NURS 2330 Health Promotion Study Guide/ Answers to Sample Question /WOD Probable Answers Book page reference Examette 1 1. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between health and wellness? A. The concepDon't forget about the age old question of mihaly csikszentmihalyi discovered that creative people regularly experience a state he called _____, which represented a heightened state of pleasure experienced when people engage in mental and physical challenges that absorb them.
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ts of health and wellness are unrelated. B. Health and wellness are interrelated, holistic concepts, and both can be improved through lifestyle. C. Health is related primarily to our physical abilities, while wellness is more holistic. D. Our health is driven by our genetics, but our wellness can be improved through lifestyle. 2. Which of the following statements best describes the concept of health as a continuum? A. A person is either healthy or ill, depending on the presence of disease. B. Personal growth and personal judgment are associated with being less well. C. Enthusiasm for living is associated with optimal wellbeing. D. Signs and symptoms of illness lead directly to premature death. 3. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between the components of health? A. Psychological health is dependent on good social, spiritual, and intellectual health. B. Spiritual health is closely associated with religion and cannot be achieved without religion. C. Good psychological health is associated with good social health but not intellectual health. D. If a person practices good health habits, they will not be unaffected by their environment. 4. The statement, “A sense of wellbeing is achieved through emotionally supportive and intellectually stimulating relationships,” refers to which component of health? A. Psychological health B. Social health C. Intellectual health D. Spiritual health 5. The belief that one’s life has purpose is a component of _________ health. A. psychological B. socialC. intellectual D. spiritual 6. The component of health that most affects quality of wellness is A. physical health. B. psychological health. C. environmental health. D. intellectual health. 7. In 2010, the leading cause of death for those aged 10–24 and 25–44 in the United States was A. heart disease. B. homicide. C. suicide. D. unintentional injury. 8. All of the following were leading causes of death in the United States in 2009 except A. Alzheimer’s disease. B. Parkinson’s disease. C. diabetes mellitus. D. pneumonia/influenza. 9. Health experts predict that the combination of _____ and _____ will soon replace tobacco use as the leading actual cause of death in the United States. A. climate change; illicit drug use B. alcohol abuse; texting while driving C. lack of managing stress; overexposure to radiation D. poor diet; physical inactivity 10. Stimulus control (e.g., removing junk food from your pantry) is used primarily during which one of the Stages of Behavioral Change? A. Preparation B. ActionC. Contemplation D. Maintenance 12. This is the study of all a person’s genes including the complex ways that genes interact with one another as well as the environment to influence an individual’s health. A. Genomics B. Genotype C. Genetics D. Gynecology 13. Hispanic or Latino People represent the largest minority group in the United States. About 1 out of 3… A. Will die from diabetes mellitus B. Do not have health insurance C. Are HIV positive D. Have cardiovascular disease 14. This group has lower ageadjusted mortality rates for the top 10 causes of death than do whites and members of other minority groups. A. Hispanic or Latino People B. African or Black Americans C. Asian and Pacific islanders D. American Indians and Alaska Natives 15. Binge drinking has been identified as a serious health concern of this group increasing the likelihood for accidents, homicides, and suicides among these individuals. A. Hispanic or Latino People B. African or Black Americans C. Asian and Pacific Islanders D. American Indians and Alaska Natives 16. This is the belief that an individual is capable of changing his or her behavior. A. Lifestyle B. Motivation C. Efficacy D. Intervention17. Sexually active individuals who are 25 years of age or younger should be tested _____ for chlamydial infection. A. Every five years B. Every two years C. Annually D. Immediately following each sexual encounter 18. The American Cancer Society recommends annual screening and clinical exams to help identify _____ beginning at age 40 for women. A. Breast cancer B. Cervical cancer C. Skin cancer D. Ovarian cancer 19. Personal reports of individual experiences are referred to as… A. Valid B. Testimonials C. Legitimate D. Anecdotes 20. This is the tendency to have a particular point of view (regarding a health claim). A. Objective B. Testimonial C. Bias D. Anecdotal 21. Health or medical content which was critiqued by experts prior to it being published. A. Anything on the internet B. Peer reviewed C. Biased D. Anecdotal 22. A sham treatment which has no known physical effects. A. Placebo B. Pharmacologic C. Biased D. AnecdotalWordof TheDay 1. SomatypeMesomorph- havingabodytypewithamuscular build 2. SomatypeEndomorph- havingabodytypewithahighbody(fat) composition 3. Teratogen- anysubstancethatinterfereswithnormal fetal development, oftencausing birthdefects 4. SomatypeEctomorph- havingabodytypethatissmall andslender 5. Morbidity-thepresenceof disease a. Comorbidity- other diseasesor conditionsthat arisefromaprimarydisease 6. Calorie- energyittakestoraise1,000gramof waterby1degreeCelsius a. calorie- energyittakestoraise1gramof water by1degreeCelsius 7. DiabetesMellitus- adisorder of CHOmetabolismcausedbyadeficiencyof insulinor utilizationof insulin 8. Hypertension-increasedbloodpressure, especiallydiastolicpressure>140/>90 9. PositiveCalorieBalance- energyinishigher thanenergyout 10. Osteoporosis- boneweakness,deficiencyof calciumandvitaminD 11.Cancer-incontrollableproductionof abnormal cells 12.COPS-(ChronicObstructivePulmonaryDisease)aprogressivediseasethat makesit hard tobreathecharacterizedbychronicbronchitis, emphysema, or both 13. Mortality- deathrate 14.Cholesterol- asterol foundinanimalsandproducedbycontact withsunlight 15. SystolicBloodPressure-therhythmical contractingoftheheart asbloodispumpedou oftheheart 16. DiastolicBloodPressure-therhythmical dilationoftheheart asbloodpoursintothe heart chambers 17. GlycemicIndex- asystemthat ranksfoodonascaleof 1to100basedontheir effect on bloodsugar levels 18. GlycemicLoad- howmuchcarbohydratethatisfoundinfood 19. SaturatedFat- moleculesthat havenodoublebondsinbetweenthemwhichcauses themtobesolidat roomtemperature- animal lard 20. UnsaturatedFat- moleculesthat havedoublebondsbetweenthemandareliquidat roomtemperature– oliveoil 21. Stroke- blockageof hemorrhageof abloodvessel leadingtothebraincausingalackof oxygentothebrain 22.BMI- measureof bodycompositionbasedonheightto weight ratio 23. DietaryFiber- partsof plant’shumanscan’t digest suchaswholegrainsandvegetables 24.Correlation- areciprocal relationshipbetweentwoor morethings 25.Adiposity-thestateof havinghighbodycomposition(fat) Examette 21. Not one of the acute physical adaptations to stress… a. Central nervous system activity increases b. Blood clots more easily c. Sweating increases d. Saliva flow increases (decreases not increases) Pg. 76 2. Under the influence of cortisol, certain cells release fat and this into the bloodstream, which will transport these energy nutrients to active muscle or nerve cells. a. Glucose b. Insulin c. Phospholipid d. Protein 3. During a stressful situation, gastrointestinal tract movements will decrease. This change facilitates… a. A prevention in bleeding b. Avoids wasting water c. Shifts blood flow to skeletal muscles d. Creates a feeling of euphoria 4. The effects of unrecognized and untreated stress can be devastating. Suicide is the _____ leading cause of death for Asian American women between the ages of 15 and 24. a. First b. Second Pg. 78 c. Third d. Fourth 5. During the exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome, one may become… a. More acclimated (used) to stress b. Less acclimated to stress c. More susceptible to infections Pg. 77 d. Less susceptible to infections 6. According to our text, burnout can be a consequence of experiencing… a. Too much physiological stress b. Too much psychological stress Pg. 77 c. Too much eustress d. Insufficient distress 7. Stress increases the production of _____ that promote inflammation. a. Endorphins b. Hormonesc. Lipids d. Cytokines Pg. 81 8. Psychoneuroimmunology explores the mind and the… a. Body Pg. 80 b. Immune system c. Cardiovascular system d. Endocrine system 9. In response to increased blood cortisol levels, the pancreas releases… a. Glucagon b. Insulin Pg. 84 c. Estrogen d. Testosterone 10. If an individual is getting appropriate amounts of sleep they should not need this. a. Coffee b. Coping strategies c. An alarm clock d. Eat breakfast 11. Stress may be associated with this condition, characterized by intestinal cramps, constipation, and diarrhea… a. Flu b. Fibromyalgia c. Irritable bowel syndrome Pg. 82 d. Gastric ulcer 12. Ulcers may develop in the first part of the small intestine. The initial segment of the small intestine is referred to as this. a. Duodenum Pg. 82 b. Jejunum c. Ileum d. Colon 13. Individuals who are ambitious, competitive, and impatient have this type of personality. a. Type A b. Type B c. Type C d. Type D 14. People use this strategy to manage stress by altering their appraisal of stressful situations.a. Social support strategy b. Relaxation strategy c. Emotion focused strategy Pg. 88 d. Journal writing strategy 15. Teeth grinding, a common sign of stress may lead to pain in this structure of the skull… a. Fontanelle b. Occipitomastoid suture c. Neurocranium d. Temporomandibular joint 16. Yoga is a philosophy of living which includes specific exercises, breathing techniques, meditation activities, and _____ to help manage stress. a. Vitamin supplements b. Dietary restrictions Pg. 93 c. Herbal remedies d. Yogurt with acidophilus Word of The Day 1. Hypercholesterolemia- the presence of high cholesterol (a sterol type of lipid) in the blood (Hyper- increased, cholesterol- cholesterol, -emia- pertaining to blood) 2. Hypertriglyceridemia- condition in which triglyceride levels are elevated in the blood (Hyper- increases, triglyceride- triglyceride, -emia- pertaining to blood) 3. Dyslipidemia- abnormal amount of plasma cholesterol, lipoproteins, or both in the blood; HDL too low or LDL too high (dys- bad, difficult, lipid- lipid, -emia pertaining to blood) 4. Gluconeogenesis- making new glucose molecules from non-carbohydrates (gluco- glucose, neo- new, genesis- production) 5. Homeostasis- physiological balance or equilibrium (home- similar to, stasis having a state of balance) 6. Tachycardia- fast heart rate characterized by adult resting heart rate exceeding 100 bpm (tachy- rapid; fast, cardi/o- pertaining to the heart, -ia pertaining to a condition or disorder) 7. Insulin- a hormone produced in the pancreas that regulates the amount of glucose in the blood 8. Epinephrine- also called adrenaline; a hormone produced in the adrenal medulla in response to physical or mental stress increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate a. Norepinephrine- also called noradrenaline; a hormone also produced in the adrenal medulla that acts as a neurotransmitter for the sympathetic nervous system in response to stress that has an effect on heart rate, and leads to an increase in blood pressure9. Endorphin- resembling opioids, these “feel good hormones” are a group of peptides naturally released in the brain that reduces pain 10.Cortisol- produced in the adrenal cortex, is a hormone of the steroid family that acts as an anti-inflammatory 11.Android Overweightness- “apple shaped” adiposity in which fat is deposited predominantly in the abdomen area Gyneoid / Gynecoid Overweightness- “pear shaped” adiposity in which fat is deposited predominantly in the hip and Examette 3 1. This is a group of nonnutrients from plants that may result in health benefits. ∙ Phytochemicals – pg. 280 2. These help or prevent activity of free radicals which are unstable and highly reactive causing cellular damage. ∙ Antioxidants – pg. 280 3. These occur when an individual cannot use and/or store excess nutrients particularly fat soluble vitamins. ∙ Nutrient Toxicities – pg. 283 4. Brown rice and wheat bran are excellent sources for this. ∙ Insoluble Fiber – pg. 284 5. This is the only disorder which is CLEARLY associated with carbohydrate consumption. ∙ Tooth Decay – pg. 285 6. What three signs and symptoms are common to both Type 1 as well as Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus? ∙ 1. Excessive Thirst ∙ 2. Frequent Urination ∙ 3. Vision Problems pg. 286 Table 9.5 7. Do kidney beans have a high glycemic index, or a low glycemic index? ∙ Low Glycemic Index – pg. 287 8. Individuals with Asian or African ancestry are more likely to be affected by lactose intolerance than are… ∙ Caucasians – pg. 288 9. The vast majority (~95%) of lipid content in foods consists of this. ∙ Triglycerides – pg. 289 10. Cholesterol is a structural part of steroid hormones, vitamin D, bile, as well as this. ∙ Fat Digestion – pg. 290 11. This process results in the formation of trans fatty acids. ∙ Hydrogenation – pg. 291 Word of The Day 1. Soluble Fiber- this type of fiber absorbs water and turns to a gel or has a thick viscosity and slows digestion 2. Insoluble Fiber- Found in foods like vegetables and whole grains and helps speed up digestion 3. Bile- a bitter, alkaline, greenish-yellow fluid that aids in digestion and is secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder 4. Glycemic Load- measurement of amount of carbohydrates a food contains 5. Insulin- a hormone produced by the pancreas that allows you body to use the sugar (glucose) from the carbohydrates in consumed food or store the glucose for future use 6. Glucagon- peptide hormone that is produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas and raises the concentration of glucose in the bloodstream 7. Phenylketonuria- (PKU) an inherited disorder that an increase levels of phenylalanine in the blood 8. Aspartame- and artificial, non-saccharide sweetener used a sugar substitute in foods and beverages 9. Hemorrhoids- clumps of dilated or swollen veins in the lowest part of the rectum and anus 10.Diverticulosis- abnormal condition in which pouches (diverticula) from in the colon wall 11.Bran – the hard outer layers of cereal grain a. Endosperm- part of the seed that acts as a food store for the developing plant embryo, often containing starch, nutrients and protein 12.Lactose Intolerance- when the body cannot easily digest lactose, a natural sugar found in milk and dairy products Examette 4 12. This is a group of nonnutrients from plants that may result in health benefits. ∙ Phytochemicals – pg. 280 13. These help or prevent activity of free radicals which are unstable and highly reactive causing cellular damage. ∙ Antioxidants – pg. 280 14. These occur when an individual cannot use and/or store excess nutrients particularly fat soluble vitamins. ∙ Nutrient Toxicities – pg. 283 15. Brown rice and wheat bran are excellent sources for this. ∙ Insoluble Fiber – pg. 284 16. This is the only disorder which is CLEARLY associated with carbohydrate consumption. ∙ Tooth Decay – pg. 285 17. What three signs and symptoms are common to both Type 1 as well as Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus? ∙ 1. Excessive Thirst ∙ 2. Frequent Urination∙ 3. Vision Problems pg. 286 Table 9.5 18. Do kidney beans have a high glycemic index, or a low glycemic index? ∙ Low Glycemic Index – pg. 287 19. Individuals with Asian or African ancestry are more likely to be affected by lactose intolerance than are… ∙ Caucasians – pg. 288 20. The vast majority (~95%) of lipid content in foods consists of this. ∙ Triglycerides – pg. 289 21. Cholesterol is a structural part of steroid hormones, vitamin D, bile, as well as this. ∙ Fat Digestion – pg. 290 22. This process results in the formation of trans fatty acids. ∙ Hydrogenation – pg. 291 23. The flavor enhancer MSG stands for what? ∙ Monosodium Glutamate – pg. 293 24. Lowquality proteins are also known as what? ∙ Incomplete Proteins –pg. 293 25. A number of athletes believe it is necessary to eat larger amounts of protein to… ∙ Increase their muscle mass – pg. 293 26. This vegetarian diet contains eggs as well as dairy products. ∙ Lacto-ovo-vegetarian Diet – pg. 294 27. Three common foods individuals may be allergic to include… ∙ Milk, Eggs, and Wheat – pg. 295 28. What is anaphylaxis? ∙ An acute allergic reaction to an antigen – pg. 295 29. Free radical formation produces chemical changes in cells that may contribute to what conditions? ∙ Cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, degenerative changes in the eye, and other chronic health conditions – pg. 298 30. List three vitamins which may function as an antioxidant. ∙ Vitamins E, C, and A – pg. 298 31. According to our textbook, the usefulness of Vitamin C in preventing these three conditions is not supported by scientific evidence. ∙ Diabetes, Cancer, and Alzheimer’s – pg. 298 32. What is “dowager’s hump”? ∙ Occurs when bones in the upper spine are so weak that they experience small compression fractures over time while trying to support the weight of the skull resulting in abnormal curvatures in the spine due to osteoporosis – pg. 299 33. This hormone signals bones to maintain their mass and retain calcium. ∙ Estrogen – pg. 300 34. What is hemochromatosis? ∙ A genetic condition that increases the intestinal absorption of dietary iron (hemo blood, chromat color chromatid, osis abnormal condition) pg. 302 35. Define anemia. ∙ When the body produces abnormal red blood cells pg. 301 36. What three conditions (as noted in our textbook) can result in a substantial loss of water, and thus cause dehydration? ∙ Prolonged fevers, bouts of Diarrhea, and Vomiting – pg. 302 Word of The Day 1. Fred Kummerow- a 100-year old scientist/professor who pushed the FDA to ban artificial trans fats 2. Triglyceride/Triglycerol- an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids; are the main portion of body fat in humans and other animals, as well as vegetable fat 3. Hydrogenation- to treat with hydrogen; process commonly used to reduce or saturate organic compounds 4. Trans Fatty Acid- an unsaturated fatty acid that occurs in manufactured cooking oils and margarines as a result of the hydrogenation process 5. Cholesterol- a sterol; a type of lipid molecule that is biosynthesized by all animal cells because it is an essential structural component of all animal cell membranes to maintain structural integrity and fluidity 6. Omega 3 Fatty Acid- (w-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids with a double bond at the third carbon atom from the methyl/omega end of the carbon chain 7. Saturated Fatty Acid- a long chain of carbon atoms all linked together by single bonds 8. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid- fatty acid chains the contain more than one double bond in their backbone 9. Phospholipid- a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule; make up the phospholipid bilayer that surrounds cells 10.Inuit People- diet containing foods that are fished, hunted, mainly fish and fat to maintain body heat in North America where they live, but are surprisingly healthy 11.Cis Fatty Acid- two hydrogen atoms are on the same side of a double bond 12.Omega 6 Fatty Acid- (w-6) come from vegetable oil; polyunsaturated fatty acids with a double bond at the sixth carbon from the methyl/omega end of the carbon chain 1. Amino Acid- chemical units that compose proteins; organic compounds containing amine, carboxyl group, and a side-chain (R group) specific to each amino acid 2. Limitting Amino Acid- found in the shortest supply during protein synthesis from incomplete proteins 3. Complete Protein- high-quality proteins; contains all of the essential amino acids; red meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, and dairy 4. Incomplete Protein- low-quality protein; contain insufficient amounts of lack one or more of the essential amino acids 5. Essential Amino Acid- cannot be made by the body thus must come from food; 9 essential amino acids a. Non-essential Amino Acid- can be made in the body thus nonessential in the human diet; 11 nonessential amino acids 6. Complementary Protein- combining two or more foods with incomplete proteins forms complementary proteins to provide adequate amounts of all the essential amino acids 7. Free Radical- an uncharged molecule having an unpaired balance electron; having lost and electron; unstable/reactive a. diseases and why- they start to steal neighboring electrons attacking DNA leading to dysfunction, mutation, and cancer, attack enzymes and proteins disrupting normal cell activities ∙ atherosclerosis ∙ cancer ∙ inflammatory joint disease ∙ asthma ∙ diabetes ∙ senile dementia ∙ degenerative eye disease 8. Antioxidant- a substance the inhibits oxidation, especially one used to counteract the deterioration of stored food products; removes potentially damaging oxidizing agents in a living organism 9. Phytochemical/Phytonutrient- any of various biologically active compounds found in plants; help protect plants from germs, fungi, bugs, and other threats 10.Linus Pauling- American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, and educator and published papers about the nature of the chemical bond 11. Mega Vitamin Therapy- the use of large doses of vitamins in attempt to prevent or treat diseases Examette 6 1 A study of 3000 individuals aged 15 to 24 indicated that young people with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) began developing fatty streaks within their arteries by this age… 25 – p.g. 388 2 ____arteries___ carry blood away from one’s heart (myocardium or heart tissue), while __ veins____ carry blood to the heart. –p.g. 3903 Chest pain resulting from insufficient oxygen in a portion of the heart is referred to as this. Angina Pectoris p.g. 391 4 Atherosclerosis is one form of arteriosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis can be described as this… A p.g. 391 a Hardening of the arteries b Softening of the arteries c Narrowing of the arteries 5 The procedure to remove plaque from the inside of an artery is called… D p.g. 394 a. Embolus b. Thrombus c. Angioplasty d. Atherectomy 6 Reconstruction of a damaged blood vessel is called a/an C p.g. 393 a. Embolus b. Thrombus c. Angioplasty d. Atherectomy 7 List five warning signs an individual is having a heart attack… Shortness of breath, profuse sweating, weakness, anxiety, nausea p.g. 397 8 Regarding a stroke, what does the acronym F.A.S.T represent? Face drooping, Arm weakness, Speech difficulties, Time to call 911 9 Define the following terms…stenosis; aneurysm; atrial fibrillation; thrombosis; embolism; TIA or transient ischemic attack o Stenosis abnormal narrowing 399 o Aneurysm a swollen, weakened blood vessel – 398 o Atrial fibrillation a type of arrhythmia in which the upper chamber of the heart contract with no set pattern 398 o Thrombosis the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel – 398 o Embolism – the blood clot, or object of debris, becomes lodges in an artery blocking blood flow 398 o TIA “mini stroke” temporary restriction of flow of blood to the brain 400 10 List 10 risk factors for CVD. o Cigarette smoking o Diabetes mellitus o Physical inactivityo Family history of cardiovascular disease o Obesity o Heavy alcohol use o Gender o Age o Anxiety disorders o High levels of LDL p.g. 401 11 If one’s HDL is 38 mg/dl what would you suggest to that person? They are at major risk for heart disease p.g. 402 12 If one’s LDL is 100 mg/dl what would you suggest to that person? They are near or above optimal level p.g. 402 13 More than ___50____% of American adults do not get enough physical activity to provide health benefits. –p.g. 404 14 What is happening to the incidence of stroke among young Americans? It is rising p.g. 400 15 When the body does not immediately use all energyyielding nutrients, it converts them to what? Triglycerides p.g. 403 16 Among people who smoke, they tend to have _____increased____ levels of LDL, and ___decreased_____ levels of HDL. –p.g. 403 17 This hormone tends to raise an individual’s HDL levels by about 20%. Estrogen p.g. 402 18 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggests at least this many minutes of physical activity per week to help reduce the likelihood of cardiovascular disease and stroke. 150 minuets p.g. 404 19 Why is homocysteine important regarding damage to artery walls? Increased homocysteine levels damage artery walls and encourage the formation of blood clots and plaque p.g. 406 20 Smoking will increase the likelihood for coronary artery disease. Once the individual stops smoking, what happens (almost immediately) to the risk? Risk of CAD is cut in half p.g. 408 Word of The Day Chapter 12 1. Angina a condition marked by severe pain in the chest, often also spreading to the shoulders, arms, jaw, and neck, caused by an inadequate blood supply to the heart 2. Stroke volume the volume of blood pumped from the left ventricle in one contraction 3. TIA (Transiant Ischemic Attack) a temporary blockage of blood flow to the brain also known as “ministrokes” and are precursors and warnings for serious strokes 4. Dean Ornish, MD is big on lifestyle changes as a preventative health care measure 5. Angioplasty surgical repair of unblocking of a blood vessel (angi/o vessel, plasty – surgical repair) 6. Atherectomy removing plaque (atherosclerosis) from blood vessels (ather plague, ectomy – removal) 7. Hyperplasia the enlargement of an organ or tissue caused by an increased rate of cell reproduction 8. Thrombus a blood clot formed within the vascular system obstructing blood flow 9. Embolus an object, often a thrombus, that has been carried through the bloodstream and lodged in a vessel 10. Atherosclerosis condition of abnormal hardening of the arteries (ather – plaque, sclerosis – condition of hardening) 11. Bradycardia abnormally slow heart rhythm (brady – slow, cardia – pertaining to the heart) 12. Tachycardia abnormally fast heart rhythm (tachy fast, cardia – pertaining to the heart)