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EKU - BIO 331 - Bio 331 (Final exam study guide) - Study Guide

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EKU - BIO 331 - Bio 331 (Final exam study guide) - Study Guide

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background image Final   BIO 331 (Final; Dr. Kraemer)  Review of Cells    Cells  ♦ All organisms are composed of cells  ♦ There are two broad groupings of life according to morphology  1. Prokaryotes: Lack a membrane-bound nucleus  2. Eukaryotes: have nucleus (membrane bond organelles)  ♦ There are three domains according to phylogeny  • Bacteria- Prokaryotic  • Archaea-Prokaryotic  • Eukarya- Eukaryotic (Few Examples: Animals, Plants and Fungi)  ♦ Prokaryotic cells-structural overview  • All prokaryotes lack membrane-bound nucleus.  • Bacterial cells vary greatly in size and shape, but most contain several structural  similarities…  ◊ Plasma membrane 
◊ Circular chromosome 
◊ Ribosomes which synthesize proteins 
◊ Stiff cell wall 
• Many bacteria contain plasmids  ◊ Plasmids are small supercoiled circular DNA molecules which are found in  the nucleoid  ♦ Prokaryotic cells- Internal Structure  • Other structures are contained within the cytoplasm…  ◊ Ribosomes: Consist of RNA molecules and protein for protein synthesisAll  prokaryotic cells contain ribosomes.  ♦ Prokaryotic Cells- External Structure  • Cell wall: tough fibrous layer that surrounds the plasma membrane. Contains 
background image Final   peptidoglycan  ♦ Bacterial organelles  • Bacteria contain internal compartments called organelles (“little organs”)  ◊ Organelle: membrane bound compartment inside cell that contains enzymes or  structures specialized for a particular function  • Organelles are common in eukaryotic cells  ♦ Eukaryotic cells- Introduction  • Many are multicellular, others are unicellular  • Larger than prokaryotic cells  ♦ Eukaryotic cells compared to prokaryotic cells  • There are four key differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells…  1. Eukaryotic chromosomes are found in a membrane bound compartment  called nucleus  2. Prokaryotic cells are smaller than prokaryotic cells  3. Eukaryotic cells contain extensive mounts of internal membrane  4. Eukaryotic cells feature a diverse and dynamic cytoskeleton    Cell structure  ♦ Nucleus: Contain genetic information  • Nucleolus- located inside nucleus. Where ribosomal RNA synthesis takes place  • Nuclear envelope- also known as nuclear membrane  ◊ Double membrane  • In eukaryotes DNA is divided into multiple linear chromosomes  ◊ Chromatin- Consist of chromosomes and proteins  ♦ Endomembrane system: Series of membranes throughout the cytoplasm which divides  the cell into compartments where different cellular functions occur  • One of the fundamental distinctions between eukaryotes and prokaryotes  ♦ Rough endoplasmic reticulum  •  Structure … 
background image Final   ◊ Network of membrane-bound tubes and sacs studded with ribosomes.  • The ribosomes give it its rough texture  • Rough ER is continuous with the nuclear envelope  •  Function ...  ◊ Synthesize proteins with help of ribosomes 
◊ New proteins are folded and processed in the rough ER lumen 
♦ Smooth endoplasmic reticulum  •  Structure …  ◊ Lacks ribosomes associated with the rough ER  •  Function …  ◊ Used to break down poisonous lipids 
◊ Reservoir for Ca2+ ions 
♦ Golgi apparatus  •  Structure …  ◊ Flattened tack of interconnected membranes  •  Function …  ◊ In packaging 
◊ Distribution of molecules that are synthesized at one location and used at 
another, within or outside the sell  ◊ Distribute proteins to different parts of the cell where they are needed  ♦ Ribosomes  •  Structure …  ◊ Non- membranous 
◊ Large and small subunits which contain RNA (specifically rRNA) molecules 
and proteins  ◊ Can be attached to rough ER or free in cytosol (aqueous component of  cytoplasm in cell)  ◊ Made up of ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- protein complex 
background image Final   •  Function …  ◊ Protein synthesis  • Protein synthesis also requires messenger RNA (mRNA) and transfer RNA  (tRNA)  ♦ Microbodies: Enzyme-bearing membrane-enclosed vesicles  • Peroxisomes  ◊ Contain enzymes involved in oxidation of fatty acids and produces  byproduct  called Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)  ◊ Specialized peroxisomes in plants called glyoxysomes are packed with  enzymes that oxidize fats to form a compound that can be stored as energy for  the cell.  ♦ Lysosomes  •  Structure …  ◊ Single membrane bound structures found in animal cells, containing about 40  different digestive enzymes  •  Function ◊ Used for digestion and waste processing  • How are materials delivered to lysosomes  ◊ Materials are delivered to the lysosomes by three processes  • Phagocytosis: indigestion of bacteria or other material (type of  endocytosis)  • Autophagy: destruction of cells in body  • Receptor-mediated endocytosis: specific molecules are ingested into cell  (type of endocytosis)  ◊ Endocytosis: process by which the cell membrane can pinch off a vesicle to  bring outside material into cell  • Pinocytosis is a type of endocytosis, along with phagocytosis and  receptor-mediated endocytosis, which brings fluid into the cell 
background image Final   ♦ Vacuoles  •  Structures …  ◊ Membrane bounded structures in plants with various functions depending on  the cell type  ◊ There are different types of vacuoles  •  Function …  ◊ Some contain digestive enzymes 
◊ Most vacuoles are used for water storage and or storage of ions to help cell 
         maintain normal volume.  ♦ Mitochondria: Found in all types of eukaryotic cells  •  Structure …  ◊ Bound by membranes (double membrane) 
♦  On surface of inner membrane and also embedded within it are 
proteins that carry out oxidative metabolism  ♦  ATP synthesis (oxidative metabolism) 
♦  Matrix 
•  Function …  ◊ Have own DNA and manufacture their own DNA ribosomes  ♦ Chloroplast  •  Structure ...  ◊ Double membrane structure found in most plant and algae cells. They also  contain their own DNA. (Do these characteristics sound familiar? These  characteristics are the same as the characteristics found in mitochondria)  ◊ Contain membrane bound, flattened structure called thylakoids, which are  stacked into piles called grana. Outside the thylakoids is the solution called  the stroma  •  Function …  ◊ Convert light energy to chemical energy. In other words, they perform  photosynthesis. 

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School: Eastern Kentucky University
Department: Biology
Course: Cell Biology
Professor: Bradley Kraemer
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Cell, Bio, 331, and final study guide
Name: Bio 331 (Final exam study guide)
Description: Cell bio spring final (Dr. Kraemer)
Uploaded: 05/07/2017
27 Pages 56 Views 44 Unlocks
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