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NCS / Agry Agronomy / IPM 3 / which issue is one of the factors contributing to unfavorable schedule

which issue is one of the factors contributing to unfavorable schedule

which issue is one of the factors contributing to unfavorable schedule

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School: North Carolina State University
Department: Agry Agronomy
Course: International Project Management
Professor: Steve del grosso
Term: Winter 2016
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Cost: 25
Name: International Project management
Description: International Project management Class notes and cases
Uploaded: 05/07/2017
804 Pages 718 Views 0 Unlocks
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Project Management  PROJECT MANAGEMENT  Guest Speaker Session  Fall 2016  Today’s Agenda  Guest Speaker  Quiz 2  ⮚ Agile Project Management ⮚ WBS, Scope, Programs, Networks Guest Speaker Session 1  Project Management  FIFTEEN MINUTE BREAK,  Then… If we have time – WHADAYAKNOW?  Then… Take the Quiz  QUIZ #2  IN CLASS – CLOSED BOOK Guest Speaker Session 2  Project Management - Fall 2016  Review  WBS  MS Project  PROJECT MANAGEMENT  Class Session 3  Fall 2016  Today’s Agenda  ⮚ Discussion: ORION Part A ⮚ Defining the Project + group activity  ⮚ Computer Exercise 1 - WBS  Group Project  Close Out  ⮚ Assignment of Group projects ⮚ Assignments for next classClass Session 3 1  Project Management - Fall 2016  Steps to Define the Project  • Define the Project Scope  • Establish the Project Priorities  • Create the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)  • Integrate the WBS with the Organization  • Code the WBS Define Scope - Project Boundaries  REMEMBER: It is important to define both what is in scope and out of  scope for a project. This will help you set the project boundaries. You have to  consider the sponsor requirements, as well as the end user requirements. Class Session 3 2  Project Management - Fall 2016  Step 1: Defining the Project Scope  ■ Project Scope  ■ A definition of the end result or mission of the project—a  product or service for the client/customer—in specific,  tangible, and measurable terms.  ■ Purpose of the Scope Statement  ■ To clearly define the deliverable(s) for the end user.  ■ To focus the project on successful completion of its goals.  ■ To be used by the project owner and participants as a  planning tool and for measuring project success.  Project Scope Checklist  1.Project Objectives  2. Deliverables  3. Milestones  4.Technical Requirements  5.Limits and Exclusions  6. Reviews with Customer  Items 1 thru 5 must be  documented, typically in a  Project Charter, Project  Definition Document, or  Statement of Work  • Shape the Boundaries of the Project  • Include what’s in AND what’s out  • Itemize the requirements  • Itemize the deliverables  • Ensure acceptance criteria is agreed  REMEMBER: A project scope statement provides a basis for future  decisions about a project. It is a tool by which the project is managed, against  which changes are evaluated, and used to determine if the project is on track. Class Session 3 3  Project Management - Fall 2016  Project Scope: Terms and Definitions  ■ Scope Statements  ■ Also called statements of work (SOW)  ■ Project Charter  ■ Can contain an expanded version of scope statement  ■ A document authorizing the project manager to initiate  and lead the project.  ■ Scope Creep  ■ The tendency for the project scope to expand over  time due to changing requirements, specifications,  and priorities.  Step 2: Establishing Project Priorities  ■ Causes of Project Trade-offs, or variables that  make up the “Triple Constraint” ■ Shifts in the relative importance of criteria related to  cost, time, and scope parameters  ■ Budget – Cost  ■ Schedule – Time  ■ Performance – Scope  ■ Managing the Priorities of Project Trade-offs  ■ Constrain: a parameter is a fixed requirement.  ■ Enhance: optimizing a parameter over others.  ■ Accept: reducing (or not meeting) a parameter  requirement. Class Session 3 4  Project Management - Fall 2016  Establish the Priorities  © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies THE TRIPLE CONSTRAINT  © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies PRIORITY MATRIX  • Who sets the Project Priorities? • What role does the Project Manager play?  • What role do the stakeholders play?  Step 3: Create the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)  ■ What is the WBS?  ■ The Work Breakdown Structure  (WBS) is a hierarchical  presentation of all the activities  that the project team must  complete.  ■ The purpose of the WBS is to  define and structure all the  activities that the project team  must complete so as to provide a  basis upon which the work can be  scheduled.  ■ The WBS makes it possible to  plan, schedule, and budget the  entire project in an organized  structure.  © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Create a WBS in one Minute! HIERARCHICAL BREAKDOWN  Class Session 3 5  Project Management - Fall 2016  What does a WBS look like?  Level 1 - Project Level 2 - Major  Deliverable  Level 3 – sub  Deliverable Level 4 – lowest  Level Deliverable  Key WBS Definitions  ■ Work Package (according to PMI)  ■ Planned work contained at the lowest level of  the WBS. A work package can be scheduled,  cost estimated, monitored and controlled.  ■ Cost Account or Control Account  (according to PMI, used for cost  accounting)  ■ A management control point where the  integration of scope, budget, and schedule  takes place and where the measurement of  performance will happen. Class Session 3 6  Project Management - Fall 2016  What are the benefits of using a WBS?  ■ Builds the project team  ■ Clarifies responsibilities  ■ Focuses attention on project objectives  ■ Provides a structure for tracking measurable  progress  ■ Forces detailed planning and documentation  ■ Identifies specific work packages for estimating  and assigning work  REMEMBER: The WBS is used as a planning and implementing tool to ensure all  required work is identified and the pieces are broken into manageable segments.  The WBS is deliverables based and not organizationally oriented.  Key Points to Remember about the WBS ■ Identify all the tasks required to complete the project  ■ Identify:  ■ Task Name  ■ Resources required  ■ Estimates (best case, worst case, most likely)  ■ The level of detail must allow for realistic estimating  ■ The level of detail should allow assignment to a single  organization or resource  ■ No task should require more than 40 hours to complete  (if it does, it needs to be broken down to lower level  tasks, or have checkpoints identified)  ■ Lowest level deliverables are work packages  ■ Cost Accounts are a control point for analysis of work  accomplished at the work package level Class Session 3 7  Project Management - Fall 2016  Close Out  ■ Computer Exercise:  ■ Keep your Microsoft Project file for Part 2  ■ Submit MS Word document with picture / screen print of  your WBS. Always include your last name as part of the  file name. ■ For the Group Project in Session 6 on 11 October:  ■ Prepare a MAXIMUM 15 minute PowerPoint  presentation that provides an overview of your project  ■ Define Cost, Scope, and Schedule  ■ Include a WBS and Gantt chart for the schedule  ■ Follow the outline provided in the handout  ■ IMPORTANT: Every person in the group must present at  least one slide to the class during the presentation  Computer Exercise # 1 – The Work Breakdown Structure  STEP 1 – OPEN MICROSOFT PROJECT  STEP 2 – FILE/SAVE AS “POM+ project – 1 yourlastname” STEP 3 – SET THE START DATE TO 01/03/12 (U.S. format, so 03 Jan 2012)   Use menu ???? PROJECT/PROJECT INFORMATION  STEP 4 – ADD WBS COLUMN  STEP 5 – ENTER LEVEL 1 PROJECT TITLE   INTO THE TASK NAME FIELD  STEP 6 – ENTER LEVEL 2 INFORMATION  STEP 7 – ENTER LEVEL 3 INFORMATION  STEP 8 – ARE THERE ANY LEVEL 4 ITEMS?  Level 1 and Level 2 Class Session 3 8  Project Managment  PROJECT MANAGEMENT  Class Session 2  Fall 2016  Today’s Agenda  Guest Speaker  Discussion  Portfolios  ⮚ Michael Collins, PMP ⮚ Alaska Pipeline ⮚ Integrated Project Management Systems Case Study ⮚ Hector Gaming Company Structure ⮚ Project Organization Structures Group Project  ⮚ Assignment of Groups Project Management - Fall 2016 Page 2 Class Session 2 1  Project Managment  Guest Speaker  Michael Collins, PMP  Brief Biography:  Mike is currently Senior Director of PM Enablement in the Global PMO  for Infor, a $4B enterprise software company. In this role he is  responsible for building and training a PM workforce of 350 PMs, and  providing the methodology and tools necessary for them to be effective  leading client projects. Prior to his current assignment, he held PM and  PMO positions at IBM and Safran, as well as helping many other  organizations start up new PMOs. He is a speaker at PMI meetings and  conferences on the business value of project management and PMO  Strategy. Mike was a co-author of PMI’s Standard for Program  Management - 3rd Edition, and the Organizational Project Management  Practice Guide. He was recognized by PMI in 2013 with the Eric Jennett  Project Management Excellence Award, and in 2010 was part of an IBM  team (working for Steve) that earned PMI’s PMO of the Year award.  Mike is a graduate of Rochester Institute of Technology.  Project Management - Fall 2016 Page 3  HOMEWORK: The  Alaska Pipeline  During the video, please observe the  behavior of the project manager. You  may want to take notes and remember  several of the key impacts the PM had  on this very large program.  Project Management - Fall 2016 Page 4 Class Session 2 2  Project Managment  The Alaska Pipeline  ■ Consider these questions  ■ Was this a project or a program?  ■ Who were the primary Stakeholders?  ■ How was the project charter affected after the  project began?  ■ What were the key characteristics of the  project manager?  Project Management - Fall 2016 Page 5  Integrated Project Management  Systems  ■ Problems resulting from the use of fractured  project management systems:  ■ Do not tie together the overall strategies of the firm.  ■ Fail to prioritize selection of projects by their  importance of their contribution to the firm.  ■ Are not integrated throughout the project life cycle.  ■ Do not match project planning and controls with  organizational culture to make appropriate  adjustments in support of project endeavors.  Project Management - Fall 2016 Page 6 Class Session 2 3  Project Managment  We’re lost but we’re making good time. – Howard  Eveland ■ The strategic management process involves  assessing what we are, what we want to  become, and how we are going to get there. The  generic major components of the process  include:  ■ Defining the mission of the organization  ■ Analyzing the external and internal environments  ■ Setting objectives  ■ Formulating strategies to reach objectives  ■ Implementing strategies through projects  Project Management - Fall 2016 Page 7  Strategic Management Process SWOT  Strengths  Weaknesses  Internal focus  Opportunities Threats  External focus  Distillation of Project Portfolio – one example  ©2011 Project Management: The Managerial Approach, Clifford F. Gray and Erik W. Larson ©2003 IBM, Corporation  Project Management - Fall 2016 Page 8 Class Session 2 4  Project Managment  Classification of Projects  ©2011 Project Management: The Managerial Approach, Clifford F. Gray and Erik W. Larson  Project Management - Fall 2016 Page 9  Problem Analysis:  THINK in at least three dimensions  Relate your ideas  to your personal  experiences at  school or work.  INSIGHTS  Discern the true nature of  the situation. Penetrate  under the surface for deep  meaning.  ISSUES  Identify the root  causes of problems.  INITIATIVES  Identify specific  actions you can  implement to mitigate  or correct the issues.  REMEMBER: IDEAS STAND ON THEIR OWN MERIT,  AND DO NOT NEED TO BE ATTRIBUTED TO  ANYONE OR ANY ONE ORGANIZATION.  Project Management - Fall 2016 Page 10 Class Session 2 5  Project Managment  THINK in at least three dimensions  Example Question: The health of IBM, circa 1993 INSIGHTS  • Insular governance outlook  • Paternalistic HR policies  • Riding success of previous  hardware platforms  INITIATIVES  ISSUES  • Negative profit; -$8B  in one quarter (1993)  • Top line revenue  shrinking over  multiple quarters  • Change senior executive team; hire  new CEO from outside IBM  • Eliminate ‘full employment policy’  • Focus on needs of the customer, not  internal product strategies  • Focus on Software and Services, not  hardware (higher margins)  • No product innovation  Project Management - Fall 2016  Page 11  Organization: Structure & Culture ■ Project organization structures  ■ Functional  ■ Project  ■ Matrix  You show me the structure of a project team and I will predict  accurately the managerial consequences of that structure.  – J. Davidson Frame, 1994  Project Management - Fall 2016 Page 12 Class Session 2 6  Project Managment  Organizational influence on projects  ©2008 Project Management Institute: PMBOK Guide Fourth Edition  Project Management - Fall 2016 Page 13  ©2008 Project Management Institute: PMBOK Guide Fourth Edition  ■ ADVANTAGES OF THE FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE  ■ Maximum flexibility in use of staff within functional units  ■ No radical alteration in basic structure of the parent organization  ■ In-depth expertise can be brought to bear on specific components of the project  ■ Normal career paths can be maintained What are the  Disadvantages?  Project Management - Fall 2016 Page 14 Class Session 2 7  Project Managment  ©2008 Project Management Institute: PMBOK Guide Fourth Edition  ■ ADVANTAGES OF THE PROJECTIZED ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE  ■ Does not disrupt the basic structure of the parent organization (borrows  resources from functions)  ■ Concentrated project focus  ■ Projects tend to get done quickly  ■ Strong cross functional integration Any  Disadvantages?  Project Management - Fall 2016 Page 15  ©2008 Project Management Institute: PMBOK Guide Fourth Edition  ■ ADVANTAGES OF THE MATRIX STRUCTURE  ■ Flexible utilization of resources across projects and functional duties  ■ Project focus is provided by having a designated project manager  ■ Specialists maintain ties with their functional group and career  ■ Balances project needs with technical requirements  Project Management - Fall 2016 Page 16 Class Session 2 8  Project Managment  Matrix Organizations  ■ Something to remember…  ■ The meeting of two personalities is like the contact of  two chemical substances: if there is any reaction, both  are transformed. – Carl G. Jung  ■ Strong Matrix  ■ Project Manager has a strong authority, especially when  dealing with functional managers. Good structure for  more complex projects in a matrix structure.  ■ Weak Matrix  ■ Project Manager gives project direction to project team  members, but has to negotiate for Functional  Management support.  Project Management - Fall 2016 Page 17  Semester Groups ■ Review Group Project Guidelines document  ■ Form your groups  o TARGET 5 MEMBERS: Minimum four (4) group members; maximum  six (6) group members  o Fill out a Group Member form (posted on KNOWLEDGE) with names  of group members; Think of a name for your group (please feel free  be creative; humorous or serious is your choice)  ■ HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT: Review Project Scenarios on  KNOWLEDGE and pick or design a scenario for your project  o Look in Group Project Scenarios folder  o Discuss choices among group members  o Choose one of the scenarios (first email notification has priority), OR  use a scenario that you make up yourselves  o Use the “Group Project Team Form” on KNOWLEDGE for this: One  person in the group MUST send me an email BY FRIDAY stating  your Group’s choice of scenario (if one you make up, send a short  description) and the names of your group members. Please include  a team name on your form (be creative) Project Management - Fall 2016 Page 18 Class Session 2 9  Project Managment  Homework  ■ Group Project: Send your project scenario choice and  team member name form via email BY FRIDAY (one  person per group)  ■ Read Chapter 4  ■ Be prepared to discuss chapter topics in our next class session  ■ Study for Quiz 1 – Review notes; quiz will cover material  presented in sessions 1, 2, and 3  ■ ORION Part (A) case study  ■ Read the ORION case at the end of Chapter 3  ■ Write a one or two page response to the questions posed at the  end of the case study. Please be sure to answer the questions in  relationship to the topics covered in the textbook. Use graphics  as needed.  Project Management - Fall 2016 Page 19 Class Session 2 10  Fall 2016 Project Management  PROJECT MANAGEMENT  Class Session 8  Fall 2016  Today’s Agenda  PERT  Schedules  MS Project  ⮚ Quick overview of PERT  ⮚ Crashing the schedule  ⮚ Whitbread Sailboat Race  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 9 1  Fall 2016 Project Management  PERT – Program Evaluation and Review Technique  Developed in 1958 for the U.S. Navy on  the Polaris Submarine project  Helps us understand the risks involved  with completing the project schedule in a  specified time  Focuses on the basis of estimates  Statistically based statement of the  probability of success on any given project  path (if the path is the Critical Path, then  the probability of success for the project)  Project Management - Fall 2016  PERT Assumptions  ACTIVITY – Work tends to  stay behind schedule once  it gets behind schedule  (BETA DISTRIBUTION)  PROJECT – Duration is the  sum of the weighted averages of  the activities on the Critical path  (NORMAL DISTRIBUTION)  Distribution Assumptions for Activity duration and Project duration  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 9 2  Fall 2016 Project Management  Project Level Implementation Example – Integrated  Supply Chain SAP Fulfillment Project  System Objective  – Re-engineer IBM world wide fulfillment processes and move to  a single, world wide process and IT infrastructure. Configure  and implement SAP to drive automated processing, and  eliminate the maximum number of legacy and duplicate  applications.  Complex Scope and Business Environment  – Configure SAP system  – Develop application interfaces  – Modify legacy applications with changes  – Design and develop customized reports for process changes  affecting North America and Europe  – Core development team in Raleigh, NC with international teams  in Tokyo, Greenock, Scotland and Paris, France  Project Management - Fall 2016  Risk Management Plan for SAP Fulfillment  Project  Initial Risk Assessment identified twenty-five program level risks  – 15 risks rated HIGH  – 10 risks rated MEDIUM  – Most risks were related to technology and schedule  Risks reviewed by project manager at weekly status meetings  PDT risk reviews monthly  IPMT risk reviews at major checkpoints  Sample Risk Status – presented weekly Risk • Scope Risk = Medium; Technology Risk = Medium; Schedule Risk = High;Overall project risk = High • Can not estimate new plan risk until development plan and deployment plan are interlocked (target date = 7/11/97) • Current Watch: Responsible Status Checkpoint Target  P (risk #51) LIU2 COMMONALITY WITH OTHER PIPES R. Gamble Amber P (risk #52) PARTNERINFO REQUIRED FOR LIU2 C. Pettit Amber ACTIVE RISKS: 27 CLOSED THIS WEEK: 0 NEW THIS WEEK: 0 Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 9 3  Fall 2016 Project Management  SAP Fulfillment Schedule – Critical Path as  of February 16th  Project Schedule developed by Integrated Project Team (Team Leaders committed to estimates) Management wanted to finish UAT by end of 3rd Quarter (30 Sept) Project Management - Fall 2016  Mgmt. Desired Completion Project Manager’s Strategy – Contain Schedule  Risk  Had to convince management that desired UAT completion date (30  Sept) was unrealistic  – The project team was convinced mid-October was the best-can-do  – MS Project schedule yielded a 17 October completion date for UAT  Method: Use Analysis of Variance along the MS Project schedule  Critical Path to define probability of success  – Bring Team Leaders together to estimate optimistic, most likely, and  pessimistic times of critical path tasks  – Calculate Expected Time (TE) using the formula:  t = ea + 4m + b  6  where t = weighted average activity time (activity mean time)  e  a = optimistic activity time   b = pessimistic activity time   m = most likely activity time  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 9 4  Fall 2016 Project Management  HW2 Project Critical Path Variance Analysis (by hand)  Expected Times (TE), Variances, and Std. Deviation PERT  (TE) Variance Std.  Deviation 2.50 0.25 0.50 31.67 2.78 1.67 25.00 2.78 1.67 15.00 1.00 1.00 40.00 16.00 4.00 10.17 6.25 2.50 32.50 6.25 2.50 12.50 1.36 1.17 15.83 0.69 2.83 20.50 8.03 2.83 Project Management - Fall 2016  Actual Results of the Variance Analysis  Calculation of probability of completion from 11 February  – Management’s desired completion (days) = 194  – Critical path expected time (days) = 205  Calculation of most likely time with confidence levels  – 15 October = 95% confidence  – 13 October = 90% confidence  – 30 September = 4.5% confidence (management’s desire)  RESULT – Management agreed to commit to 17 October  completion date for UAT (team’s original schedule!)  Project completed two days ahead of schedule Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 9 5  Fall 2016 Project Management  * Retrospective Schedule Analysis using RISK+  RISK+ is a Quantitative Risk Analysis tool add-on to Microsoft  Project schedule software  – Uses “Monte Carlo” simulation to perform risk analysis  Ran RISK+ analysis on the SAP Fulfillment project  – Ran analysis on same critical path from 11 February  – Entered pessimistic, most likely, and optimistic times  – Chose 1000 sample iterations, normal distributions  RESULT – Different from variance analysis hand calculation, but still  supports conclusion on low probability of success for  management’s desired delivery date  – 14 October completion at 95% confidence  – 30 September completion at 20% confidence  *RISK+, C/S Solutions, Inc. Project Management - Fall 2016  Retrospective RISK+ Monte Carlo Simulation  Results for SAP Fulfillment Project  Date: 3/26/2004 9:30:15 AM Samples: 1000 Unique ID: 10 Name: User Acceptance Test Completion Std Deviation: 3.9 days 95% Confidence Interval: 0.24 days Each bar represents 2 days 0.20 Completion Probability Table 0.18


• Who sets the Project Priorities?



Don't forget about the age old question of What is a lid-like membrane that is attached to the anterior corner of the eye in some amphibians, birds, reptiles, and mammals?
We also discuss several other topics like physical geography uf

1.0 0.9 Prob Date Prob Date y cneuqerF  0.16 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.05 Wed 9/24/97 0.10 Fri 9/26/97 0.15 Fri 9/26/97 0.20 Tue 9/30/97 0.25 Wed 10/1/97 0.30 Thu 10/2/97 0.35 Thu 10/2/97 0.40 Fri 10/3/97 0.45 Fri 10/3/97 0.55 Mon 10/6/97 0.60 Tue 10/7/97 0.65 Tue 10/7/97 0.70 Wed 10/8/97 0.75 Wed 10/8/97 0.80 Thu 10/9/97 0.85 Thu 10/9/97 0.90 Fri 10/10/97 0.95 Tue 10/14/97 Tue 9/16/97 Mon 10/6/97 Fri 10/24/97 Completion Date 0.50 Fri 10/3/97 1.00 Fri 10/24/97 Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 9 6  Fall 2016 Project Management  Crashing the Schedule  CRASHING: Shortening an activity to reduce the overall schedule.  CRASH TIME: Shortest possible time an activity can realistically be completed  EXAMPLE ASSUMPTIONS:  Cost-time relationship is linear  Normal time assumes low cost,  efficient methods  Crash time is the limit  Slope represents cost per unit  of time  All accelerations must occur  between normal and crash  times  Project Management - Fall 2016  Crash Slope  Crash Cost – Normal Cost /  Normal Time – Crash Time  Choosing Activities to Crash  Consider the timing  – Crashing a critical activity early in the project may result  in wasted money if some other critical activity comes in  ahead of schedule  Impact on Project Team  – Will it impact the team’s morale  – What about motivation in the future  Risk  – What does it mean to reduce the activity time to its limit?  – Are you introducing more schedule risk?  – Consider the newly created near-critical activities  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 9 7  Fall 2016 Project Management  Options for Accelerating Completion  Adding Resources  – Watch out for increased communication problems  Outsourcing  – Can a subcontractor do it faster / cheaper?  – Using specialists can reduce time.  Fast-Tracking  – Can critical path activities actually be done in parallel  rather than sequentially?  – At a minimum, analyze the dependency relationships  for lag times or S-S or F-F relationships  Project Scope  – Can the scope of the project be reduced?  Project Management - Fall 2016  Next: Group Assignment that includes  Your Break Time  Whitbread Case Study  Group Analysis  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 9 8  Fall 2016 Project Management  Homework Assignments for next class  – Read Chapter 13 in the textbook  – Complete a short write up (one per group – the  assignment is worth 25 points for each member)  on the Whitbread Sailboat Race case study.  Explain the analysis method you followed to crash  the schedule (please be specific)  Show your baseline cost and schedule  Present your ‘crashed’ cost and schedule, providing  details of which tasks you crashed  The quality of this assignment will be relatively  graded against the submissions of other groups  Project Management - Fall 2016  Next: Whitbread Sailboat Race  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 9 9  Fall 2016 Project Management  Whitbread Sailboat Race  Comprehensive Case Study that integrates  Scope Management, Time Management, and  crashing the project schedule to meet client  requirements  This will be an in class Group Exercise plus  homework assignment that counts as one Case  Study grade (each group member receives the  same evaluation based on case write up)  Important information in the case description  – Pay close attention to the sequence of events  – Interpreting the language used is important  Project Management - Fall 2016  Whitbread Sailboat Race  Background: The Whitbread Sailboat Race is a  real “around the world” racing event.  History: The race was conceived and organized  by the Royal Naval Sailing Association with  sponsorship from a London-based brewery  company and was the first ever attempt at a  global, crewed yacht race.  Initial Event: Crews were mostly adventure driven novices, with limited experience of  offshore sailing and absolutely no idea what lay  ahead over the coming 27,500 nautical miles.  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 9 10  Fall 2016 Project Management  Whitbread Sailboat Race – Case  Study Requirements (deliverables)  1. Project network: use the information provided in  the case study to build a project network. You  may use yellow stickies or other method.  2. Project Schedule: based on the project network  constructed above, you must enter the WBS  and schedule into Microsoft Project software.  3. Analysis: your assignment is to establish a  baseline cost and schedule for the race team.  Then, you must analyze the options available to  crash the schedule to meet the time objective  and present a new cost and schedule solution.  Identify the tasks you crashed, the new time  and delta cost.  Project Management - Fall 2016  Whitbread Sailboat Race  Homework: Submit one answer document per  Group (every group member gets the same grade)  – Please no special characters in file name!  At a minimum, you must submit the baseline cost  and schedule for the race, THEN propose a crash  cost and schedule (Hint: the cost will be higher!) Answer these questions:  – What is the baseline cost and schedule (in weeks)?  – How much does it cost to get the project back on the  schedule that Bjorn requires to get to the race?  – Explain the method your group used to crash the  schedule. Include the tasks that you crashed and the  extra cost per each crashed task.  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 9 11  Project Management  Estimating  PROJECT MANAGEMENT  Class Session 4  Fall 2016  Today’s Agenda  ⮚ Developing Project Estimates Scheduling ⮚ Developing Project SchedulesGroup  Networks  MS Project  ⮚ Group exercise building networks  ⮚ Computing project networks ⮚ Completing the project network Class Session 4 1  Project Management  "Those who do not remember the past are condemned to  repeat it.“ -George Santayana  ■ Reasons for doing estimates  ■ To evaluate a project’s  estimated costs before  authorizing its implementation  ■ To provide a basis for tracking  and managing project  expenditures  ■ To establish a baseline against  which to measure actual  expenditures  ■ To provide project managers a  tool for evaluating project  decisions  Baseline: An approved plan for a project, plus or minus approved changes.  Why is good project estimating important?  ■ Success of projects is  directly linked to good  estimating  ■ Time schedules are set by  estimates of work  ■ Client expectations are set  based on initial estimates  of costs and schedules  ■ Estimation affects how  bids are priced, and  eventually affect the  profitability of each  contract.  ©2012 Price Waterhouse Coopers:  Insights and trends: Current Portfolio, Programme and Project Management Practices Class Session 4 2  Project Management  Macro Estimating Methods  Apportion Method of Allocating Project Costs  ©2012 Project Management: The Managerial Approach, Clifford F. Gray and Erik W. Larson  Useful method if you have experience with these types of projects  Micro Estimating Methods  Also known as ‘bottoms – up estimating  Work Package Estimate  ©2012 Project Management: The Managerial Approach, Clifford F. Gray and Erik W. Larson Class Session 4 3  Project Management  Hybrid Estimating Method  Phase Estimating Over Project Life Cycle ©2012 Project Management: The Managerial Approach, Clifford F. Gray and Erik W. Larson  Key Points to Remember about Estimating ■ Responsibility  ■ At the work package level, estimates should be made by the  person(s) most familiar with the task  ■ Use several people to estimate  ■ Discussion about the estimates will improve accuracy  ■ Normal Conditions  ■ Estimates should be based on normal conditions, efficient  methods, and a normal level of resources  ■ Time Units  ■ All estimates need consistent time units (hours, days, weeks)  ■ Independence  ■ Estimates should treat the task as independent of other tasks  ■ Contingencies  ■ Work package estimates should not include allowances for  contingencies Class Session 4 4  Project Management  So, how do we handle contingencies*?  *Definition: a provision for an unforeseen event or circumstance. ■ Add to specific activities or work packages  ■ Based on the uncertainty related to the specific task  or work package (done through experience)  ■ Project Contingency  ■ Allocate an amount of time and cost that is  proportional to the uncertainty in the project  ■ Management Reserve  ■ Management Reserve is the amount of total allocated  budget withheld for management control purposes  rather than designated for the accomplishment of a  specific task or set of tasks. It is not part of the  Performance Measurement Baseline.  “Simply put, the project scheduling activity can make the difference  between profit and loss. The heartbeat of the entire product development  cycle is the project schedule.” – Neal Whitten, from Managing Software  Development Projects  ■ Developing the project schedule  ■ The WBS is the basis of the schedule  ■ The schedule and the project network contain  lots of important information  ■ Time to finish the project  ■ Interdependencies of tasks  ■ Identification of the Critical Path  ■ Opportunities for reducing time  ■ Opportunities for reducing risk Class Session 4 5  Project Management  Basic Scheduling & Network  Terminology  ■ Activity  ■ An element in the project that consumes time  ■ Burst Activity: More than one dependent activity  immediately following  ■ Merge Activity: More than one activity must be  completed before this activity may begin  ■ Event (Milestone)  ■ A significant event in a project that occurs at a  specific point in time.  ■ Relationship  ■ Dependencies that exist between activities  ■ Critical Path  ■ Longest path (by time) through the network  Two approaches for diagramming project networks  Activity-on-Node  Basic Network Rules  1. Network flows from left to  right.  2. An activity cannot begin until  Burst Activity  Merge Activity  ©2003 Project Management: The Managerial Approach, Clifford F. Gray and Erik W. Larson We will use the Activity-on-Node approach  all preceding connecting  activities have completed.  3. Arrows indicate precedence  and flow.  4. Looping is not allowed.  5. Conditional statements are  not allowed.  Activity-on-Arrow  Class Session 4 6  Project Management  ©2003 Project Management: The Managerial Approach, Clifford F. Gray and Erik W. Larson  WBS/Work Packages to Network:  Continuing the yellow-sticky process  Task Name WBS   ID  ©2013 Project Management Institute: PMBOK Guide Fifth Edition Now use the yellow-stickies  for the network  Class Session 4 7  Project Management  THE YELLOW STICKY  EXERCISE, continued  • OBJECTIVE: Build the Network  • METHOD: Yellow Sticky Group Exercise  • DATA: Use Table page 627 in the book  POM+ Project  Be prepared to  answer questions  Build the project network with the about your network.  Yellow-sticky method in your Group.  Network Construction is the basis for  network computation  ©2008 Project Management Institute: PMBOK Guide Fourth Edition Class Session 4 8  Project Management  Dependency Relationships  Finish-to-Start Relationship  Finish-to-Finish Relationship  Start-to-Start Relationship  ©2003 Project Management: The Managerial Approach, Clifford F. Gray and Erik W. Larson  Determining Slack  ■ Total Slack  ■ The amount of time an activity can be delayed  without delaying the entire project  ■ The critical path is the longest path in the  network and the path that has the least  amount of slack (typically 0). Class Session 4 9  Project Management  Network Computation Process  ■ Forward Pass – Earliest Times  ❑ How soon can the activity start? (ES = early start)  ❑ How soon can the activity finish? (EF = early finish)  ❑ How soon can the project be finished?  (te = expected time)  ■ Backward Pass – Latest Times  ❑ How late can the activity start? (LS = late start)  ❑ How late can the activity finish? (LF = late finish)  ❑ Which activities represent the Critical Path? (CP)  ❑ How long can the activity be delayed? (SL = slack)  Network computation example  • OBJECTIVE: Compute network times  • METHOD: Forward Pass – Backward Pass  • DATA: Page 187, question 7  • Air Control Company example on board  ID  Name ID Activity Predecessor Time  A Order review None 2  B Order standard parts A 15  C Produce standard parts A 10  D Design Custom parts A 13  E Software development A 18  F Mfg. custom hardware C, D 15  G Assemble B, F 10  H Test E, G 5  Determine the Critical Path  Class Session 4 10  Project Management  Sensitivity of a Network  ■ The likelihood the original critical path(s)  will change once the project is started.  ■ Sensitivity is a Function of:  ■ The number of critical paths  ■ The amount of slack on “near critical” activities (just off the critical path)  ■ What is a near critical activity?  ■ Consider slack time  ■ Risk of individual tasks or path  Discussion Topics  ■ Why is slack time important in a network?  ■ What insights does the Critical Path give  to the project manager?  ■ Near-Critical Path activities  ■ What are they?  ■ Why are they important? Class Session 4 11  Project Management  Network computation Class Exercise  • OBJECTIVE: Compute network times  • METHOD: Forward Pass – Backward Pass  • DATA: Page 187, question 8  • Simpson’s garage (class do individually)  ID Name Predecessor Time  A Pour Foundation None 3  B Erect Frame A 4  C Roof B 4  D Windows B 1  E Doors B 1  F Electrical B 3  G Rough-in frame C, D, E, F 2  H Door opener E, F 1  I Paint G, H 2  J Cleanup I 1  Determine the Critical Path  What’s Next?  ID  Name  ES = Early Start  ID = Task ID (A, B, etc.)  EF = Early Finish  SL = Slack  Name = Task Name  LS = Late Start  Dur = Duration (time)  LF = Late Finish  STRETCH BREAK  ___________  COMPUTER LAB  AFTER THE STRECH  BREAK:  Computer Exercise Part 2.   Class Session 4 12  Project Management  ■ Homework  ■ Read Chapter 7 (Risk) for next class  ■ Complete Computer Exercise (POM+ Part 1)  and answer question 7, page 627 in book a. When is the project estimated to be completed?  How many working days will it take?  b. What is the critical path?  c. Which activity has the most total slack?  d. How sensitive is this network?  e. Identify two sensible milestones and explain your  choice  ▪ For the homework, put the answers to the  questions in the same MS Word or Apple  Pages document you used for Part 1 with  filename POM+yourlastname Computer Exercise # 2 – Building The Network  Use data in Table on page 627  STEP 1 – OPEN MICROSOFT PROJECT  STEP 2 – FILE/OPEN “POM+ project – 1 yourlastname” DO NOT ENTER  RESOURCES YET STEP 3 – FILE/SAVE AS “POM+ project – 2 yourlastname” (save without a baseline)  STEP 4 – CHANGE THE CALENDAR  ACCORDING TO HOLIDAY DIRECTIONS IN  THE TEXTBOOK.  STEP 5 – EDIT EACH ACTIVITY (TASK) AND  ENTER THE TASK DURATION AND  PRECEDING ACTIVITIES (DEPENDENCIES)  - - - DO NOT ENTER RESOURCES YET - - -  STEP 6 – SHOW THE CRITICAL PATH  When you are done entering data, show me  your schedule and if approved by me, you are  free to leave.  HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT: From Part 1 in  the book, answer question 7 on page 626. Put  your answer in your Word/Pages document  with filename = POM+yourlastname.  Class Session 4 13  Project Management - Fall 2016 9/26/16  PROJECT MANAGEMENT  Class Session 5  Fall 2016  Today’s Agenda  Networks ⮚ Continued from Session 4 MS Project  Risk  Group Exercise  ⮚ Quick Review of Exercise 2  ⮚ Managing Project Risk  ⮚ Alaska Fly Fishing Expedition Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 5 1  Project Management - Fall 2016 9/26/16  Network Construction is the basis for  network computation  ©2013 Project Management Institute: PMBOK Guide Fifth Edition  Determining Slack  Total Slack  – The amount of time an activity can be delayed  without delaying the entire project  The critical path is the longest path in the  network and the path that has the least  amount of slack (typically 0). Class Session 5 2  Project Management - Fall 2016 9/26/16  Network Computation Process  Forward Pass – Earliest Times  ❑ How soon can the activity start? (ES = early start)  ❑ How soon can the activity finish? (EF = early finish)  ❑ How soon can the project be finished?  (te = expected time)  Backward Pass – Latest Times  ❑ How late can the activity start? (LS = late start)  ❑ How late can the activity finish? (LF = late finish)  ❑ Which activities represent the Critical Path? (CP)  ❑ How long can the activity be delayed? (SL = slack)  Network computation example  • OBJECTIVE: Compute network times  • METHOD: Forward Pass – Backward Pass  • DATA: Chapter 6, question 7  • Air Control Company example  ID  Name ID Activity Predecessor Time  A Order review None 2  B Order standard parts A 15  C Produce standard parts A 10  D Design Custom parts A 13  E Software development A 18  F Mfg. custom hardware C, D 15  G Assemble B, F 10  H Test E, G 5  Determine the Critical Path  Class Session 5 3  Project Management - Fall 2016 9/26/16  Air Control Company  Critical Path: A – D – F – G - H  Sensitivity of a Network  The likelihood the original critical path(s)  will change once the project is started.  – Sensitivity is a Function of:  The number of critical paths  The amount of slack on “near critical” activities (just off the critical path)  What is a near critical activity?  – Consider slack time  – Risk of individual tasks or path Class Session 5 4  Project Management - Fall 2016 9/26/16  Discussion Topics  Why is slack time important in a network?  What insights does the Critical Path give  to the project manager?  Near-Critical Path activities  – What are they?  – Why are they important?  Network computation Class Exercise  • OBJECTIVE: Compute network times  • METHOD: Forward Pass – Backward Pass  • DATA: Page 187, question 8  • Simpson’s garage (class do individually)  ID Name Predecessor Time  A Pour Foundation None 3  B Erect Frame A 4  C Roof B 4  D Windows B 1  E Doors B 1  F Electrical B 3  G Rough-in frame C, D, E, F 2  H Door opener E, F 1  I Paint G, H 2  J Cleanup I 1  Determine the Critical Path  ID  Name  ES = Early Start  ID = Task ID (A, B, etc.)  EF = Early Finish  SL = Slack  Name = Task Name  LS = Late Start  Dur = Duration (time)  LF = Late Finish Class Session 5 5  Project Management - Fall 2016 9/26/16  What’s Next?  AFTER THE STRECH  BREAK:  Quick Review of Computer  Exercise, then Project  Risk Management  STRETCH BREAK  ___________  Risk Management  Computer Exercise # 2 – Basic Data / Table View  What questions does  this basic table view  answer?  Which activity is the  Project Start activity,  and how can you tell?  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 5 6  Project Management - Fall 2016 9/26/16  Computer Exercise # 2 – Gantt Chart View  What does a Gantt Chart tell us?  Project Management - Fall 2016  THE NETWORK VIEW  CRITICAL  PROJECT  START  PATH #1  CRITICAL  PATH #2 FIRST HALF  Class Session 5 7  Project Management - Fall 2016 9/26/16  Network Sensitivity  Project Management - Fall 2016  MANAGING RISK  Risk is like fire: If controlled it will help you; if uncontrolled it will  rise up and destroy you. – Theodore Roosevelt  Highest Uncertainty:  Starting phase  ©2008 Project Management Institute: PMBOK Guide Fourth Edition  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 5 8  Project Management - Fall 2016 9/26/16  Risk Management Definitions  In the context of projects, risk is the chance  that an undesirable event will occur and the  consequences of all its possible outcomes.  The objectives of project Risk Management  are to increase the probability and impact of  positive events, and decrease the  probability and impact of events adverse to  the project. (PMBOK 4th Edition)  Project Management - Fall 2016  Gartner view of Risk  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 5 9  Project Management - Fall 2016 9/26/16  The Risk Management  Process  Risk Management should use  the project WBS as the  ©2008 Project Management Institute: PMBOK Guide Fourth Edition  basis of the analysis.  STEP 1  Identify Risks  Take a practical approach to Identify Risks  Use the WBS as your starting point  Be thorough in your analysis (explore  all reasonable possibilities, but don’t  be absurd in your suggestions)  Continue until all risks are identified  If more detail is required, assign project  team members to investigate  Project Management - Fall 2016  Risk Categories / Risk Profiles  INTERNAL RISKS  Typical Sources  – Project Sponsors / Stakeholders  – Customer Requirements  – Contract vehicles  Major Types  – Schedule Risk  – Technical Risk  – Financial Risk  – Internal Legal Risks  After identification, it is  helpful to categorize the  risks for continuing  analysis.  EXTERNAL RISK CATEGORIES  • Regulatory  • Natural Hazards  • Environmental  • Public Interest (perception / PR)  An example of a Risk Management Tool  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 5 10  Project Management - Fall 2016 9/26/16  What Does History Disclose?  Top Reported Risk Areas in:  Government  – Funding  – Roles and responsibilities  – Staff expertise  – Development process  – Project planning  Industry  – Resources  – Requirements  – Development process  – Project interfaces  – Management process  Managing Risk, Elaine M. Hall, Addison Wesley 1998  Lessons Learned from  IBM Projects  Top Delivery Failure Reasons Lack of Project Management discipline (planning/tracking) Failure to exercise proper  change control procedures Ineffective project financial management Ineffective project organization Customer issues (e.g., not  fulfilling their responsibilities). Project Management - Fall 2016  The Risk Management  STEP 2  Process  Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis  ©2008 Project Management Institute: PMBOK Guide Fourth Edition  Analyze the identified risks and  determine which ones are most  significant  Typical analysis characteristics for  a Risk Event  – Probability of occurrence  – Magnitude of impact  – Ability to detect  Total 64 50 36 25 Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 5 11  Project Management - Fall 2016 9/26/16  Risk Analysis  FOLLOWING THE PRACTICAL APPROACH  Gather the Experts  – Use experienced project team members  – Analyze the risks as a group  Conduct Open Discussion  – Discuss each identified risk  – Assess each event in terms of  Probability  Impact  Ability to detect  Tabulate the Results  – Calculate a score for each risk  – Use a Risk Severity Matrix to show results  Prioritize and Assign Risks  Example: Risk Severity Matrix  ©2003 Project Management: The Managerial Approach,  Clifford F. Gray and Erik W. Larson  – Ensure one project team member owns each risk  – Most probable owner is Work Package owner  Project Management - Fall 2016  The Risk Management  STEP 3  Process RISK RESPONSE DEVELOPMENT  Plan Risk Responses  – Risk Mitigation  Reduce the likelihood of occurrence  Reduce the impact  Develop contingency plans  – Transferring Risk  Normally applies to high severity / low  probability of occurrence risks  Through contract terms  Insurance  – Sharing Risk  Agree to spread risk across parties  ©2008 Project Management Institute: PMBOK Guide Fourth Edition  – Retaining Risk  Not feasible to do anything else  Project Manager must have a plan  ready to execute if the risk occurs  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 5 12  Project Management - Fall 2016 9/26/16  Contingency Planning  Technical Risks  – Identify alternative solutions  – Simulate alternative results  – Increase Design Reviews and Testing  Schedule Risk  – Trade-off decisions (Remember the Triple  Constraint)  – Use of Slack Time in the schedule  – Schedule buffers  Funding Risks  – Total Budget / Cost  – Cash Flow  The Risk Management  Process  ©2008 Project Management Institute: PMBOK Guide Fourth Edition  Contingency Funding  Budget Reserves  – Identified for specific work  packages  Management Reserve  – Covers unforeseen project risks  – Established after Budget Reserves  – Held at the portfolio level  Project Management - Fall 2016  STEP 4  RISK RESPONSE CONTROL  Monitor and Control Risks  – Execute Mitigation Strategies  These tasks MUST be added to the project  schedule  Monitor the mitigation execution just as  you would any other activity  – Monitor for Triggering Events  Ensure one project team member owns  each risk for monitoring activity  Report status at regular project status  meetings  – Initiate Contingency Plans  If a triggering event occurs, ensure  contingency plan execution  – Continuous Assessment of New Risks  Hold additional risk identification reviews  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 5 13  Project Management - Fall 2016 9/26/16  Things to Remember about Risk  Every risk consists of:  – An Event  – A Level of Impact  – A Probability of occurrence  Risk Management is a continuous process of  identification and assessment that should continue  throughout the project  – Present regularly to the project team and stakeholders  – Continually assess the project for newly identified risks  Risk Management is proactive, not reactive  – Build risk mitigation strategy and plans up front  – Include mitigation plans in the project schedule  – Ensure proper levels of contingency in the schedule and the  budget  – Establish a Management Reserve for unforeseen risks  Project Management - Fall 2016  GROUP EXERCISE: Alaska Fly Fishing Expedition  Analyze the Case Study as a group (Chapter 7)  Use the Nominal Group Technique or similar technique  for Brainstorming and ranking the complete set of risks  – Each group member writes down all their risks  – First person reads all their risks and puts them on the list  – Next person adds all of their risks not on first list  – No debate allowed during this part of the process  – Once all the risks are written down, each person privately ranks  ALL the risks  – Results are tabulated and Top Five risks listed  Develop a Risk Assessment Form for the Top Five risks  (see Risk Assessment Form example in Chapter 7)  Develop a Risk Severity Matrix for the Top Five risks  you identify (see Risk Severity Matrix example in book)  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 5 14  Project Management  PROJECT MANAGEMENT  Class Session 1  Fall 2016  INTRODUCTIONS  ■ Please introduce yourself to the class  ■ TELL US YOUR NAME  ■ IF YOU HAVE WORKED IN AN  ORGANIZATION, NAME THE COMPANY AND  WHAT POSITION DID YOU HOLD?  ■ WHERE IS YOUR HOME (City & Country)? ■ LOCATION THAT YOU HAVE VISITED  FURTHEST FROM HOME (for example, if you  live in Paris and have traveled to Shanghai,  maybe that is the furthest place for you)  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 1 1  Project Management  An Overview of Project Management  Project Management - Fall 2016  Project Management Class Grading Project Management - Fall 2016  Class Session 1 2  Project Management  Project Management Class Grading  Project Management - Fall 2016  Note: We will strictly adhere to the SKEMA ‘Internal Policies and Regulations’  For student attendance and ‘Fraud and Plagiarism’ policies Project Management - Fall 2016  Class Session 1 3  Project Management  Note: We will strictly adhere to the SKEMA ‘Internal Policies and Regulations’  For student attendance and ‘Fraud and Plagiarism’ policies  Project Management - Fall 2016  Project Management in Practice  c/o Dr. Bob Barnes! The Focus of Project Management: Prediction and Prevention  …not … not… not recognition and reaction!!! Project Management - Fall 2016  Class Session 1 4  Project Management  Eight Step Project Management Methodology  Project management is about creating unique products and services i.e. project  management is about creating and learning and leading and deploying change ... Revision Management Change Management 7. 2EC.x658 he1..R.  ca .e S3EBun4TqScs.gta.r  ihtueaesoWiRelnie mnerCdilseBc sioai&unmkttSntilion  ents  trol      ing  ing  e   Control on A Logical Process – Sequence of Work Activities  With Feedback and Managed Change  Copyright 2013 B. D. Barnes PhD PE PMP  Project Management - Fall 2016  PMI – Project Management Institute  Total Membership  475,000  PMI Membership  (July 2016)  http\\ www.pmi.org  • Established in 1969  • Over 460,000 members in 202 countries  • Local Chapters and Communities of Practice  • PMBOK – Project Management Body of Knowledge  • PMP – Project Management Professional (certification)  PMI Statistics of Interest   As of 01 July 2016: PMI membership has exceeded 475,000  • Total number of Project Management Professional (PMP)® credential holders: 655,576  • Total number of Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM)® certification holders: 28,826  • Total number of Program Management Professional (PgMP)® credential holders: 1328  • Total number of Scheduling Professional (PMI-SP)® credential holders: 1375  • Total number of Risk Management Professional (PMI-RMP)® credential holders: 3253  • Total number of Agile Certified Professional (PMI-ACP)® credential holders: 8870  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 1 5  Project Management  Value of Certification  PMI Membership  Project Management - Fall 2016  PMI – Project Management Institute  If you intend to seek  PMP® certification, start  by downloading the  Project Management  Professional Credential  Handbook from PMI®’s  Web site*  *Download the handbook from the pmi.org web site  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 1 6  Project Management  TAKE A SHORT BREAK  ■ For today’s class only, please take only a 10  minute break. Be back in your seats after ten  minutes.  Project Management - Fall 2016  What is a Project?  ■ Project Defined  ■ A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to  create a unique product, service, or result.  ■ Major Characteristics of a Project  ■ Has an established objective.  ■ Has a defined life span with a beginning and an end.  ■ Requires across-the-organization participation.  ■ Involves doing something never done before.  ■ Has specific time, cost, and performance  requirements.  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 1 7  Project Management  Project Stakeholders ©2013 Project Management Institute: PMBOK Guide Fifth Edition  Stakeholder. Person or organization (e.g., customer, sponsor, performing org, or  the public) that is actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be  positively or negatively affected by execution or completion of the project.  Project Management - Fall 2016  Project/Process Group Life Cycle - PMBOK ©2013 Project Management Institute: PMBOK Guide Fifth Edition  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 1 8  Project Management  Project Life Cycle – Our Textbook Executing  Initiating the  Project  Planning the  Project  Executing  the work  Closing the  Project  Defining  Planning  Delivering  Closing  ©2014 Project Management: The Managerial Approach, Clifford F. Gray and Erik W. Larson  Project Management - Fall 2016  Project Management Outputs  ■ OUTPUT (PHASE OF LIFECYCLE)  ■ Project Charter (Starting the Project)  ■ Project Management Plan (Organizing and  Preparing)  ■ Accepted Deliverables (Carrying out the work)  ■ Archived Project Documents (Closing the  Project)  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 1 9  Project Management  Comparison of Routine Work with  Projects  Routine, Repetitive Work  Taking class notes  Daily entering sales receipts into  the accounting ledger  Responding to a supply-chain  request  Practicing scales on the piano  Routine manufacture of an Apple  iPhone  Attaching tags on a manufactured  product  Projects  Writing a term paper  Setting up a sales kiosk for a  professional accounting meeting  Developing a supply-chain  information system  Writing a new piano piece  Developing the design and   architecture for the iPhone 6 and   producing the first prototype  Wire-tag projects for GE and  Wal-Mart  Project Management - Fall 2016  Programs versus Projects  ■ Program Defined  ■ A group of related projects managed in a  coordinated way to obtain benefits and control  not available from managing them individually.  ■ A higher level group of projects targeted at a  common goal.  ■ Example:  ■ Project: One space flight to service the International  Space Station.  ■ Program: The International Space Station  construction, maintenance and use.  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 1 10  Project Management  Portfolios, Programs and Projects  ©2013 Project Management Institute: PMBOK Guide Fifth Edition Project Management - Fall 2016  The Challenge of Project  Management  ■ The Project Manager  ■ Manages temporary, non-repetitive activities and  frequently acts independently of the formal  organization.  ■ Marshals resources for the project.  ■ Is linked directly to the customer interface.  ■ Provides direction, coordination, and integration to the project  team.  ■ Is responsible for performance and success of the project.  ■ Must induce the right people at the right time to  address the right issues and make the right decisions.  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 1 11  Project Management  The Technical and Sociocultural Dimensions of  the Project Management Process Science Art  ©2014 Project Management: The Managerial Approach, Clifford F. Gray and Erik W. Larson  Project Management - Fall 2016  HOMEWORK: The  Alaska Pipeline  During the video, please observe the  behavior of the project manager. You  may want to take notes and remember  several of the key impacts the PM had  on this very large program.  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 1 12  Project Management  The Alaska Pipeline  ■ Consider these questions  ■ Was this a project or a program?  ■ Who were the primary Stakeholders?  ■ How was the project charter affected after the  project began?  ■ What were the key characteristics of the  project manager?  Project Management - Fall 2016  Homework  ■ Read Chapters 2 and 3  ■ Be prepared to discuss chapter topics in our next  class session  ■ Hector Gaming Company case study  ■ Read the HGC case at the end of Chapter 2  ■ Write a one page response to the questions posed at  the end of the case study. Please be sure to answer  the questions in relationship to the topics covered in  the textbook. Also include a recommendation  explaining how to solve the problems.  ■ Watch the Alaska Pipeline video and take  notes on requested topics  ■ We will discuss this case in class next week  Project Management - Fall 2016 Class Session 1 13  Rainy Day WiFi – Part 2 All your equipment shipments arrive as scheduled in Costa Rica. Everything appears to  be going smoothly until you don’t hear from Costa Rican customs about release of the  shipments. Only after ten days have passed are you contacted by a customs agent. The customs agent informs you that your equipment shipments can not be released to  your job site because you have not filed the correct work permits to receive the  shipments. In fact this customs agent tells you that the permit process could last for  months, unless you pay a $10,000 ‘expedite fee’ to him. Define the impact of this event and develop a practical response for the rest of the project  to keep Rainy Day WiFi on its proposed schedule. Include this in your Part 2 project  documentation. GROUP PROJECT ASSIGNMENT, PART 2 – Based on the scenario above, define  the impact of this event and develop a practical response for the rest of the project.  Include this in your Part 2 project presentation described below. Your second PowerPoint presentation will assume the project has been in process 30 - 70  percent of the project duration and has not progressed as planned in the schedule and/or  budget. Remember to include the impacts of the Part 2 situation given above, plus any  problems or issues that have arisen on the project (Note: please be creative here). At the minimum within the PowerPoint presentation: 1) give a status report on key  project events that have occurred since your last presentation; 2) present a formal cost  and schedule assessment of your project status; and 3) provide a formal estimate to  complete the project. You must provide an updated Gantt chart to show your schedule  progress and an Earned Value analysis to show your EV status. As with the first presentation, you will be required to present your slides to the Executive  Steering Committee, so please be sure to bring five (5) printouts to class for the ESC.  Quality Expectation: I expect this presentation to be of ‘deliverable quality’, and you  should assume you are delivering it to the real Executive Steering Committee of your  project. Deliverable quality assumes good grammar, no spelling errors, and complete  explanations for the information provided on each slide. There is no specified minimum  or maximum number of slides, but you must cover all the items above. Grading information: There is no separate grade for this assignment, but your  performance will be part of your team’s group final project report grade. I expect a high  level of participation from each group member, and it will be the Project Manager’s  responsibility to report to me if certain group members have not contributed to the  assignment. Take a Risk (Part 2)  Geoff Choo May 19, 2004  Page 1 of 2 Print  Close In the first installment of this two-part series, we looked at risk management planning, risk identification and  qualitative risk analysis. In this installment, we continue with a look at quantitative risk analysis, risk  response planning and risk monitoring and control.   Quantitative Risk Analysis The main objective of the quantitative risk analysis process is to develop an objective and numerical  assessment of the risks facing a project. This process helps you calculate an actual probability number as  well as quantify the magnitude of the impact of the risk in terms of time or money units. This quantification  process is performed by using a Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the probability of completing the project  by various dates, sensitivity analysis to determine which variables have the greatest impact on project  results, or decision-tree analysis to calculate the time and cost impact of taking a series of decisions.   How does this impact your project? This process adds two important elements to your project planning  process. The first is the results of the probabilistic analysis which provides decision-makers with data on the  probabilities of hitting various cost and schedule targets, taking into account the various options and  decision paths available to the organization. The second is the concept of expected value, which is derived  by multiplying the probability of occurrence of a risk event by the magnitude or value of the impact of the  risk. The expected value of a risk event gives you an idea of your expected financial loss in the event that  the risk occurs. But more importantly, expected value tells you how much you should realistically spend on  your risk responses. You should generally try not to spend more in dealing with the risk than how much you  expect to lose if that risk does occur.   Risk Response Planning In this process, you develop your strategies for responding to the risks that you have identified in the  previous processes, based on risk priority, expected value, probability of occurrence and magnitude of  impact. In responding to risk events, your key objective should be to maximize the probabilities of achieving  your schedule and cost objectives. You can choose to avoid, mitigate and transfer the risks, but sometimes  it may be too expensive or too difficult to avoid, transfer or mitigate your risks. In this situation, your only  course of action is to plainly accept the risks. You accept that the risks may occur; you hope that they don't  occur, but just in case, you create contingency plans and set aside a contingency reserve in your budget for  when those risks do happen.   How does this impact your project? Here is where the risk rubber meets the road. Once you have identified  your risks and figured which risk merit the most attention, the PMBOK risk response plan will help you define  the most appropriate strategy to adopt for every identified risk. The risk response plan will also help define  accountability for your risk response strategies by associating every risk with a risk owner who will be  http://www.gantthead.com/articles/articlesPrint.cfm?ID=217628 10/21/2008Page 2 of 2 responsible for tracking and dealing with the risk. For the risks that you accept, your contingency plans and  reserves will help protect the project from potential cost overruns in the event of those risk events occurring.   Risk Monitoring and Control In this process, you monitor residual risks left over after your risk response planning, and identify new risks  that may have arisen. Your main objectives in this process include keeping an eye on identified risks and  verifying that you are following your risk response plan; checking that those risk responses are effective--if  not, you'll need to develop a new response, identifying new risks that may have arisen and creating  workaround plans for dealing with those new risk, controlling accepted risks and executing corrective action  from contingency plans if those accepted risks have occurred.   How does this impact your project? Risk management doesn't end with the identification, assessment and  handling of risk. You will be performing risk audits and risks reviews to control risk and verify that your risk  response strategies and the people you have assigned responsibility for those risks are effective. Risks can  and will happen at any point in your project lifecycle, and you need to constantly check your project for the  effectiveness of your risk management plans, and quickly correct your plans if things aren't working out as  you had envisioned.   Risks are also hardly static entities and constantly mutate to changing project conditions. Risk monitoring  and control will help ensure that you are able to keep up these changes by constantly monitoring risks to  discover changes in the impact of identified risks. The results of your risk monitoring and control entered into  a risk database which will provide essential historical information for the management of future projects.   Geoff Choo helps plan, design, implement, and manage enterprise software development projects for Northern Italian companies.  He can be reached at gantt.head@tiscali.it. Copyright © 2008 gantthead.com All rights reserved.  The URL for this article is:  http://www.gantthead.com/article.cfm?ID=217628  http://www.gantthead.com/articles/articlesPrint.cfm?ID=217628 10/21/2008Take a Risk (Part 1)  Geoff Choo May 12, 2004  Page 1 of 2 Print  Close Uncertainty is the biggest enemy of the project manager. In other words, what you don't know may hurt you.  Uncertain events, obstacles and issues always crop up when they are least expected and for every step you  take forward, you find yourself sliding two steps back.   Thinking hard about how you're going to deliver your project scope is important, but it's even more important  to think about what can prevent you from completing your project. That means taking a proactive approach  to managing risks before they happen. While you can't prevent risks from happening, you can greatly reduce  the negative impact on your project's scope, schedule, budget and quality.   And this is where the PMBOK risk management can really make the difference. The PMBOK defines risk  management as the systematic process of planning, identifying, assessing and handling project risks using  the six processes of risk management planning: risk identification, qualitative risk analysis, quantitative risk  analysis, risk response planning, risk monitoring and control. In this article, you will learn how and why using  this risk management approach can greatly increase the chances of delivering your project on time and on  target.   Risk Management Planning Contrary to what you might think, risk management planning isn't about figuring out what the risks are and  how to handle them. That will come much later in the process. What we want to do in this stage is to create  a risk management plan that outlines how we're going to decide what sort of risk management we're going  to perform on our project. That means deciding upfront what risk methodology we're going to use, who will  be involved and what their responsibilities will be, what techniques we will use for risk identification,  qualification, quantification (if we're going to have enough resources to use this process), as well as risk  monitoring and control.   How does this impact your project? You will have a clear roadmap to help guide your risk management  activities and help prevent wasting time and resources thinking about what you have to do later on.   Risk Identification The PMBOK risk identification process teaches you that the best way to identify risk is to seek the collective  feedback of project team members and stakeholders in the definition of project risks and their triggers by:   1. Going through every entry in your WBS  2. Examining each and every entry against a checklist of risk categories  3. Using a variety of information-gathering methods like brainstorming, SWOT analysis, the Delphi  http://www.gantthead.com/articles/articlesPrint.cfm?ID=217627 10/21/2008Page 2 of 2 method and so on to come up with a list of risk events and their triggers, which are early warning signs  that help tell you when a risk is about to occur or has occurred.  The key things to note are that your risk identification team shouldn't be spending time here on deciding  what methods you'll be using to identify the risk, since that should have already been previously defined in  the risk management plan. Also, it's important to remember that as you gather your risks, you shouldn't be  concerned about debating the merits of including a risk on your list or discussing possible handling  strategies. You will have time for that later. The main thing you want to do now is to document as many risks  as you can. These identified risks not only make up essential input into the rest of the risk management  process, but also impact other planning processes like cost estimating and activity duration estimating.   How does this impact your project? The systematic use of risk categories and checklists help ensure that  you identify all possible risks that are critical to your project. Risk categories also serve as useful seed topics  to spark off the brainstorming process. Involving your team members and stakeholders in the process will  help ensure that you get the widest possible range of feedback and input into the risk identification process  as possible. Modern projects are too complex for any one person to know everything. You need the breadth,  depth and diversity of insight, knowledge and judgment that only people with different talents, experiences  and skills can bring.   Qualitative Risk Analysis In the qualitative risk analysis process, you'll begin to filter down your previously created list of identified  risks by giving a priority to each risk you have identified in the risk identification process. You'll derive this list  of prioritized risks as well as the overall risk ranking by making subjective cardinal or ordinal assessments of  the probability of occurrence and magnitude of impact of identified risk events, creating a risk ranking matrix,  testing your project assumption with alternative scenarios and data precision ranking.   How does this impact your project? You have limited resources to deal with risks and you need to spend  your precious resource only on the more important risk, or the one with the greatest probability of  occurrence. The list of prioritized risks will tell you which risks need further quantitative analysis and which  should be carried over directly to your risk response planning instead. Since this is an ongoing process that  gets carried out throughout the project lifecycle, you'll be able to accumulate a repository of data that lets  you track the trends of your qualitative risk analysis results. This will give you great insight into the risk  challenges your projects face over time. The overall risk ranking lets the organization create a risk ranking  methodology that will let your organization compare the levels of risks of individual projects in the overall  project portfolio and make smarter decisions regarding the more efficient allocation of project budget and  resources.   In our next installment, we will take a look at quantitative risk analysis, risk response planning and risk  monitoring and control.   Geoff Choo helps plan, design, implement, and manage enterprise software development projects for Northern Italian companies.  He can be reached at gantt.head@tiscali.it. Copyright © 2008 gantthead.com All rights reserved.  The URL for this article is:  http://www.gantthead.com/article.cfm?ID=217627  http://www.gantthead.com/articles/articlesPrint.cfm?ID=217627 10/21/2008Rainy Day WiFi Your company, Control-Kaos Inc. provides wireless network solutions to various venues  including, hotels, conference centers, malls, retailers and airports. Control-Kaos believes  that by providing these venues with a wireless infrastructure, you will create a win-win  opportunity for both Control-Kaos and the venue that subscribes to your services.  Control-Kaos will work with each customer to plan, install and support the wireless  network and required infrastructure. Your top sales agent, Maxwell Smart, has just agreed that Control-Kaos will implement a  wireless network for a luxury hotel in Playa Buena, Costa Rica called Rain Forest  Paradise. The wireless system will be capable of providing both guests and employees  complete Internet connectivity from any location in the hotel. One of the main reasons for  this hotel to invest in wireless is to reduce staff inefficiencies by 20% and increase  customer satisfaction by 50%. All work must be completed within the next 6 months to  be complete before the rainy season that begins in the July / August timeframe. The scope of the Control-Kaos wireless network proposal is to provide a wireless  network infrastructure to allow the hotel to offer concurrent wireless Internet access to  between 5 - 50 concurrent users. Control-Kaos will also provide training and support for  all installed hardware and software. Budget estimates provided by agent Maxwell Smart appear below. Unit  Description Qty Price Total Cisco Catalyst 3100 (WS-C3100B)  Networking Switch 2 $1,860.00 $3,720.00 Cisco 1200 Series 802.11 a/b/g Access  Point 35 $695.00 $24,325.00 1000' Cat 5e Network Cable 4 $118.00 $472.00

$28,517.00


• What role do the stakeholders play?




• What role does the Project Manager play?



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We also discuss several other topics like Why do adolescents engage in alcohol use in the first place?

 Table 1: Hardware Bill of Materials Description Qty Unit Price Total DSL wireless connection 1 $10,000.00 $10,000.00 Service agreement 1 $20,000.00 $20,000.00

$30,000.00

 Table 2: Software Bill of Material One of the strengths of Control-Kaos is the ability to staff internally for contracts. All the  people needed are pulled from the different areas of the company. For the Rain Forest  Paradise project you have personnel available from Engineering, Marketing, Procurement  and the Project Management Office. Complete the project within budget and before the  rainy season begins.By Camille Spruill SPC4, SA, CSM, CBAP, PMP NCPMI Chapter Meeting October 27th, 2016Copyright © 2016 ezTagile, LLC www.ezTagile.com Copyright © 2016 ezTagile, LLC www.ezTagile.com 1 Presenter 2 Camille Spruill, SPC4, SA, CSM, CBAP, PMP Founder of ezTagile, LLC Chief Agile Consultant, Trainer and Coach ⦿ 16+ years of IT experience ⦿ 9+ years of agile experience ⦿ Certified Scaled Agile Framework Program Consultant (SPC4®) ⦿ Certified Scaled Agile Framework Agilist (SA®) ⦿ Certified Scrum Master (CSM®). ⦿ Certified Business Analysis Professional (CBAP®) ⦿ Certified Project Management Professional (PMP®) Email: info@ezTagile.com Website: www.ezTagile.com LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/camillespruillCopyright © 2016 ezTagile, LLC www.ezTagile.com Agenda Traditional  (Waterfall)  Methodology  vs.  Agile Monitor and Control Your  Project  The Agile  Way Achieving Accountability Through  Servant  Leadership Agile Status  ReportingCopyright © 2016 ezTagile, LLC www.ezTagile.com 3
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