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UCLA / History / HIST 121D / What is the meaning of slum?

What is the meaning of slum?

What is the meaning of slum?


School: University of California - Los Angeles
Department: History
Course: History of Modern Europe: Bourgeois Century, 1815 to 1914
Professor: Stephen frank
Term: Summer 2015
Cost: 50
Name: 121D Study Guide
Description: Study guide with the terms that the professor sent out
Uploaded: 05/06/2017
8 Pages 204 Views 2 Unlocks

Giuseppe Mazzini  

What is the meaning of slum?

● 1805-1872  

● Very influential liberal thinker of the time period  

● Thought of liberty as the liberty of the individual to serve the national ideal. Forms 19th  century liberal nationalism with this thought  

● In his writings, he rejected and reformulated many of the early classical liberal ideas. For  him, the liberation of economics laissez faire had benefitted only a few. Argued that  exploitation was not the price but the abuse of resources and Political equality required  social equality  

● His nationalism would be the primary form of nationalist ideology  

● Required a social class dedicated to preserving culture and promoting literature  ● Wants individual freedom but within a communitarian reality which is contradictory    


What is the meaning of the great reform bill?

● Refers to the areas where poor people lived in european cities  

● They were often disgusting, had no lighting, sewer systems, or any basic amenities  ● Eventually it was realized that the peasants were living in filth but this took awhile  ● This was a direct result of the industrial revolution with people moving in huge numbers  to live in the cities  

Great Reform Bill  

● Bill in 1832 that changed the political system in the UK  

● They looked at which regions had seats in parliament, abolished some and added  others, then made it easier for people (males only srry) to vote  

● It was very liberal and progressive for the time although it did have some limitations, it  established democracy in law and fact in the region  

Rural proletariat  

What is the meaning of the rural proletariat?

● The term proletariat is used in Marxist theory to name the social class that does not have  ownership of the means of production and whose only means of subsistence is to sell  their labor power for a wage or salary. Don't forget about the age old question of What was thomas edison's original purpose for the phonograph?
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● Marxism sees the proletariat and bourgeoisie (capitalist class) as occupying conflicting  positions, since workers automatically wish their wages to be as high as possible, while  owners and their proxies wish for wages (costs) to be as low as possible.  Conservatism  

● Conservatism is a defense of the old order, the one that the french revolution tried to  sweep aside  

● It emerges in reaction to the French Revolution  

● Liberalism is anti-monarchist but you cant say its born in that way, but conservatism was  born in opposition to something  

● Main ideas:  

○ 1) historical tradition, you can’t just come in and change an institution that took  hundreds of years to develop  

○ 2) Patriarchalism- notion that the community takes precedence over the  individual  

○ 3) Organized religion was critical to maintaining social order  

● Strongly oppose the ideas of the FR  

Factory discipline

● New system of work because of industrialization  

○ You couldn’t set your own hours or set your own pace  

○ You had to follow the factory schedule  

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○ Work starts at 6 or 7, a break is taken midday for lunch, then you keep going until  7 or 8 pm  

○ Same for adults and children  

○ Very little time for socialization  

Decembrist Revolt  

● Uprising that took place in Imperial russia in December of 1825  

● Liberal response to the effects of serfdom on the population  

● Ultimately failed but their revolt has been considered the beginning of a revolutionary  movement. The uprising was the first open breach between the government and reformist  elements of the Russian nobility, which would subsequently widen. 

Spinning Jenny  

● It was invented in 1764  

● The device reduced the amount of work needed to produce cloth, with a worker able to  work eight or more spools at once. This grew to 120 as technology advanced. The yarn  produced by the Jenny was not very strong until Richard Arkwright invented the water powered 'Water Frame', which produced yarn harder and stronger than that of the initial  Spinning Jenny. It ushered in the factory system. [1] We also discuss several other topics like What is natural flow next to a plain surface?

● Greatly improved cloth making abilities in industrial britain and sped up the industrial  revolution  


● The Luddites were a group of English textile workers and weavers in the 19th century  who destroyed weaving machinery as a form of protest. The group was protesting the  use of machinery in a "fraudulent and deceitful manner" to get around standard labour  practices. Luddites feared that the time spent learning the skills of their craft would go to  waste as machines would replace their role in the industry.[2] 

● Breaking machinery was eventually made into a capital crime  


● Became the main crop of Europe during this time period

● It allowed people to eat more, but became so integrated into the diet of people  specifically the poor that a bad year for the crop (Irish Potato famine for example) meant  widespread hunger  

Quadruple Alliance  

● The Quadruple Alliance was a treaty signed in Paris on 20 November 1815 by the great  powers of United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia, and Russia. It renewed the use of the  Congress System which advanced European international relations at the time. The  alliance first formed in 1813 to counter France. The powers promised aid to each other,  the alliance functioning until 1818 

July Monarchy  

● was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the  July Revolution of 1830 (also known as the Three Glorious Days) and ending with the  Revolution of 1848. It began with the overthrow of the conservative government of  Charles X and the House of Bourbon. Louis Philippe,

● The July Monarchy was dominated by wealthy bourgeoisie and numerous former  Napoleonic officials. It followed conservative policies, especially under the influence  (1840–48) of François Guizot. The king promoted friendship with Great Britain and  sponsored colonial expansion, notably the conquest of Algeria. By 1848, a year in which  many European states had a revolution, the king's popularity had collapsed and he was  overthrown  

Demographic revolution  

● Industrial Revolution was above all a demographic revolution  

○ Countryside population was rising too rapidly to support a lot of children so they  start sending family members to the city to work  

○ Millions and millions are on the move  

● How does social control function in this situation?  

○ People are everywhere, one factory job to another  

○ Pre-industrial europe people lived in small towns where the social control was  operated through the local church and the noble lord around. This is more  manageable  

○ Now, you have millions of people in the cities which is inconceivable to everyone  living there  

“Triangle Trade”  

● transatlantic slave trade, that operated from the late 16th to early 19th centuries,  carrying slaves, cash crops, and manufactured goods between West Africa, Caribbean  or American colonies and the European colonial powers, with the northern colonies of  British North America, especially New England, sometimes taking over the role of  Europe. The use of African slaves was fundamental to growing colonial cash crops,  which were exported to Europe. European goods, in turn, were used to purchase African  slaves, who were then brought on the sea lane west from Africa to the Americas, the so called Middle Passage. 


● Anyone who took an opposing position to the ancient order was called a liberal  ● As it evolves and moves from its places of origin eastward it becomes more radical  because there are no reform alternatives in the great autocratic monarchies of eastern  europe so any type of disagreement was therefore revolutionary  

● Its broad concern was building institutional and legal structures not with some types of  moral changes  

● Constitutional monarchists is a good description of early liberals  

○ A constitution was the only way to guarantee equal treatment under the law and  assure freedom of speech press religion etc.  

○ Early liberals were the bourgeoisie  

○ Constitutional checks and balances  

○ This type of gov would be the most likely form to guarantee the rights that these  liberals wanted  

○ Early and mid 19th century liberals had no problem with executive power being  invested in a royal dynasty it's only in france where you find pure republicans  who follow the us president idea  

● Helps support the newly rising middle class  

○ Steady rise of the bourgeoisie in this time period  

○ Their growing size and wealth did not bring political power

● Stress virtues of work thrift ambition caution  

● Want careers that value talent over familial ties  

● Did not include everyone  

○ Require education, which was not as accessible to all classes equally  ● Want to eliminate restrictions on free pursuits for profit  

● Individual freedom=liberalism  

● Person’s value was measured by their achievement  

● Greatest contribution to modern political theory was the definition of a sphere of human  activity that government could not touch  

● The challenge was with the inseparability of the private vs public experiences  ● Economically, liberals adopt the laissez faire ideas of Adam Smith who maintained that  private enterprise unimpeded as government was as important as political freedom for  the community and country  

○ Followers of this would initially use the very same ideas to justify opposition to  humanitarian legislation which is beginning to be pushed in the 1830s intended to  alleviate the misery of the lower classes  

○ Poverty was an iron law of nature and there was no room for compassion for the  poor  

○ State intervention would disrupt the free market  


● Members of the lower middle class condemn the thought that you should condemn  people to poverty for their lives  

○ Thought that social statuses should be put aside for the overall well being of the  state  

○ Known as democrats, republicans, radicals, etc.  

○ Held a nearly mystical faith in the virtue and wisdom of the common man  ○ Radicalism here in early 19th century europe is dominated by the heritage of the  french revolution  

○ Unlike liberalism the basis of radicalism rested on the idea of popular sovereignty  ○ The people included all adult males in society  

○ Opposed monarchies as head of state, and wanted intervention in the economy  by the government  

● Mazzini was a romantic radical of some sort  


● Enclosing a number of small landholdings to create one larger farm. Once enclosed, use  of the land became restricted to the owner, and it ceased to be common land for  communal use. The process of enclosure began to be a widespread feature of the  English agricultural landscape during the 16th century. By the 19th century, unenclosed  commons had become largely restricted to rough pasture in mountainous areas and to  relatively small parts of the lowlands. 

● Enclosure is considered one of the causes of the British Agricultural Revolution.  Enclosed land was under control of the farmer who was free to adopt better farming  practices. There was widespread agreement in contemporary accounts that profit  making opportunities were better with enclosed land. Following enclosure, crop yields  increased while at the same time labour productivity increased enough to create a  surplus of labour. The increased labour supply is considered one of the causes of the  Industrial Revolution.

Thomas Malthus  

● Malthus observed that an increase in a nation's food production improved the wellbeing  of the populace, but the improvement was temporary because it led to population  growth, which in turn restored the original per capita production level. In other words,  mankind had a propensity to utilize abundance for population growth rather than for  maintaining a high standard of living, a view that has become known as the "Malthusian  trap" or the "Malthusian spectre". Populations had a tendency to grow until the lower  class suffered hardship and want and greater susceptibility to famine and disease, a  view that is sometimes referred to as a Malthusian catastrophe.  

● Malthus wrote in opposition to the popular view in 18th-century Europe that saw society  as improving and in principle as perfectible. He saw population growth as being  inevitable whenever conditions improved, thereby precluding real progress towards a  utopian society 

● Malthus criticized the Poor Laws for leading to inflation rather than improving the wellbeing of  the poor. He supported taxes on grain imports (the Corn Laws), because food security was  more important than maximizing wealth. His views became influential, and controversial,  across economic, political, social and scientific thought. 


● working-class movement for political reform in Britain that existed from 1838 to 1857. 

● The People's Charter called for six reforms to make the political system more  democratic:  

1. A vote for every man (earlier, every person but this was dropped due to middle class pressure) twenty-one years of age, of sound mind, and not undergoing  punishment for a crime. 

2. The secret ballot to protect the elector in the exercise of his vote.

3. No property qualification for Members of Parliament in order to allow the  constituencies to return the man of their choice. 

4. Payment of Members, enabling tradesmen, working men, or other persons of  modest means to leave or interrupt their livelihood to attend to the interests of the  nation. 

5. Equal constituencies, securing the same amount of representation for the same  number of electors, instead of allowing less populous constituencies to have as  much or more weight than larger ones. 

6. Annual Parliamentary elections, thus presenting the most effectual check to  bribery and intimidation, since no purse could buy a constituency under a system  of universal manhood suffrage in each twelve-month period. 

Greek Revolution  

● successful war of independence waged by the Greek revolutionaries between 1821 and  1832 against the Ottoman Empire.  

● Greek Revolt legitimized the concept of small, ethnically based nation-states, and  emboldened nationalist movements among other subject peoples of the Ottoman  Empire.  

● When greeks revolt against ottoman control, all the major powers support the revolt  ○ Strange in a time where most of the world order is focused on stamping out revolt

○ Greeks were orthodox christians vs ottoman muslims, and were the founders of  democracy, so they were supported to help both Christianity and democracy  “Springtime of Peoples”  

● Also known as the Revolutions of 1848  

● The revolutions were essentially democratic in nature, with the aim of removing the old  feudal structures and creating independent national states.  

● Idea of nationalism begins to blossom, the revolutions give it a push  

○ Reveals fractures in the revolutionary movement  

○ Industrialization created worker dislocation, unemployment of artisans, etc.,  ● There is a mass of built up anger and resentment, as well as the desire to take it further  than they had in 1830  

● Economic crisis helped push it  

Holy Alliance  

● was a coalition created by the monarchist great powers of Russia, Austria and Prussia. It  was created after the ultimate defeat of Napoleon at the behest of Tsar Alexander I of  Russia and signed in Paris on 26 September 1815. The intention of the alliance was to  restrain republicanism and secularism in Europe in the wake of the devastating French  Revolutionary Wars, and the alliance nominally succeeded in this until the Crimean War  (1853–1856).  

Factory system  

● a method of manufacturing using machinery and division of labour. Because of the high  capital cost of machinery and factory buildings, factories are typically owned by  capitalists who employ the operative labour. Use of machinery with the division of labor  reduced the required skill level of workers and also increased the output per worker. 

● first adopted in Britain at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th  century and later spread around the world.  


● Cotton was the only industry where heavy machinery was predominant  ● Britain had the cotton industry which is very well suited for industrialization  ● British industry develops a monopoly of cotton through war and controlling colonies  ● Women would even before mid century come to constitute between 40-50% of workers  in cotton mills  

Romantic (early) Nationalism  

● During the french revolution loyalty was directed to the NATION not to the king or  province, it is to the abstraction of the nation  

● The Jaquevinds  

● As french armies won victories and passed through, they attempted to overturn  ecclesiastic institutions, abolish old privileges, eliminate remnants of feudal times  ● Individuals were free to work at any trade they chose, it was not chosen for them  ● The french rule over much of Europe accelerated things that were under way already  ○ Codification of laws, modified tax systems, equality before the law  

● Provided for less corrupt administration  

● Age of national awakenings or re-awakenings especially among the ethnic groups who  never had an actual nations  

● It is in this period that these peoples begin to recall some kind of history of their origins  or make up myths about them, try to revive or invent traditions, revive native tongues  and do so as literary languages. Seek to assert their existence as nations

● 1820s and 1830s were literary societies and museums appear  

● Crucially important for these struggling national movements to achieve some sort of  national autonomy  

○ Teach school in the native language for example  

● Sometimes the re-awakenings were not natural  

○ Proponents of a Romanian language decreed that the new literary language  used latin letters instead of slavic ones  

● It was sometimes difficult to determine what was a “nation” because many of them never  had their own state to go off of  

● Many nationalists were not clear about what they were promoting and didn’t really follow  through with it  

○ They were very small groups in extremely large empires  

○ It’s difficult to create a movement in a place where there are high levels of  illiteracy  

Swiss Civil War  

● The liberal Free Democratic Party of Switzerland which was mainly made up of urban  bourgeoisie and burghers and was strong in the largely Protestant cantons obtained the  majority in the Federal Diet (the Tagsatzung) in the early 1840s. It proposed a new  Constitution for the Swiss Confederation which would draw the several cantons into a  closer relationship. In 1843, the conservative city patricians and mountain or Ur-Swiss from the largely Catholic cantons were opposed to the new constitution. These cantons  combined to form the Sonderbund in 1843. In addition to the centralization of the Swiss  government, the proposed new Constitution also included protections for trade and other  progressive reform measures

● The Sonderbund governments were forced to resign and in Fribourg, Lucerne and Valais  the Liberals gained power.  

● the new constitution of 1848 reformed the government of the Canton. Perhaps the  greatest change was that it abolished the Landsgemeinde, which had formerly been the  supreme authority. It split the government into three branches, legislative, executive and  judiciary and created a three-tier structure of municipalities, districts and canton. It  created proportional representation and allowed the population to vote on laws and  constitutional amendments  

Concert of Europe  

● The Concert of Europe was a group of countries in Europe who worked together and  agreed on policies to maintain a steady balance of power which included alliances  between the great powers in 1814 and 1914.

● The member countries were the United Kingdom, Austria, Russia and Prussia (no longer  a country). After Napoleon, ruler of France, was no longer in power, France joined the  Concert of Europe.

Important goals of the Concert:  

● control France after many years of war 

● develop a "balance of power" among the nations of Europe

● uphold the agreements set by the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)

● prevent another dictator from gaining too much power (like Napoleon) Benefits:  

● helped Greece and Belgium gain independence 

● helped end the eight-year Egyptian control of Syria


● Fell apart after years of disagreement between the countries 

● Mainly between Great Britain (England) and the other conservative countries in the  Concert 

● Finally fell after the following wars: Crimean War, Italian War for Independence,  Austro-Prussian War and the Franco-Prussian War. 

Joseph de Maistre  

● He defended hierarchical societies and a monarchical State in the period immediately  following the French Revolution. 

● a key figure of what they termed as the Counter-Enlightenment, saw monarchy both as a  divinely sanctioned institution and as the only stable form of government. He called for  the restoration of the House of Bourbon to the throne of France and argued that the  Pope should have ultimate authority in temporal matters. Maistre also claimed that it was  the rationalist rejection of Christianity which was directly responsible for the disorder and  bloodshed which followed the French Revolution of 1789 

Cotton Gin  

● a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, allowing for  much greater productivity than manual cotton separation. 

● It revolutionized the cotton industry in the United States, but also led to the growth of  slavery in the American South as the demand for cotton workers rapidly increased.

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