● Very influential liberal thinker of the time period
● Thought of liberty as the liberty of the individual to serve the national ideal. Forms 19th century liberal nationalism with this thought
● In his writings, he rejected and reformulated many of the early classical liberal ideas. For him, the liberation of economics laissez faire had benefitted only a few. Argued that exploitation was not the price but the abuse of resources and Political equality required social equality
● His nationalism would be the primary form of nationalist ideology
● Required a social class dedicated to preserving culture and promoting literature ● Wants individual freedom but within a communitarian reality which is contradictory
● Refers to the areas where poor people lived in european cities
● They were often disgusting, had no lighting, sewer systems, or any basic amenities ● Eventually it was realized that the peasants were living in filth but this took awhile ● This was a direct result of the industrial revolution with people moving in huge numbers to live in the cities
Great Reform Bill
● Bill in 1832 that changed the political system in the UK
● They looked at which regions had seats in parliament, abolished some and added others, then made it easier for people (males only srry) to vote
● It was very liberal and progressive for the time although it did have some limitations, it established democracy in law and fact in the region
● The term proletariat is used in Marxist theory to name the social class that does not have ownership of the means of production and whose only means of subsistence is to sell their labor power for a wage or salary. Don't forget about the age old question of What was thomas edison's original purpose for the phonograph?
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● Marxism sees the proletariat and bourgeoisie (capitalist class) as occupying conflicting positions, since workers automatically wish their wages to be as high as possible, while owners and their proxies wish for wages (costs) to be as low as possible. Conservatism
● Conservatism is a defense of the old order, the one that the french revolution tried to sweep aside
● It emerges in reaction to the French Revolution
● Liberalism is anti-monarchist but you cant say its born in that way, but conservatism was born in opposition to something
● Main ideas:
○ 1) historical tradition, you can’t just come in and change an institution that took hundreds of years to develop
○ 2) Patriarchalism- notion that the community takes precedence over the individual
○ 3) Organized religion was critical to maintaining social order
● Strongly oppose the ideas of the FR
● New system of work because of industrialization
○ You couldn’t set your own hours or set your own pace
○ You had to follow the factory schedule
○ Pocket watches made you look like an urban worker not someone from the country If you want to learn more check out How do languages distinguish certain sounds as meaningful versus unmeaningful?
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○ Work starts at 6 or 7, a break is taken midday for lunch, then you keep going until 7 or 8 pm
○ Same for adults and children
○ Very little time for socialization
● Uprising that took place in Imperial russia in December of 1825
● Liberal response to the effects of serfdom on the population
● Ultimately failed but their revolt has been considered the beginning of a revolutionary movement. The uprising was the first open breach between the government and reformist elements of the Russian nobility, which would subsequently widen.
● It was invented in 1764
● The device reduced the amount of work needed to produce cloth, with a worker able to work eight or more spools at once. This grew to 120 as technology advanced. The yarn produced by the Jenny was not very strong until Richard Arkwright invented the water powered 'Water Frame', which produced yarn harder and stronger than that of the initial Spinning Jenny. It ushered in the factory system.  We also discuss several other topics like What is natural flow next to a plain surface?
● Greatly improved cloth making abilities in industrial britain and sped up the industrial revolution
● The Luddites were a group of English textile workers and weavers in the 19th century who destroyed weaving machinery as a form of protest. The group was protesting the use of machinery in a "fraudulent and deceitful manner" to get around standard labour practices. Luddites feared that the time spent learning the skills of their craft would go to waste as machines would replace their role in the industry.
● Breaking machinery was eventually made into a capital crime
● Became the main crop of Europe during this time period
● It allowed people to eat more, but became so integrated into the diet of people specifically the poor that a bad year for the crop (Irish Potato famine for example) meant widespread hunger
● The Quadruple Alliance was a treaty signed in Paris on 20 November 1815 by the great powers of United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia, and Russia. It renewed the use of the Congress System which advanced European international relations at the time. The alliance first formed in 1813 to counter France. The powers promised aid to each other, the alliance functioning until 1818
● was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution of 1830 (also known as the Three Glorious Days) and ending with the Revolution of 1848. It began with the overthrow of the conservative government of Charles X and the House of Bourbon. Louis Philippe,
● The July Monarchy was dominated by wealthy bourgeoisie and numerous former Napoleonic officials. It followed conservative policies, especially under the influence (1840–48) of François Guizot. The king promoted friendship with Great Britain and sponsored colonial expansion, notably the conquest of Algeria. By 1848, a year in which many European states had a revolution, the king's popularity had collapsed and he was overthrown
● Industrial Revolution was above all a demographic revolution
○ Countryside population was rising too rapidly to support a lot of children so they start sending family members to the city to work
○ Millions and millions are on the move
● How does social control function in this situation?
○ People are everywhere, one factory job to another
○ Pre-industrial europe people lived in small towns where the social control was operated through the local church and the noble lord around. This is more manageable
○ Now, you have millions of people in the cities which is inconceivable to everyone living there
● transatlantic slave trade, that operated from the late 16th to early 19th centuries, carrying slaves, cash crops, and manufactured goods between West Africa, Caribbean or American colonies and the European colonial powers, with the northern colonies of British North America, especially New England, sometimes taking over the role of Europe. The use of African slaves was fundamental to growing colonial cash crops, which were exported to Europe. European goods, in turn, were used to purchase African slaves, who were then brought on the sea lane west from Africa to the Americas, the so called Middle Passage.
● Anyone who took an opposing position to the ancient order was called a liberal ● As it evolves and moves from its places of origin eastward it becomes more radical because there are no reform alternatives in the great autocratic monarchies of eastern europe so any type of disagreement was therefore revolutionary
● Its broad concern was building institutional and legal structures not with some types of moral changes
● Constitutional monarchists is a good description of early liberals
○ A constitution was the only way to guarantee equal treatment under the law and assure freedom of speech press religion etc.
○ Early liberals were the bourgeoisie
○ Constitutional checks and balances
○ This type of gov would be the most likely form to guarantee the rights that these liberals wanted
○ Early and mid 19th century liberals had no problem with executive power being invested in a royal dynasty it's only in france where you find pure republicans who follow the us president idea
● Helps support the newly rising middle class
○ Steady rise of the bourgeoisie in this time period
○ Their growing size and wealth did not bring political power
● Stress virtues of work thrift ambition caution
● Want careers that value talent over familial ties
● Did not include everyone
○ Require education, which was not as accessible to all classes equally ● Want to eliminate restrictions on free pursuits for profit
● Individual freedom=liberalism
● Person’s value was measured by their achievement
● Greatest contribution to modern political theory was the definition of a sphere of human activity that government could not touch
● The challenge was with the inseparability of the private vs public experiences ● Economically, liberals adopt the laissez faire ideas of Adam Smith who maintained that private enterprise unimpeded as government was as important as political freedom for the community and country
○ Followers of this would initially use the very same ideas to justify opposition to humanitarian legislation which is beginning to be pushed in the 1830s intended to alleviate the misery of the lower classes
○ Poverty was an iron law of nature and there was no room for compassion for the poor
○ State intervention would disrupt the free market
● Members of the lower middle class condemn the thought that you should condemn people to poverty for their lives
○ Thought that social statuses should be put aside for the overall well being of the state
○ Known as democrats, republicans, radicals, etc.
○ Held a nearly mystical faith in the virtue and wisdom of the common man ○ Radicalism here in early 19th century europe is dominated by the heritage of the french revolution
○ Unlike liberalism the basis of radicalism rested on the idea of popular sovereignty ○ The people included all adult males in society
○ Opposed monarchies as head of state, and wanted intervention in the economy by the government
● Mazzini was a romantic radical of some sort
● Enclosing a number of small landholdings to create one larger farm. Once enclosed, use of the land became restricted to the owner, and it ceased to be common land for communal use. The process of enclosure began to be a widespread feature of the English agricultural landscape during the 16th century. By the 19th century, unenclosed commons had become largely restricted to rough pasture in mountainous areas and to relatively small parts of the lowlands.
● Enclosure is considered one of the causes of the British Agricultural Revolution. Enclosed land was under control of the farmer who was free to adopt better farming practices. There was widespread agreement in contemporary accounts that profit making opportunities were better with enclosed land. Following enclosure, crop yields increased while at the same time labour productivity increased enough to create a surplus of labour. The increased labour supply is considered one of the causes of the Industrial Revolution.
● Malthus observed that an increase in a nation's food production improved the wellbeing of the populace, but the improvement was temporary because it led to population growth, which in turn restored the original per capita production level. In other words, mankind had a propensity to utilize abundance for population growth rather than for maintaining a high standard of living, a view that has become known as the "Malthusian trap" or the "Malthusian spectre". Populations had a tendency to grow until the lower class suffered hardship and want and greater susceptibility to famine and disease, a view that is sometimes referred to as a Malthusian catastrophe.
● Malthus wrote in opposition to the popular view in 18th-century Europe that saw society as improving and in principle as perfectible. He saw population growth as being inevitable whenever conditions improved, thereby precluding real progress towards a utopian society
● Malthus criticized the Poor Laws for leading to inflation rather than improving the wellbeing of the poor. He supported taxes on grain imports (the Corn Laws), because food security was more important than maximizing wealth. His views became influential, and controversial, across economic, political, social and scientific thought.
● working-class movement for political reform in Britain that existed from 1838 to 1857.
● The People's Charter called for six reforms to make the political system more democratic:
1. A vote for every man (earlier, every person but this was dropped due to middle class pressure) twenty-one years of age, of sound mind, and not undergoing punishment for a crime.
2. The secret ballot to protect the elector in the exercise of his vote.
3. No property qualification for Members of Parliament in order to allow the constituencies to return the man of their choice.
4. Payment of Members, enabling tradesmen, working men, or other persons of modest means to leave or interrupt their livelihood to attend to the interests of the nation.
5. Equal constituencies, securing the same amount of representation for the same number of electors, instead of allowing less populous constituencies to have as much or more weight than larger ones.
6. Annual Parliamentary elections, thus presenting the most effectual check to bribery and intimidation, since no purse could buy a constituency under a system of universal manhood suffrage in each twelve-month period.
● successful war of independence waged by the Greek revolutionaries between 1821 and 1832 against the Ottoman Empire.
● Greek Revolt legitimized the concept of small, ethnically based nation-states, and emboldened nationalist movements among other subject peoples of the Ottoman Empire.
● When greeks revolt against ottoman control, all the major powers support the revolt ○ Strange in a time where most of the world order is focused on stamping out revolt
○ Greeks were orthodox christians vs ottoman muslims, and were the founders of democracy, so they were supported to help both Christianity and democracy “Springtime of Peoples”
● Also known as the Revolutions of 1848
● The revolutions were essentially democratic in nature, with the aim of removing the old feudal structures and creating independent national states.
● Idea of nationalism begins to blossom, the revolutions give it a push
○ Reveals fractures in the revolutionary movement
○ Industrialization created worker dislocation, unemployment of artisans, etc., ● There is a mass of built up anger and resentment, as well as the desire to take it further than they had in 1830
● Economic crisis helped push it
● was a coalition created by the monarchist great powers of Russia, Austria and Prussia. It was created after the ultimate defeat of Napoleon at the behest of Tsar Alexander I of Russia and signed in Paris on 26 September 1815. The intention of the alliance was to restrain republicanism and secularism in Europe in the wake of the devastating French Revolutionary Wars, and the alliance nominally succeeded in this until the Crimean War (1853–1856).
● a method of manufacturing using machinery and division of labour. Because of the high capital cost of machinery and factory buildings, factories are typically owned by capitalists who employ the operative labour. Use of machinery with the division of labor reduced the required skill level of workers and also increased the output per worker.
● first adopted in Britain at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century and later spread around the world.
● Cotton was the only industry where heavy machinery was predominant ● Britain had the cotton industry which is very well suited for industrialization ● British industry develops a monopoly of cotton through war and controlling colonies ● Women would even before mid century come to constitute between 40-50% of workers in cotton mills
Romantic (early) Nationalism
● During the french revolution loyalty was directed to the NATION not to the king or province, it is to the abstraction of the nation
● The Jaquevinds
● As french armies won victories and passed through, they attempted to overturn ecclesiastic institutions, abolish old privileges, eliminate remnants of feudal times ● Individuals were free to work at any trade they chose, it was not chosen for them ● The french rule over much of Europe accelerated things that were under way already ○ Codification of laws, modified tax systems, equality before the law
● Provided for less corrupt administration
● Age of national awakenings or re-awakenings especially among the ethnic groups who never had an actual nations
● It is in this period that these peoples begin to recall some kind of history of their origins or make up myths about them, try to revive or invent traditions, revive native tongues and do so as literary languages. Seek to assert their existence as nations
● 1820s and 1830s were literary societies and museums appear
● Crucially important for these struggling national movements to achieve some sort of national autonomy
○ Teach school in the native language for example
● Sometimes the re-awakenings were not natural
○ Proponents of a Romanian language decreed that the new literary language used latin letters instead of slavic ones
● It was sometimes difficult to determine what was a “nation” because many of them never had their own state to go off of
● Many nationalists were not clear about what they were promoting and didn’t really follow through with it
○ They were very small groups in extremely large empires
○ It’s difficult to create a movement in a place where there are high levels of illiteracy
Swiss Civil War
● The liberal Free Democratic Party of Switzerland which was mainly made up of urban bourgeoisie and burghers and was strong in the largely Protestant cantons obtained the majority in the Federal Diet (the Tagsatzung) in the early 1840s. It proposed a new Constitution for the Swiss Confederation which would draw the several cantons into a closer relationship. In 1843, the conservative city patricians and mountain or Ur-Swiss from the largely Catholic cantons were opposed to the new constitution. These cantons combined to form the Sonderbund in 1843. In addition to the centralization of the Swiss government, the proposed new Constitution also included protections for trade and other progressive reform measures
● The Sonderbund governments were forced to resign and in Fribourg, Lucerne and Valais the Liberals gained power.
● the new constitution of 1848 reformed the government of the Canton. Perhaps the greatest change was that it abolished the Landsgemeinde, which had formerly been the supreme authority. It split the government into three branches, legislative, executive and judiciary and created a three-tier structure of municipalities, districts and canton. It created proportional representation and allowed the population to vote on laws and constitutional amendments
Concert of Europe
● The Concert of Europe was a group of countries in Europe who worked together and agreed on policies to maintain a steady balance of power which included alliances between the great powers in 1814 and 1914.
● The member countries were the United Kingdom, Austria, Russia and Prussia (no longer a country). After Napoleon, ruler of France, was no longer in power, France joined the Concert of Europe.
Important goals of the Concert:
● control France after many years of war
● develop a "balance of power" among the nations of Europe
● uphold the agreements set by the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)
● prevent another dictator from gaining too much power (like Napoleon) Benefits:
● helped Greece and Belgium gain independence
● helped end the eight-year Egyptian control of Syria
● Fell apart after years of disagreement between the countries
● Mainly between Great Britain (England) and the other conservative countries in the Concert
● Finally fell after the following wars: Crimean War, Italian War for Independence, Austro-Prussian War and the Franco-Prussian War.
Joseph de Maistre
● He defended hierarchical societies and a monarchical State in the period immediately following the French Revolution.
● a key figure of what they termed as the Counter-Enlightenment, saw monarchy both as a divinely sanctioned institution and as the only stable form of government. He called for the restoration of the House of Bourbon to the throne of France and argued that the Pope should have ultimate authority in temporal matters. Maistre also claimed that it was the rationalist rejection of Christianity which was directly responsible for the disorder and bloodshed which followed the French Revolution of 1789
● a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, allowing for much greater productivity than manual cotton separation.
● It revolutionized the cotton industry in the United States, but also led to the growth of slavery in the American South as the demand for cotton workers rapidly increased.