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SEMO / Political Science / PS 103 / semo final exam schedule

semo final exam schedule

semo final exam schedule

Description

School: Southeast Missouri State University
Department: Political Science
Course: US Political Systems
Professor: Jeremy walling
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: political science, PS103, Government, and finals study guide
Cost: 50
Name: Final Exam Study Guide for PS103
Description: Study Guide with all outlines from PS103
Uploaded: 05/08/2017
34 Pages 190 Views 0 Unlocks
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➢ -How was government designed under the Articles of Confederation?




❖ As you study American founding documents, consider the following: ➢ -What is the fundamental purpose of the Declaration of Independence?




❖ •System for implementing decisions made through the political process ❖ •Why?



❖ What is Politics? ❖ •Bianco and Canon say "American politics makes sense.” ❖ •But ... ❖ •Most people dislike politics because ➢ -It seems too complicated ➢ -It's too argumentatiWe also discuss several other topics like What is an argument?
We also discuss several other topics like convergernt
If you want to learn more check out What is the Ohm's Law?
If you want to learn more check out a drastic difference between such elements as color or value when they are presented together
If you want to learn more check out final exam schedule ttu
If you want to learn more check out Which term refers to the situation that occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and a goal and it is not immediately obvious how to get around the obstacle?
ve ➢ -Politicians are only in it for themselves ❖ •System for implementing decisions made through the political process ❖ •Why? ➢ -Provide Order ❖ •Hobbes' state of nature ❖ •Provide for the common defense ❖ •Ensure domestic tranquility ❖ •Establish justice ❖ •Secure the blessings of liberty ❖ •Factions - Federalist #10 ❖ •Divide government ❖ •Separation of Powers ❖ •Checks and Balances ❖ •Federlism ❖ •Promote the General Welfare ➢ -Public Goods ➢ -Collective action problems ❖ •Group would benefit from working together, but each individual is better refusing to cooperate ❖ •Free Rider Problem ❖ •The process that determines what the government does ❖ •Three key concepts ➢ -Politics is conflictual ❖ •The scope of conflict ❖ •Compromise and bargaining ❖ •Virtually impossible to get exactly what you want ➢ -Process Matters ❖ •Processes decide government action ❖ •Elections ❖ •Bureaucracy ❖ •Citizen action ❖ •Rules➢ -Politics is Everywhere ❖ •Media/social media ❖ •Party ID ❖ •Ideology ❖ •Sources of Conflict ➢ -Economic Interests ❖ •Free market/individualism ❖ •Redistributive tax policy ➢ -Cultural Values ❖ •Culture war ❖ •Red state v. Blue state ➢ -Racial, Gender, Ethnicity ➢ -Ideology ❖ •A cohesive set of ideals and beliefs used to organize and evaluate the political world ❖ •Conservative = more economic freedom/less social freedom ❖ •Liberal = less economic freedom/more social freedom ❖ •Libertarian = more economic freedom/more social freedom ❖ •Resolving Conflict ➢ -Three key principles ❖ •Freedom ❖ •Bill of Rights ➢ -Democracy ❖ •In the US, representative democracy ➢ -Equality ❖ •Political equality ❖ •Equality of opportunity ❖ Founding Documents ❖ As you study American founding documents, consider the following: ➢ -What is the fundamental purpose of the Declaration of Independence? Does it have the same purpose to us today? ➢ -How was government designed under the Articles of Confederation? ➢ -What perceived problems emerged following the adoption of the Articles of Confederation? ❖ Constitutional Convention ❖ As you study the Constitutional Convention, consider the following: ➢ -What was the initial purpose of the convention? Is that what happened? ➢ -What were the big questions/issues debated? ➢ -What major compromises defined the Constitution? ❖ The Ratification Process❖ As you study the ratification process, consider the following: ➢ -The Framers gave the states the responsibility to ratify the Constitution. Why? ➢ -What was the purpose of the Federalist Papers? ❖ Federalism Outline ❖ Government System Alternatives ➢ -Unitary ➢ -Confederal ➢ -Federal ❖ ❖ 3 Dominant Eras of American Federalism ❖ ❖ Dual Federalism ➢ -"layer cake” federalism ➢ -National power increased ➢ -Court rulings ➢ -Consequences of Civil War ➢ -Amendments ❖ Cooperative Federalism ➢ -"marble cake” federalism ➢ -Continued increase of national power ➢ -Simultaneous increase in "shared” power ➢ -Increased use of grants and mandates ❖ 3rd Era ➢ -Federalism in Flux ➢ -Described as New, Creative, and Picket Fence Federalism ➢ -Sorry, no cake ➢ -Devolution: TANF replaces AFDC ❖ Current Issues ➢ -Federalism evident in disaster management ➢ -Voter ID ➢ -Same sex marriage ❖ Civil Liberties Outline ❖ Civil Liberties ➢ -Protections of citizens from improper government action ➢ -Due process clause: 5th Amendment ➢ -Bill of Rights ❖ Selective Incorporation➢ -​Barron v. Baltimore (1833) ➢ -Marshall Court: The Bill of Rights "contain no expression indicating an intention to apply them to the State governments. This court cannot so apply them.” ➢ -Dual citizenship: citizens maintain distinct relationships with national and state governments. ➢ -5th Amendment: "nor shall any person ... deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.” ➢ -14th Amendment: "nor shall any state deprive a person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.” ➢ -Apply the protections of the Bill of Rights to the states, using the 14th Amendment as a filter, on a case-by-case basis. ➢ -1st Amendment: Freedoms of expression (religion, speech, press, assembly, petition) ➢ -Religion = establishment + free exercise ➢ -Freedom of expression examples ➢ -Criminal procedure examples ❖ Right to Privacy ➢ -​Judicial restraint v. judicial activism ➢ -"Right to privacy” = does not appear in the Constitution ➢ -Griswold v. CT (1965) = zones of privacy (1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 9th) ➢ -Precedent for Roe v. Wade (1973) and Lawrence v. Texas (2004) ❖ Civil Rights Outline ❖ Civil Rights ➢ -The guarantees of government to provide equal opportunities, privileges, and treatment under the law. ➢ -Civil liberties: due process clause is the focus ➢ -Civil rights: equal protection clause is the focus ❖ Major Developments ➢ -Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) ➢ -Supreme Court: slaves cannot be citizens; descendents of slaves cannot be citizens ➢ -13th (1865): abolished slavery ➢ -14th (1868): no state shall deny a citizen of equal protection under the law ➢ -15th (1870): race shall not abridge the right to vote ➢ -State action: equal protection clause applies to government, not private citizens ➢ -Jim Crow: laws that segregated public schools and accommodations ➢ -Plessy v. Ferguson (1896): separate is acceptable, as long as substantially equal ❖ Brown v. Board of Ed.​ (1954)➢ -Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal ➢ -Move to desegregate, but no timetable ➢ -Desegregate with all deliberate speed. ➢ -de jure segregation: due to law ➢ -de facto segregation: due to conditions or patterns of behavior ❖ Legislation ➢ -Civil Rights Act of 1964: prohibits discrimination in public accommodations and private employment ➢ -Voting Rights Act of 1965: states were required to clear changes in voting laws with DOJ ➢ -24th (1964): abolish poll tax ❖ Representation ➢ -Descriptive ➢ -Substantive ➢ -Congressional redistricting: based substantially on population ➢ -Gerrymander ➢ -Majority-minority districts ❖ Congress Outline ❖ Congress: Differences in Houses ➢ -formal powers ➢ -qualifications ➢ -constituency size ➢ -average House district: 709760 ❖ Who is Congress? ➢ -95 percent have university degrees ➢ -167 Reps and 57 Senators have law degrees ➢ -Career politicians: progressive ambition ➢ -Age: House = 57; Senate = 63 ➢ -Race: nearly 14 percent of US is black, 8 percent of Congress ➢ -Gender: 50 percent of US, 17 percent of Congress ❖ Three Jobs of Congress ➢ -Representation ➢ -Lawmaking ➢ -Oversight ❖ ❖ Representation ➢ -Constitution is relatively silent ➢ -Member of a national institution v. representative of regional interests ➢ -Mayhew: legislators are "single-minded seekers of reelection”➢ -Delegate model v. Trustee model ❖ Constituency ➢ -The geographic area of representation ➢ -Constituency service/casework/credit claiming ❖ Includes: ➢ -Residents (voters and nonvoters) ➢ -Business/industry/agriculture ➢ -Interest groups ❖ Incumbency Advantage ➢ -Incumbent: the person currently holding the office ➢ -House incumbents win greater than 90 percent of the time ➢ -Senate incumbents win nearly 90 percent of the time ❖ Lawmaking ➢ -Article I: "All legislative powers ... shall be vested in a Congress...” ➢ -Process (check your excellent book diagram) ➢ -Committees: division of labor ➢ -Greater than 90 percent of bills die in committee ➢ -Of bills reported from committee, greater than 90 percent pass the floor vote ❖ ❖ Committees ➢ -Constitution is silent on committees ➢ -Standing : House has 23, Senate has 20 ➢ -Select ➢ -Joint ➢ -Most committees also have subcommittees ➢ -Seniority is an important norm ❖ Party and Leadership ➢ -2 Constitutional leadership positions: Speaker of the House and President of the Senate ➢ -All other positions are party based positions ➢ -Majority Leader: Constitution and institution rules are largely silent on duties ➢ -Majority Whip: party discipline; leadership liaison ❖ Staff ➢ -House members have a cap of 18 personal staff, Senate staff budget based on population ➢ -Three staff agencies help Congress conduct oversight ➢ -Congressional Research Service (CRS) ➢ -Government Accountability Office (GAO) ➢ -Congressional Budget Office (CBO)❖ Deliberation ➢ -House Rules Committee determines limits on debate ➢ -Open rule ➢ -Closed rule ➢ -Senate more characterized by deliberation and debate ➢ -Filibuster ➢ -Cloture ❖ Institutional Behavior ➢ 1. Conditional Party Government: power of leaders depends on: ■ -Degree of homogeneity in majority party ■ -Extent of inter party conflict ➢ 2. Median Voter Theory ■ -Policy outcomes rarely diverge from what is acceptable to the median voter ❖ Executive ❖ Article II, Section 1 ➢ -Executive power ➢ -Vested in a president and vice president ➢ -For a term of four years ➢ -35 years old ➢ -Natural born citizen ❖ Article II, Section 2 ➢ -The duties/powers of the president ➢ -Commander in chief ➢ -Pardons and reprieves ➢ -Treaties and appointments (with advice and consent of the Senate) ❖ Article II, Section 3 ➢ -State of the Union ➢ -Convene the houses of Congress ➢ -Receive ambassadors ➢ -"Take care that the laws be faithfully executed” ❖ Head of Government ➢ -Chief administrator of the national government ➢ -Execute laws ➢ -Homeland security ➢ -Limited legislative powers (sign/veto/pocket veto, state of the union, the budget) ❖ Head of State ➢ -Elements of ceremonial roles and tangible power ➢ -Head diplomat (receive ambassadors)➢ -Limited judicial power (pardons) ➢ -Foreign policy (Commander in Chief; make treaties; receive ambassadors) ❖ Institutional Presidency ➢ -President ➢ -Vice President ➢ -Cabinet ➢ -Executive Office of the President ➢ -White House Staff ❖ Bureaucracy ❖ Ideal type form of bureaucracy = ➢ -Hierarchy ➢ -Division of labor ➢ -Specialization ➢ -Formalized rules ❖ Goals = ➢ -Efficiency ➢ -Standardization ❖ Spoils v. Merit ➢ -Spoils system: public employees receive jobs due to political connections and favors ➢ -Merit system: public employees receive jobs based on experience, education and merit ➢ -Civil Service System: established by the Pendleton Act 1883 ❖ ❖ Electing the President ➢ -538 Electoral votes correspond to: ➢ -435 House seats + 100 Senate seats + 3 DC ➢ -Note: Members of Congress cannot be electors ➢ -A candidate must receive 270 votes to win ➢ -If not, House picks president, Senate picks VP ➢ -Anomalies: 1876, 1888, 2000 (Electoral and popular votes were different); 1800 and 1824 (House selects president) ❖ A State's Electoral Votes = ➢ -Number of House Seats + Number of Senate Seats ➢ -Missouri: 8 + 2 = 10 ➢ -California: 53 + 2 = 55 ➢ -Wyoming: 1 + 2 = 3 ❖ ❖ President at War❖ President is Commander in Chief, but... ❖ Article I, Section 8 says Congress: ➢ -Declares war ➢ -Raises and supports an army ➢ -Provides for and maintains a navy ❖ War Powers Resolution (1973) ➢ -Joint Resolution of Congress (based on the necessary and proper clause) ➢ -Vetoed by Nixon ➢ -Overridden by both houses of Congress ➢ -President must notify Congress within 48 hours of committing armed forces ➢ -Forces cannot be committed for longer than 60 days (plus a 30 day withdrawal period) ❖ Who Becomes President? ➢ -Gender ➢ -Race ➢ -Age ➢ -Career ➢ -14 Presidents were vice president (9 assumed the presidency upon death or resignation) ➢ -17 Presidents were state governors ❖ Judiciary Outline ❖ Article III, Section 1 ➢ -Judicial power vested in one Supreme Court... ➢ -...and in such inferior courts as Congress may from time to time ordain and establish ➢ -Judges hold offices during good behavior ❖ Article III, Section 2 ➢ -The judicial power extends to all case arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties: ➢ -Ambassadors and other public ministers ➢ -Cases in which the US is a party ➢ -Cases between 2 or more states ➢ -Cases between a state and citizens of another state ➢ -Supreme Court Original Jurisdiction: cases affecting ambassadors and those in which a state shall be a party ➢ -Appellate Jurisdiction: all other cases before mentioned ❖ Qualifications ➢ -Constitution: Silent ➢ -Age: no minimum➢ -Citizenship: no requirement ➢ -Training/Experience: no requirement ➢ -Federal judges appointed by president ➢ -Senate provides "advice and consent” = confirmation ❖ Structure of the Federal Judiciary ➢ -1 Supreme Court ➢ -12 Regional Appellate Courts (hear appeals from district courts + federal administrative agencies) + 1 national Appellate Court (specialized cases, such as patent law) ➢ -94 District Courts (at least one in each state; large states have up to 4) ❖ The Supreme Court ➢ -9 Justices (number set by Congress) ➢ -Chief Justice: vague reference in Article I, Section 3. ➢ -Supreme Court hears around 1 percent of appeals ➢ -Writ of certiorari: rule of 4 ❖ State Courts ➢ -State/Local courts hear 99% of cases in the US ➢ -Supreme Court ➢ -Appeals Court ➢ -Trial Courts ➢ -In Missouri, Trial Courts are called Circuit Courts and are organized in 45 circuits ➢ -Every Missouri county has a court and the courts are subdivided into categories such as municipal, probate, small claims, criminal ❖ Types of Law ➢ -Criminal Law: violation of statute ➢ -Examples: murder, armed robbery ➢ -At stake: life, liberty, property ➢ -Plaintiff: always government/The State/Defendant: the accused ➢ -Burden of proof: beyond a reasonable doubt ➢ -Civil Law: violation of legal rights or obligations ➢ -Examples: wrongful death, divorce ➢ -At stake: property ➢ -Plaintiff: individual or organization bringing claim/Defendant: individual violating legal relationship ➢ -Burden of proof: preponderance of evidence ➢ -Public Law: cases involving the relationship between an individual or group and the state ➢ -Constitutional Law➢ -Administrative Law ❖ Judicial Review ➢ -Federalist #78: no influence over either the sword or the purse, ...It may truly be said to have neither FORCE nor WILL, but merely judgment. ➢ -Hamilton: Judiciary is the "least dangerous branch” ❖ ❖ Marbury v. Madison (1803) ➢ -Judiciary Act of 1789: Congress ordains and establishes inferior courts (Article III) ➢ -Also altered original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court by giving them the power to issue writ of mandamus ➢ -Marbury was given a commission for a job by the Adams administration ➢ -The Jefferson administration took office in 1801 ➢ -As Secretary of State, Madison refused to execute Marbury's commission ➢ -Marbury petitioned for a writ of mandamus in the US Supreme Court ➢ -Court argued that Madison should grant Marbury his job, BUT … ➢ -The portion of the Judiciary Act granting the Court the ability to issue writs of mandamus was declared unconstitutional since it violated the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court ❖ Solicitor General ➢ -Appointed by the president and works under the Department of Justice ➢ -However, the solicitor general has an office at the Supreme Court building ➢ -Represents the national government in cases in which the US is a party ➢ -Recommends cases to the Supreme Court (not binding, but usually accepted) ❖ Public Opinion ❖ Collective Political beliefs and attitudes of the public ➢ Explains the behavior of citizens and public officials ➢ Helps explain policy outcomes ❖ Early studies found that opinions were inconsistent, non-ideological, and uninformed ➢ 3 criticisms ■ It isnt surprising that many people dont think much about politics ■ Opinions have been more consistent since the original studies in the 50s ■ Most importantly, the original studies were looking for the wrong thing (consistent, stables opinions and a rationale/explanation) ■ Types of opinions ❖ Broad expressions of preferences across a wide range of topics; formed early in life, these are fairly stable and include: ➢ Party identification ➢ General ideology (e.g liberal v. conservative)➢ Beliefs about religion ❖ Latent, on-the-spot opinions are formed by considerations, the relevant information that comes to mind when an opinion is requested. ❖ Nature of opinion ➢ Salience ■ Importance (How important is it to you?) ➢ Stability ■ Doesn’t change whether pres or congress is republican or democratic ➢ Direction ■ Which way do you feel? Positive or negative ➢ Intensity ■ Strength of feelings ■ Political socialization ❖ The process by which we acquire our beliefs about politics ➢ 3 factors ■ Primacy ● How old were you? ■ Persistence ● How often are you exposed to this? ■ Ideology ❖ Agents of socialization ➢ Family, education, religions, peers, media ➢ Events, group identity, political realignment ➢ Measuring public opinions ❖ Population ❖ Random sample ➢ Every member of the population has to have the same chance of being picked for the sample ❖ Sample size ❖ Nonresponse bias ➢ When a group of people don’t respond to the survey ❖ Survey design issues ➢ Question wording ➢ Question order ➢ Survey problems ❖ The accuracy of public opinion ➢ Some people may not take surveys as seriously as we assume ➢ The more relevant the survey question is to one’s everyday life, the more seriously the respondent tends to treat the question❖ Gaps in factual information ➢ Which party controls the house? Senate? ■ Both republican ➢ Who is the chief justice of the supreme court? ■ John Roberts ➢ How much is spent on foreign aid? ■ Too much ■ Content of public opinion ❖ Economic conditions ❖ Americans are almost always worried about the economy ❖ But what do people mean when they talk about “the economy” ➢ Gas prices ➢ Unemployment ➢ Grocery prices ➢ Stock market ➢ Home prices (the home is the most valuable asset most people possess) ➢ Public opinion and democracy ❖ Miracle of aggregation ➢ Group consists of ignorant individuals whose collective opinion makes sense ❖ Partisanship simplifies public opinion ❖ Some people may not take surveys as seriously as we assume ➢ The most relevant the survey question is to one’s everyday life, the more seriously the respondent tends to treat the question. ➢ Political knowledge ❖ Americans possess less knowledge than they should, but more than alleged ❖ Converse (1964): some have stable and coherent attitudes, most people change attitude frequently ❖ Ideology is more complex than left/right ❖ Scope of Power ❖ Neustadt ➢ Presidential power is the power to persuade ❖ Only about 20% of presidents served two complete terms ❖ From 1945 to the end of the 20th century, only Eisenhower, Reagan, and Clinton served 2 fulls terms ❖ Presidential Expansion ❖ Traditional presidency ➢ Limited policymaking ❖ Modern Presidency ➢ Presidents dominate policymaking➢ Four features ■ Develop a legislative program ■ Engage in direct policymaking without congressional approval ■ An extensive bureaucracy enables presidents to achieve the first two features ■ Presidents are symbolic and seen as responsible ■ Presidential Culture ❖ Washington ➢ Symbol of the new nation, its hero who embodies in his person its values and aspirations ❖ Presidency meets emotional and psychological needs ❖ Lowi: “the expectations of the masses have grown faster than the capacity of presidential government to meet them” ❖ Presidents resort to illusions and quick fixes ❖ Interbranch Relations ❖ Jones: separate institutions compete for shared power ❖ Competition by design ➢ Federalist 51 ➢ Presidents can act more immediately and decisively ■ Deficits, economy, terrorism ❖ Divided government ➢ The norm? ■ Having different parties control congress and presidency ■ Responding to presidents through congress ■ Sometimes get unified government ➢ Gridlock? ■ - Nothing gets done ■ Is it bad? ■ Can happen at anytime - Congress is not one thing ■ Designers made process slow through gridlock ➢ Mayhew ■ No difference ■ If you look at terms where there’s divided govt and unified govt, there's no difference​ in policymaking ➢ Fiorina ■ Consequences are not necessarily bad ➢ Polarization is the problem ■ No compromise; parties are distant ➢ Representation vs. lawmaking vs. oversight➢ Explaining success ❖ Popular Support ➢ Popular presidents are given leeway ➢ Provides leverage but not control ❖ Presidential style and legislative skills ➢ Accessibility to members ■ Popular too members of congress ■ Open channel of communication ➢ Interaction with and sensitivity to members ■ Does the president care about their needs? ➢ Extent of involvement in legislative process ■ Are they involved? ➢ Johnson and Ford - accessible ➢ Nixon - distant ➢ Clinton - too accessible ■ Too manipulatable ■ Character and Performance ❖ Subjective judgments ➢ Appearance and demeanor of leadership ❖ Objective judgments ➢ Skill, short-term success, or lasting results ➢ Economy effects, judge what they’ve done against their agenda ➢ Did they do what they said they’re going to do? ❖ Pfiffner - Justified lie ➢ National security, trivial matters, prevent embarrassment ❖ Shaped by 6 qualities (Burns) ➢ Proficiency as public communicator ➢ Organizational capacity to rally colleagues and ➢ Structure activities ➢ Political skills liked to a vision of public policy ■ Know how policies are made ➢ Cognitive style in processing advice ■ Will they listen to advice? ➢ Emotional intelligence ■ Can they take a joke or criticism ■ Do they have thick skin ■ Bureaucracy ❖ DEFINITION ❖ Ideal type form of bureaucracy➢ Hierarchy ■ Organization that has levels ➢ Division of labor ■ Divide the work ➢ Specialization ■ Give someone a specific (specialized) job ➢ Formalized rules ■ Written rules ■ Like an employee manual ❖ Goals ➢ Efficiency ■ Greatest output for minimal effort ➢ Standardization ■ Every product should be the same ■ Everyone’s experience should be similar ● People being treated the same ● Federal Bureaucracy ❖ Comprised of ➢ Millions of permanent employees (civil servants) ➢ Thousands of temporary political appointees ■ President appoints about 7,000 ■ Political control over bureaucracy ❖ Political tension between permanent civil servants and political appointees ➢ Is the president capable? Competent? ➢ Expected job life for an appointee is 2 years ❖ Bureaucratic personnel ➢ “Govt of strangers” ➢ Selection of political executives ■ Loyalty ■ Party membership ■ Technical competence ● Should probs be #1 ■ Wishes of other actors ● Maybe a senator wants this person ● Pres does not personally know all 7,000 appointees ■ Congressional demands ■ Interest groups ➢ Success depends on an active president who provides sustained support ➢ Spoils vs. Merit❖ Spoils system: public employees receive jobs due to political connections and favors ❖ Merit system: public employees receive jobs based on experience, education and merit ❖ Civil service system: established by the Pendleton Act 1883 ➢ President died because someone who was promised a job, didn’t get it ➢ Bureaucracy ❖ What do bureaucrats do? ➢ Implement policies established by congress and the president ➢ Develop programs and policies to achieve the goals of the laws ■ Specific laws produce little bureaucratic discretion ■ Vague laws produce much discretion ➢ Enforce regulations ■ Rules that give govt control over individual and corporate behavior ❖ Bureaucratic expertise ➢ Bureaucrats arrive with (or develop) more expertise than congress or the president ➢ Expertise is related to competence ❖ Red tape ➢ Excessive rules ➢ “No one cuts through red tape” ➢ Challenges ❖ Principal-agent problem ➢ Idea that Boss (Principal) can’t do it alone. So hire agents to help, make them have same goal ➢ Monitoring costs ■ Pay attention to make sure people are doing what they’re supposed to ➢ Slack ■ People aren’t doing what they’re supposed to ➢ Drift (goal displacement) ❖ Street level bureaucracy (lack of direct supervision + directly serves clientele = increased discretion) ➢ No direct supervision ➢ On their own interacting with clientele ➢ Ted talk ❖ Social Media is a business ➢ It’s time and money ➢ Media has more to do about views - Media wants your attention ■ Drama, Conflict, controversy ■ Makes you wanna watch ❖ Fear is the driver ➢ In a societal sense■ Not fitting in ■ Not having something that could change your life ❖ Echo Chamber concept ➢ You live in your echo chamber - a comfort zone ➢ We are reintroduced to our comfort zone due to cookies and internet cache - we then become closed minded towards other people's’ ideas ➢ Being bullied through political correctness - dived through unfriending people who have opposing views. ❖ Carbon monoxide detector for media ❖ Media ❖ Mass media -> sources that provide information to average citizens on a day-to-day basis. ❖ Privately owned ❖ Stress objective coverage ❖ Watchddog role ❖ Largely unfettered by regulation ➢ Federal Communications Commission (1934) ❖ News cycle -> The time between the release of information and its publication ➢ Politician said it and now it's on youtube 30 seconds later ➢ Used to be day(s) after something was said until news paper was released. ➢ Evolution of press ❖ Penny press ➢ Made newspapers available to more of the population ❖ Wire service ➢ An organization that gathers news and sells it to other media outlets. ❖ Yellow journalism ➢ A style of newspaper featuring sensationalized stories, bold headlines, and illustrations. ➢ Types of media ❖ Mainstream media ➢ Media sources that predate the internet ■ Such as: ● Newspapers ● Magazines ● broadcast news ❖ Newspapers: dramatic decline in readership ❖ Broadcast TV: slight decline in viewership ➢ National: decline ➢ Local: high usage and stable ❖ Cable TV: increasing outlets, increasing usage❖ Web: steadily increasing usage ❖ How media works ❖ Leak ➢ The release of classified or politically embarrassing information by a government employee to a member of the press ❖ Shield laws ➢ Legislation, which exists in some states but not at the federal level, that gives reporters the right to refuse to name the sources of the information ❖ On background/off the record ➢ When politicians speak to single reporters and stipulate that they can be quoted, but not by name ➢ Bias ❖ Anecdotal evidence is mixed ❖ Self-reports indicate that most reporters are liberal ❖ Gatekeeping bias: more favorable coverage to one party or candidate ❖ Statement biasL making positive statements ❖ Effects on public opinion ❖ Agenda setting ➢ Are we going to talk about this or no? When are we gonna talk about this? ❖ Priming ➢ Making you think something is important ❖ Framing ➢ ❖ Selective exposure ➢ You’re selectively exposing yourself to the media outlet that supports your POV ❖ Selective perception ➢ Bring your bias and perspective to a story ❖ Selective retention ➢ Remember what you want to remember ❖ Political attentiveness ➢ How much attention you pay to media and shit ❖ Political predisposition ❖ The electorate (who can vote) ❖ 15th Amendment (1870) : Race ❖ 19th Amendment (1920) : Gender ❖ 26th Amendment (1971) : Age ❖ 24th Amendment (1964) : Outlaw poll tax ❖ Voting Rights Act of 1965: Outlaws literacy tests ❖ Paradox of Participation❖ Costs ➢ Time ➢ Registration ■ May stop people from voting ❖ Individual impact is minimal ➢ People believe their vote doesn’t matter ❖ Why do people participate? ➢ Elections an investment behavior ➢ Elections as consumption behavior ➢ Elections/Voting behavior ❖ Party Ratio ➢ The proportion of seats in the house and senate controlled by each major party ❖ Seat shift ➢ The change in the party ratio between the last election and the current one ➢ Turnout ❖ Turnout -> # of votes / # of voting age population ❖ Presidential election = 50% ❖ Congressional midterm = 35% ❖ Local election (school board) = 10% ❖ Turnout is low but… ❖ Participation is multifaceted ❖ Discuss politics (70%) ❖ Volunteer (39%) ❖ Join community organization (31%) ❖ Contact officials (19%) ❖ Campaign contributions (15%) ❖ Attend campaign meeting (8%) ❖ Factors that influence participation (who does vote) ❖ Education ➢ Higher education more likely - more educated about politics ❖ Income ➢ Higher income more likely to vote ■ Taxes have to do with this ❖ Age ➢ Older people are more likely to vote ➢ ❖ Partisanship (Republicans slightly more) ❖ Ideology (Conservatives slightly more) ❖ Region (non-south slightly more)❖ Would participation increase if... ❖ We adopted automatic registration ❖ We held elections on the weekends ❖ We had an election holiday ❖ We had more political parties ❖ States offered election day registration ➢ This works ❖ States offered early voting ➢ Doesn’t draw new people in ➢ Political efficacy ❖ Internal : The extent to which an individual understands politics ➢ High/ Consistently high ➢ People say they understand ❖ External : The extent to which an individual believes their participation makes an impact ➢ Low / Declining ➢ Electoral system ❖ The winner of the presidential election must get a MAJORITY of the electoral vote, but… ❖ ...most elections in the US are based on: ➢ Single-member districts ■ One seat district ➢ Plurality elections ■ The most votes - could be a majority, but doesn’t have to be ➢ SIngle member plurality districts ■ tend to produce 2 competitive political parties ■ Nominating Events ❖ Caucus ➢ Closed meeting at a fixed time and location with party members to elect who they want for their candidate ❖ Primary ➢ Open ■ Can declare party affiliation at the election ● Swingers ➢ Closed ■ Have to declare party affiliation BEFORE election ■ Gives parties a little more power ❖ Trend has been to move away from caucuses toward primaries ➢ It has weakened parties ❖ Trend has been toward earlier primaries❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ Individual voter choice ❖ Party ➢ Highly stable over time ➢ Fiorina, “Running tally” ❖ Issues: ➢ Retrospective ■ What the candidate has done in the past ● DId they do what they said? ➢ Perspective ■ What they will do in the future ● Weigh options ❖ Candidate characteristics ➢ Religion, Educational background, etc ➢ Predicting the presidency ❖ Partisan orientation of the electorate ➢ Is the electorate more democratic or republican ❖ Job approval rating of incumbent president ➢ Is he doing well? If so, they will continue to do well ❖ Performance of the economy ➢ Can ruin the likelihood of getting reelected ❖ Incumbency ➢ Incumbent more likely to win unless open seat (can’t run again) ❖ Successful campaign should… ❖ Achieve high turnout among party base ❖ Win large vote share from party base ❖ Encourage defections from the other party ❖ Reduce turnout among the other party ❖ Court independent voters ❖ Presidential elections ❖ Nominating process ➢ Primary elections ■ Front-loading■ Super Tuesday ■ Regional nature ➢ National convention ■ Formally selects candidate ■ Introduces the vice-presidential candidate ■ Adopt the platform ■ Campaign Finance ❖ FEC ➢ Federal election commission is in charge of administering election laws ❖ Bipartisan campaign finance reform act (BCRA) ➢ ALA “McCain-Feingold” legislation; it outlawed soft money and created a “Stand by your Ad” disclaimer requirement ❖ Citizens United vs. FEC changed campaign finance rules by removing all restrictions on independent efforts funded by corporations and unions ❖ Hard money: money contributed expressly for campaign purposes; reported to FEC ❖ Soft money: used for non-campaign related political purposes, including voter registration drives and issue ads ❖ FEC sets campaign finance limits ❖ In 2008, Obama spent $650 million; McCain spent $350 million ❖ In 2012, Obama spent $986 million; Romney spent $992 million ❖ Average house campaign spend $1.1 million; Average senate campaign spends $6.5 million ❖ Spending depends on many factors, including incumbency and competitiveness ❖ Party Identification 2008 (National Election Studies) ❖ Strong D = 19% ❖ Weak D = 15% ❖ Independent leans D = 17% ❖ Independent = 11% ❖ Independent leans R = 12% ❖ Weak R = 13% ❖ Strong R = 13% ❖ Competitiveness ❖ Safe seat ---> A seat that is safe for a candidate or party ❖ Open seat ---> No incumbent; an open seat can still be “safe” for a party or candidate ❖ Battleground states ---> States in which neither party has decided advantage ❖ Political Parties ❖ Like interest groups, seek to influence government ❖ Parties influence government by winning elections ❖ Once elected, parties influence government by enacting legislative agenda❖ Realignment ➢ A change in the size or composition of the party coalitions or in the nature of the issues that divide the parties ❖ Crosscutting ➢ A term describing issues that raise disagreements within a party coalition or between parties about what government should do. ➢ Party Organization ❖ Early parties were informally organized ❖ By 1870, parties were highly organized into political machines ❖ Progressive reforms: increased use of primary elections (instead of caucuses); Australian ballot (as opposed to straight-ticket voting) ❖ Party in three forms ❖ Party in the electorate ➢ You and me ❖ Party in office ➢ Elected officials ❖ Party organization ➢ DNC and RNC chairs ❖ Party organization is the purest representation of the party’s ideals ❖ Functions of parties ❖ Recruit candidates ❖ Nominate candidates ❖ Fund campaigns ❖ Educate voters ❖ Provide voter cues ❖ Make policy ❖ A party platform ➢ The list of pledges and promises about what candidates from a party stand for and will fight for if elected ➢ Candidates are not required to support the party platform and many ignore key provisions of it (e.g pro-gun Democrats or pro-choice Republicans). ➢ Two-party system ❖ Some countries have a proportional representation (PR) system and multi-member districts ❖ PR systems encourage multiple parties ❖ The US uses a plurality system with single member districts ❖ Single-member plurality systems encourage two dominant parties ❖ Parties in the US ❖ Federalist (1789-1816)❖ Democratic-Republican (1790-1824) ❖ Democrat (1828-present) ❖ Whig (1824-1854) ❖ Republican (1854-present) ❖ Realignment: shift in dominant coalition ❖ Dealignment: distancing from parties ❖ Third parties ❖ Unlikely to win in the United States ❖ Attempt to promote an issue ❖ Attempt to promote a candidate ❖ Attempt to affect election outcome ❖ Ross Perot (1992): 19% of the popular vote, no electoral votes ❖ The electorate ❖ Party identification (PID) ➢ A citizen’s loyalty to a specific party ➢ Stable ❖ Party coalitions ➢ Groups of citizens who identify with a party; often thought of in demographic terms ➢ Federalist #10 ❖ Faction: group with a shared interest ❖ Could tyrannize other members of society ❖ Solution: remove the causes or control the effects ❖ Remove the causes: “Liberty is to faction as air is to fire” ❖ Control the effects: Large republic with lots of groups (pluralism) ❖ Interest groups ❖ Political parties and interest groups both seek to influence government ❖ Parties do so by winning elections ❖ Groups attempt to influence government institutions and decision processes ❖ Parties are free to join; group members pay dues ➢ Can’t be a member until you join (paying dues) ❖ Parties are more broadly focused; groups have a more narrow focus ➢ Have an array of ideas on one specific thing (ex: NRA (National Rifle Association) and gun control) ➢ Pluralism ❖ Pluralism vs. plurality ➢ Plurality is Most not Majority ■ Winning by plurality means winning by most votes instead of a majority of votes❖ Are all sectors of society represented? ➢ no ❖ Are all issues/policies considered? ➢ no ❖ Disturbance theory: groups form as a response to social, political, economic change ❖ Groups must: ➢ Attract members ➢ Maintain membership ➢ Collective action ❖ Prisoner’s dilemma ➢ Communicating ❖ Large vs. small groups ➢ Individual impact ■ In a large group - hard to feel like your opinion matters ➢ Coercion ➢ The free rider problem ❖ A collective action problem ➢ Group formation is not automatic ❖ Individuals would all benefit from some action, but the individual cost is too great ❖ Therefore, group action is beneficial ❖ A free rider is someone who receives the benefits of group activity without contributing ❖ Solutions: selective incentives ❖ Material: a tangible good or service; can include magazines, discounts, t-shirts ➢ If trying to attract new members ❖ Solidary (social): the benefit of belonging to a group of like-minded individuals ❖ Purposive: the benefit of contributing to the group’s purpose by joining ➢ You just believe in the cause; joining is enough of an incentive ➢ To keep members ➢ Olson ❖ By product theory ➢ Selective incentives are invulnerable to freeriding, but the public good is vulnerable ➢ A groups public goods can be provided as byproducts of the sale of the selective incentives ➢ Collective action problem more likely to affect large groups ➢ High and low demanders for goods ➢ Effect of social pressure and coercion ❖ If individuals value the selective incentive enough, shared values may not be necessary➢ If you just want the thing they’re selling enough, join to get that; don’t have to share values/ideology ➢ Evidence ❖ Group formation relies on more than shared values ❖ Groups finances depended little on the sale of selective incentives ❖ Revenue sources ➢ Member dues ➢ Outside sources (Gifts, foundations, government subsidies) ➢ Attraction vs. Retention ➢ Free riders? ❖ Focus on joiners or freeriders? ➢ Few groups mobilize more than 5-10 percent of their natural clientele ❖ Are all groups equally well mobilized? ➢ No they are not; some are more effective at getting new members than others ➢ Group types ❖ Economic group ➢ A type of interest groups that seeks public policies that will provide monetary benefits to its members (Corporations, unions, trade associations, professions) ➢ Makes up most interest groups ❖ Citizen group ➢ A type of interest group that seeks changes in spending, regulations, or government programs concerning a wide range of policies (also known as a public interest group) ❖ Single-issue group ➢ A type of interest group that has a narrowly focused goal and seeks change on a single topic, government program, or piece of legislation ➢ The electorate ❖ Party ID ❖ A citizen’s loyalty to a specific party ❖ Stable ❖ Party coalitions ❖ Groups of citizens who identify with a party; often thought of in demographic terms ❖ Federalist #10 ➢ Faction: group with a shared interest ➢ Could tyrannize other members of society ➢ Solution: remove the causes or control the effects ➢ Remove the causes: “liberty is to faction as air is to fire” ➢ Control the effects: large republic with lots of groups (pluralism)■ Interest groups ● Political parties and interest groups both seek to influence government ● Parties do so by winning elections ● Groups attempt to influence government institutions and decision processes ● Parties are free to join; group members pay dues (interest groups) ● Parties are more broadly focused; groups have a more narrow focus ■ Pluralism ● Pluralism v. plurality-the government is based on group interaction ● Are all sectors of society represented? ● Are all issues/policies considered? ● Disturbance theory: groups form as a response to social, political, economic change ● Groups must ◆ Attract members ◆ Maintain members ■ Collective action ● Prisoner’s dilemma ◆ Main problem: can’t coordinate since they aren’t together ● Large v. small groups ◆ Individual impact (feel it more in a small group rather than a large group) ◆ Coercion (works more in a smaller group) ■ Free Rider Problem (all about how people react to incentive) ● A collective action problem ➢ Group formation is not automatic ◆ Individuals would all benefit from some action, but the individual cost is too great ◆ Therefore, group action is beneficial ◆ A free rider is someone who receives the benefits of group activity without contributing ■ Solutions to free rider problem: Selective incentives ● Material: a tangible good or service; can include magazines, discounts, t-shirts ● Solidary (social): the benefit of belonging to a groups of like-minded individuals● Purposive: the benefit of contributing to the group’s purpose by joining (believing in the cause=that’s the incentive) ■ Olson ● Byproduct theory ◆ Selective incentives are invulnerable to freeriding, but the public good is vulnerable ◆ A groups public goods can be provided as byproducts of the sale of the selective incentives ◆ Collective action problem more likely to affect large groups ◆ High and low demanders for goods ◆ Effect of social pressure and coercion ● If individuals value the selective incentive enough, shared values may not be necessary ■ Evidence ● Group formation relies on more than shared values ● Groups finances depended little on the sale of selective incentives ● Revenue sources ◆ Member dues ◆ Outside sources (gifts, foundations, government) ● Attraction v. retention ■ Free Riders? ● Focus on joiners or freeriders? ◆ Few groups mobilize more than 5-10% of their natural clientele ● Are all groups equally well mobilized? ◆ No ■ Group types ● Economic groups ◆ A type of interest group that seeks public policies that will provide monetary benefits to it members (corporations, unions, trade associations, professions)-most groups are economic groups ● Citizen group ◆ A type of interest group that seeks changes in spending, regulations, or government programs concerning a wide range of policies (also known as the public interest group)-NRA/MADD ● Single-issue group◆ A type of interest group that has a narrowly focused goal and seeks change on a single topic, government program, or piece of legislation-MADD ■ ● *Look in book for types of groups for the type of organizations tax codes and what they can do ➢ 4/21/17 ➢ Groups activities: ■ Inside strategies ● Direct lobbying ● Drafting legislation ● Research ● Hearings ● Litigations ➢ Look at iron triangle ■ Outside strategies ● Grassroots (outside) lobbying: lobby citizens to contact government ◆ Grassroots lobbying expands the scope of conflict ◆ *Interest groups can’t vote, but you can ● Mobilizing Public Opinion ● Electioneering ◆ Political Action Campaign contributions; remember that incumbents are most likely to benefit ➢ ➢ Truman ■ Disturbance theory ● Changes in the group universe attributed to social, economic, technological, or political disturbances ● As society’s social and economic interactions became more complicated, group affiliations got more complicated ● Individuals are fully human when they form groups ● Only social misfits live alone ➢ Models of influence on policy ■ Pluralism and elitism ● Truman: disturbance theory ● Mobilization encourages counter mobilization ● Policymakers respond to the number of people affected and the perceived level of harm● Hunter and Mills: elites are in control ● Elite theory fails to explain the policy process ◆ How do unions secure high wages ◆ How does consumer protection policy occur ➢ Models of influence ■ Dahl ● Elite theory assumes there is a ruling elite by asking people to identify it ● Different interests are active in different policy arenas ● Policymaking is a process that occurs over time, not a one-shot game ➢ Models ■ Policy issue ● A social, political, or economic problem that the government considers acting upon ■ Neopluralist model ● Most policy issues involve competition among organized interests ● Each side has sufficient resources to lobby successfully ● Equilibrium ➢ Neopluralism ■ 4 basic aspects borrowed from pluralism ● Policymaking is a process that occurs over time ● The influence of organized interests is generally limited to a specific policy are ● Major policy changes involve multiple groups ● Ideologies, parties, and elections limit groups and are typically more important in determining policy ● And… ■ 2 basic ideas borrowed from exchange ● Accept the collection action problem (free rider problem) ● Sometimes the system favors groups with more resources ■ Salisbury ● Groups with individuals as members do little lobbying ● Lobbying activity dominated by corporations, unions, governments, health industry ■ Distinction between high politics and routine politics ● High politics: nonincremental policy changes and modifications in the issue network ● Interest groups can hide in routine politics➢ Exchange model ■ Public officials have multiple goals ● Advance career ● Gain political power ● Good public policy ● Represent constituents ■ Reelection is the predominant objective ■ Unelected policymakers ● Also desire career advancement, political power, good public policy ● Jobs-revolving door ● Bureaucrats are not neutral ➢ Models ■ Exchange model ● Assume that participants in the political process engage in exchanges to improve their economic, social, or political welfare ● Participants make exchanges to make the both better off ● Electoral support, campaign contributions in exchange for policy support ● Policymakers charge different rates to different groups ● When we talk about interest groups, are they buying access or influence? ➢ Stages ■ Agenda Setting ● How problems are perceived, defined, command attention, and reach the agenda of policymakers ● Crises/focusing events ● Competition ■ Policy formulation ● The drafting of alternative policy options to resolve the problem that has reached the agenda ■ Policy Legitimation ● Includes the mobilization of support for the various policy alternatives and public officials following the legitimate procedures for reaching a decision ■ Policy Implementation ● Government allocates resources to the bureaucracy to implement the law ■ Evaluation and Feedback● Efforts to determine whether the policy had the expected outcomes ➢ Stages ■ Kingdom-policy gets made when streams connect ● Streams ◆ Political ➢ Political climate ◆ Problem ◆ Policy (solution) ● Policy window ■ Problem definition ■ Stages suggests an undidirectional process ■ In fact, the process can stop, reverse, or skip steps ■ Focusing on stages encourages us to focus on both sides of agenda setting ■ This model also emphasizes the role of entrepreneurs ➢ Tullock ■ Tariffs, tax breaks, and subsidies decrease the nation’s economic efficiency ■ Prices artificially propped up and valuable resources and talents are poorly utilized ■ Although lobbying creates waste and inefficiency for society, is it profitable for interest organizations? ■ Lobbying as a raffle in which firms buy tickets ■ Tickets= lobbying expenditures ■ Prize= private good of a government contract ■ A firm buys a number of tickets expected to maximize profits ■ Probability of a win=number of tickets bought divided by the total number of tickets purchased ■ Buying a larger share of tickets increases the probability ■ Once any firm buys a ticket, all interested firms buy tickets ➢ ❖ 1803 Madison vs. Marbury ➢ John Marshall - Constitution allows the judiciary branch to make interpretations ➢ Started because commissions were never delivered ❖ Section 13 ➢ Authorizes supreme justices to issue order to direct Madison to produce the commissions ➢ “In cases ➢ Big controversy over how the judiciary branch should interpret the constitution ➢❖ President Jefferson viewed the order as an attack against him and the executive branch ❖ Can the supreme court direct Madison to produce the commissions? ➢ “Section 13 of the judiciary act is unconstitutional.” ❖ Who is to say what the constitution means? ➢ The supreme court ❖ Established the right of the interpretation of the constitution is up to the supreme court. ❖ Confirms that judiciary branch can decide when other branches exceed their duties ❖ John Marshall - The great chief justice

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