain Used when there is no other option Less reliable ∙ RPE o Rate of perceived exertion o Measure of intensity o Subjective o Correlated to HR, vo2 max and other physiological events Lab 2 SocioBehavioral Influences ∙ Know and understand selfefficacy o An individual’s confidence in their ability to accomplish a task ∙ Know what selfregulation is, and what it includes o An individual’s ability to monitor, evaluate and change a behavior ∙ Know what enjoyment is, and factors that enhance it o An internal state of pleasure, usually the result of a behavior ∙ Types of motivation o Intrinsic motivation: behavior performed for the inherent satisfaction and enjoyment it provides o Extrinsic motivation: behavior is performed for the external reward that it provides Lab 3 The Built Environment∙ Know the definitions related to the built environment o Healthy Community: A community that facilitates healthy behaviors by providing adequate physical resources, encouraging people to engage in healthy behaviors, and limiting unhealthy behaviors o Walkability: the overall level of comfort, access, enjoyment and connectivity of an area that facilitates walking o Policy Maker: an individual responsible for facilitating policy that changes the environment o Walkability Assessment: A tool used to access the built environment for walking ∙ Understand environmental correlates of walking o Weather o Presence of sidewalks o Aesthetics o Shade o Proximity of destination o Density (population, roadway and destinations) ∙ Know and understand walk audits, and what they tell us o Walk audit is a way to score a walk on the areas of the environmental correlates o Happens when one walks a route and pays attention to the surroundings Lab 4 Validity and Reliability ∙ Know and understand the types of measurement error (4) o Lack of agreement among scorers o Failure of an instrument to measure consistently o Failure of a tester to follow standardized testing procedures o Lack of consistent performance by individual ∙ Know and understand types of validity (3) o Content validity Addresses whether the components of the measurement measure what they are supposed to measure o Criterion validity Based on a comparison between your measurement and an already accepted standard o Construct validity Involved the use of predicted behaviors and relating test results to some behavior or attribute ∙ Know and understand the types of reliability (3) o Stability Day to day consistency o Internal consistency Consistency of measures taken in the same experiment measured by the same tester procedure o Precision The repeatability of a measurement ∙ Accuracy vs. Precision o Accurate is like hitting the bullseye when aiming for it o Precise is hitting a given spot multiple times in a row Lab 5 Computer Information Search ∙ What are the parts of a research article? o Title – usually short and to the point o Author List – first author listed wrote the article, last author is usually the senior author o Abstract – brief summary of the article. Will include background, methods, results, conclusion and sometimes “key words” o Introduction – provides background such as what other studies have found, why they are doing the study, states a purpose for the study and presents a hypothesis o Methods – Subject description, techniques used to collect the data, equations that were needed, statistical analyses used o Results – Present all data collected with statistical comparisons that allow them to answer the research question o Discussion– explains what the data means and how it answers the research question, compares what was found to previous studies, discusses any limitations (things which could have been improved) to the study and presents a summary or conclusion o Acknowledgements – thanks those involved in conducting and reporting the experiment and mentions funding sources o References– list of all articles and resources used in the development of the article ∙ Where can the purpose statement be found? The conclusion? o The purpose and the conclusion can both be found in the abstract This section is kind of a summary of the whole article and can be really useful to answer different types of questions Lab 6 Muscular Strength, Power & Endurance ∙ Strength vs. Power o Strength is max amount of weight a person can lift for ONE rep o Power is time it takes a person to move a load through a certain distance Work/time ∙ Types of Power (2) o Absolute power: how long it takes a person to move a load a certain distance Does NOT factor in the mass of the person Measured in W ∙ Fxd/t ∙ w/t o relative power (AKA personal power) factors in the mass of the person Watts ∙ Fxt/t/w ∙ w/t/weight ∙ Types of muscle contraction (3) o Static Muscular contraction w/o ROM Pusing wall o Rhythmic Dynamic contraction with movement (isotonic) Lifting weights o Maximal voluntary (mvc) 100% isometricstatic contraction squeezing fist ∙ Be able to calculate power, relative power, and work given all the needed variables o abPower= (force x distance) / time = W o rPower= (force * distance)/time/ weight Lab 7 Cardiovascular Assessment ∙ Define cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance o HR: number of times heart beats in one minute o SV: volume of blood ejected from the heart per beat o Q: product of HR and SV o BP: force against which the heart must pump o SVR: resistance provided by arterioles ∙ Know blood pressure levels o Normal <120/<80 o Prehypertension120139/8089 o Hypertension>140/>90 ∙ What happens to BP during exercise? o Blood pressure goes up then stabilizes during exercise ∙ Parts of a normal EKG wave and what each one represents o P atrial depolarization Rt and lf atrium contract and move blood into rt and lf ventricles o QRS complexventricle depolarization Rt and lf ventricles contract and move blood to lunch and whole body o T wave ventricle repolarization rt and lf ventricle relax Lab 8 Predicted Aerobic Capacity ∙ What does VO2max tell us? o The maximum amount of oxygen consumed per minute during large muscle mass exercise ∙ Conversions between Absolute vs. Relative oxygen uptake o Absolute: L/min o Relative: ml/kg/min o Relative = (absolute x 1000)/Mass in kg ∙ Relationship between work and HR, work and VO2, VO2 and HR o Work increases HR increases o Work increase VO2 increases o VO2 increases HR increases to max then levels ∙ Explain the physiological mechanisms that occur from rest to exercise o Energy increases o Metabolism increases o Oxygen increases o Q increases with HR and SV o Oxygen extraction at muscle cells increases; therefore, venous oxygen content decreases o VO2 remains constant when maximal VO2 is reached even though work intensity continues to increase o VO2 increases linearly when plotted against Q, HR, and workload ∙ Know how to calculate VO2, cardiac output (Q), and HRmax o VO2 = Q x (avO2) o Q = HR x SV o HRmax = 220 age Lab 9 Aerobic Capacity ∙ What are the secondary indicators of a valid VO2max test? What is the best indicator? o RER o HR at or above predicted max o Volitional fatigue o Blood lactate>8mmol ∙ Know what RER is and how to calculate ito RER is respiratory exchange ratio Measurement of gas exchange athe the mouth o RER=co2produces/o consumed Lab 10 Body Composition ∙ Know and understand indirect methods for determining body composition (4) o Hydrostatic weighing Based on Archimedis’ principle that lean mass is more dense than fat mass so fat will float o Skinfold Estimates fat by taking representative samples of subcutaneous fat Samples are taken at different places where fat builds up Equations are then used to predict the percentage of body fat based on gender, number of sites measured, ages, and sum of measurements o BIA Estimates body fat percentage by sending a very low intensity electrical through the body from one electrode to another Fat free mass is about 73% water and is better conductor of electricity o Circumference measurement Is based ont eh girths of several sites where fat builds up Equation used attempts to account for differences Men and women store fat in different places o DEXA Gold standard Also does bone density ∙ What are advantages and disadvantages of each method described above? o Hydrostatic Advantages ∙ 2nd most accurate Disadvantages ∙ Requires special equipment ∙ Time consuming ∙ Subjects must completely expel all air from lungs and be completely submerged o Skinfold Advantages ∙ Quick ∙ Affordable ∙ Fairly accurate Disadvantages ∙ Requires much practice∙ Can be uncomfortable ∙ Fairly invasive ∙ Hard to measure in obese individuals o BIA Advantages ∙ Quick and easy ∙ Inexpensive ∙ Noninvasive ∙ Portable Disadvantages ∙ Unreliable with changes in hydration level o Circumference Measurement Advantages ∙ Quick, easy, and cheap Disadvantages ∙ Large amount of error, particularly for individuals with large muscles ∙ o What is the most accurate indirect method for determining body comp? What is the “gold standard”? DEXA Advantages ∙ High reliability and validity ∙ Distinguish regional and whole body parameters Disadvantages ∙ Very expensive ∙ Trained technicians required to operate machine ∙ Small amounts of radiation Lab 11 Anaerobic Power & Capacity ∙ Three muscle fiber types and characteristics o Type 1 slow twitch oxidative, very fatigue o Type 2a fast twitch oxidative/glycolytic fibers Moderate power output, oxidative and glycolytic, moderately fatigue resistant Tend to take the characteristics of either 1 or 2b depending which is dominant in the body o Type 2b fast twitch glycolytic, high power output, glycolytic, low fatigue resistance ∙ Anaerobic Power vs. Anaerobic Capacity and what energy systems contribute to these terms o Anaerobic power Determined by ATP supplied by the creatine phosphate system (CP) ATP and PCr are important energy sources during high intensity exercise lasting only a few seconds Indicative or stored energy in the muscle o Anaerobic capacity Determine by the ATP supplied by the glycolytic pathways rather than the phosphorylation of ADP by the CP system Indicative of an individual ability to utilize the glycolytic pathway as a source of ATP during high intensity exercise Lab 12 Biomechanics ∙ Be able to calculate velocity, momentum, kinetic energy, and acceleration given all the needed variables o Velocity – definition, equation, calculation Rate of change of displacement (how long it takes from point a to point b o v=d/t m/s o a runner goes 50 meters in 6 seconds velocity is 50/6= 8.3 m/s o Momentum – definition, equation, calculation (always conserved) ∙ the product of mass times velocity o M=mv kg m/s ∙ Football player weights 220bs and runs at 6m/s o Convert to kg o M=100 kg x 6=600kg m/s Acceleration – definition, equation, calculation ∙ Change in velocity o deltaVelocity/change in time o sprinter runs 200m at 9m/s at 100, the 5m/s at finish took 11 seconds to cover last 100 meters. What is acceleration during last 100. A=deltav/time ∙ 59 ∙ 4/11seconds ∙ .36m/squared Kinetic energy enter that an object possesses as a result of its motion ∙ KE=1/2m (vsquared) Work – definition, equation, calculation Lab 13 Motor Control & Learning ∙ Understand concepts and principles related to motor learningo Motor learning is a set of processes associated with practice or experience leading to relatively permanent changes in the capability for motor skills o Motor learning has a shape of learning/performance chart Factors that affect shape of the curve ∙ Cognitive demandsdifficulty of the task ∙ Plateaus happens because of fatigue ∙ Understand how performance is altered through motor learning o Performance is altered by plateaus which occurs when muscles get tired and cant function properly o Performance can also be improved by motor learning by permanent changes in the capability for motor skills ∙ Understand various feedback mechanisms within motor learning (Closed loop) o Quantitative has bigger effect, uses numbers to portray results to the performer Seems to have better results after feedback is given o Qualitative more along the lines of a compliment May not have as great of an effect the people. o Bandwidth feedback Is feedback that is limited to times when performance is “out of range” ∙ “expired feedback”