❖ What is Politics? ❖ •Bianco and Canon say "American politics makes sense.” ❖ •But ... ❖ •Most people dislike politics because ➢ -It seems too complicated ➢ -It's too argumentatiWe also discuss several other topics like What is an argument?
We also discuss several other topics like convergernt
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If you want to learn more check out a drastic difference between such elements as color or value when they are presented together
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If you want to learn more check out Which term refers to the situation that occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and a goal and it is not immediately obvious how to get around the obstacle?
ve ➢ -Politicians are only in it for themselves ❖ •System for implementing decisions made through the political process ❖ •Why? ➢ -Provide Order ❖ •Hobbes' state of nature ❖ •Provide for the common defense ❖ •Ensure domestic tranquility ❖ •Establish justice ❖ •Secure the blessings of liberty ❖ •Factions - Federalist #10 ❖ •Divide government ❖ •Separation of Powers ❖ •Checks and Balances ❖ •Federlism ❖ •Promote the General Welfare ➢ -Public Goods ➢ -Collective action problems ❖ •Group would benefit from working together, but each individual is better refusing to cooperate ❖ •Free Rider Problem ❖ •The process that determines what the government does ❖ •Three key concepts ➢ -Politics is conflictual ❖ •The scope of conflict ❖ •Compromise and bargaining ❖ •Virtually impossible to get exactly what you want ➢ -Process Matters ❖ •Processes decide government action ❖ •Elections ❖ •Bureaucracy ❖ •Citizen action ❖ •Rules➢ -Politics is Everywhere ❖ •Media/social media ❖ •Party ID ❖ •Ideology ❖ •Sources of Conflict ➢ -Economic Interests ❖ •Free market/individualism ❖ •Redistributive tax policy ➢ -Cultural Values ❖ •Culture war ❖ •Red state v. Blue state ➢ -Racial, Gender, Ethnicity ➢ -Ideology ❖ •A cohesive set of ideals and beliefs used to organize and evaluate the political world ❖ •Conservative = more economic freedom/less social freedom ❖ •Liberal = less economic freedom/more social freedom ❖ •Libertarian = more economic freedom/more social freedom ❖ •Resolving Conflict ➢ -Three key principles ❖ •Freedom ❖ •Bill of Rights ➢ -Democracy ❖ •In the US, representative democracy ➢ -Equality ❖ •Political equality ❖ •Equality of opportunity ❖ Founding Documents ❖ As you study American founding documents, consider the following: ➢ -What is the fundamental purpose of the Declaration of Independence? Does it have the same purpose to us today? ➢ -How was government designed under the Articles of Confederation? ➢ -What perceived problems emerged following the adoption of the Articles of Confederation? ❖ Constitutional Convention ❖ As you study the Constitutional Convention, consider the following: ➢ -What was the initial purpose of the convention? Is that what happened? ➢ -What were the big questions/issues debated? ➢ -What major compromises defined the Constitution? ❖ The Ratification Process❖ As you study the ratification process, consider the following: ➢ -The Framers gave the states the responsibility to ratify the Constitution. Why? ➢ -What was the purpose of the Federalist Papers? ❖ Federalism Outline ❖ Government System Alternatives ➢ -Unitary ➢ -Confederal ➢ -Federal ❖ ❖ 3 Dominant Eras of American Federalism ❖ ❖ Dual Federalism ➢ -"layer cake” federalism ➢ -National power increased ➢ -Court rulings ➢ -Consequences of Civil War ➢ -Amendments ❖ Cooperative Federalism ➢ -"marble cake” federalism ➢ -Continued increase of national power ➢ -Simultaneous increase in "shared” power ➢ -Increased use of grants and mandates ❖ 3rd Era ➢ -Federalism in Flux ➢ -Described as New, Creative, and Picket Fence Federalism ➢ -Sorry, no cake ➢ -Devolution: TANF replaces AFDC ❖ Current Issues ➢ -Federalism evident in disaster management ➢ -Voter ID ➢ -Same sex marriage ❖ Civil Liberties Outline ❖ Civil Liberties ➢ -Protections of citizens from improper government action ➢ -Due process clause: 5th Amendment ➢ -Bill of Rights ❖ Selective Incorporation➢ -Barron v. Baltimore (1833) ➢ -Marshall Court: The Bill of Rights "contain no expression indicating an intention to apply them to the State governments. This court cannot so apply them.” ➢ -Dual citizenship: citizens maintain distinct relationships with national and state governments. ➢ -5th Amendment: "nor shall any person ... deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.” ➢ -14th Amendment: "nor shall any state deprive a person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.” ➢ -Apply the protections of the Bill of Rights to the states, using the 14th Amendment as a filter, on a case-by-case basis. ➢ -1st Amendment: Freedoms of expression (religion, speech, press, assembly, petition) ➢ -Religion = establishment + free exercise ➢ -Freedom of expression examples ➢ -Criminal procedure examples ❖ Right to Privacy ➢ -Judicial restraint v. judicial activism ➢ -"Right to privacy” = does not appear in the Constitution ➢ -Griswold v. CT (1965) = zones of privacy (1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 9th) ➢ -Precedent for Roe v. Wade (1973) and Lawrence v. Texas (2004) ❖ Civil Rights Outline ❖ Civil Rights ➢ -The guarantees of government to provide equal opportunities, privileges, and treatment under the law. ➢ -Civil liberties: due process clause is the focus ➢ -Civil rights: equal protection clause is the focus ❖ Major Developments ➢ -Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) ➢ -Supreme Court: slaves cannot be citizens; descendents of slaves cannot be citizens ➢ -13th (1865): abolished slavery ➢ -14th (1868): no state shall deny a citizen of equal protection under the law ➢ -15th (1870): race shall not abridge the right to vote ➢ -State action: equal protection clause applies to government, not private citizens ➢ -Jim Crow: laws that segregated public schools and accommodations ➢ -Plessy v. Ferguson (1896): separate is acceptable, as long as substantially equal ❖ Brown v. Board of Ed. (1954)➢ -Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal ➢ -Move to desegregate, but no timetable ➢ -Desegregate with all deliberate speed. ➢ -de jure segregation: due to law ➢ -de facto segregation: due to conditions or patterns of behavior ❖ Legislation ➢ -Civil Rights Act of 1964: prohibits discrimination in public accommodations and private employment ➢ -Voting Rights Act of 1965: states were required to clear changes in voting laws with DOJ ➢ -24th (1964): abolish poll tax ❖ Representation ➢ -Descriptive ➢ -Substantive ➢ -Congressional redistricting: based substantially on population ➢ -Gerrymander ➢ -Majority-minority districts ❖ Congress Outline ❖ Congress: Differences in Houses ➢ -formal powers ➢ -qualifications ➢ -constituency size ➢ -average House district: 709760 ❖ Who is Congress? ➢ -95 percent have university degrees ➢ -167 Reps and 57 Senators have law degrees ➢ -Career politicians: progressive ambition ➢ -Age: House = 57; Senate = 63 ➢ -Race: nearly 14 percent of US is black, 8 percent of Congress ➢ -Gender: 50 percent of US, 17 percent of Congress ❖ Three Jobs of Congress ➢ -Representation ➢ -Lawmaking ➢ -Oversight ❖ ❖ Representation ➢ -Constitution is relatively silent ➢ -Member of a national institution v. representative of regional interests ➢ -Mayhew: legislators are "single-minded seekers of reelection”➢ -Delegate model v. Trustee model ❖ Constituency ➢ -The geographic area of representation ➢ -Constituency service/casework/credit claiming ❖ Includes: ➢ -Residents (voters and nonvoters) ➢ -Business/industry/agriculture ➢ -Interest groups ❖ Incumbency Advantage ➢ -Incumbent: the person currently holding the office ➢ -House incumbents win greater than 90 percent of the time ➢ -Senate incumbents win nearly 90 percent of the time ❖ Lawmaking ➢ -Article I: "All legislative powers ... shall be vested in a Congress...” ➢ -Process (check your excellent book diagram) ➢ -Committees: division of labor ➢ -Greater than 90 percent of bills die in committee ➢ -Of bills reported from committee, greater than 90 percent pass the floor vote ❖ ❖ Committees ➢ -Constitution is silent on committees ➢ -Standing : House has 23, Senate has 20 ➢ -Select ➢ -Joint ➢ -Most committees also have subcommittees ➢ -Seniority is an important norm ❖ Party and Leadership ➢ -2 Constitutional leadership positions: Speaker of the House and President of the Senate ➢ -All other positions are party based positions ➢ -Majority Leader: Constitution and institution rules are largely silent on duties ➢ -Majority Whip: party discipline; leadership liaison ❖ Staff ➢ -House members have a cap of 18 personal staff, Senate staff budget based on population ➢ -Three staff agencies help Congress conduct oversight ➢ -Congressional Research Service (CRS) ➢ -Government Accountability Office (GAO) ➢ -Congressional Budget Office (CBO)❖ Deliberation ➢ -House Rules Committee determines limits on debate ➢ -Open rule ➢ -Closed rule ➢ -Senate more characterized by deliberation and debate ➢ -Filibuster ➢ -Cloture ❖ Institutional Behavior ➢ 1. Conditional Party Government: power of leaders depends on: ■ -Degree of homogeneity in majority party ■ -Extent of inter party conflict ➢ 2. Median Voter Theory ■ -Policy outcomes rarely diverge from what is acceptable to the median voter ❖ Executive ❖ Article II, Section 1 ➢ -Executive power ➢ -Vested in a president and vice president ➢ -For a term of four years ➢ -35 years old ➢ -Natural born citizen ❖ Article II, Section 2 ➢ -The duties/powers of the president ➢ -Commander in chief ➢ -Pardons and reprieves ➢ -Treaties and appointments (with advice and consent of the Senate) ❖ Article II, Section 3 ➢ -State of the Union ➢ -Convene the houses of Congress ➢ -Receive ambassadors ➢ -"Take care that the laws be faithfully executed” ❖ Head of Government ➢ -Chief administrator of the national government ➢ -Execute laws ➢ -Homeland security ➢ -Limited legislative powers (sign/veto/pocket veto, state of the union, the budget) ❖ Head of State ➢ -Elements of ceremonial roles and tangible power ➢ -Head diplomat (receive ambassadors)➢ -Limited judicial power (pardons) ➢ -Foreign policy (Commander in Chief; make treaties; receive ambassadors) ❖ Institutional Presidency ➢ -President ➢ -Vice President ➢ -Cabinet ➢ -Executive Office of the President ➢ -White House Staff ❖ Bureaucracy ❖ Ideal type form of bureaucracy = ➢ -Hierarchy ➢ -Division of labor ➢ -Specialization ➢ -Formalized rules ❖ Goals = ➢ -Efficiency ➢ -Standardization ❖ Spoils v. Merit ➢ -Spoils system: public employees receive jobs due to political connections and favors ➢ -Merit system: public employees receive jobs based on experience, education and merit ➢ -Civil Service System: established by the Pendleton Act 1883 ❖ ❖ Electing the President ➢ -538 Electoral votes correspond to: ➢ -435 House seats + 100 Senate seats + 3 DC ➢ -Note: Members of Congress cannot be electors ➢ -A candidate must receive 270 votes to win ➢ -If not, House picks president, Senate picks VP ➢ -Anomalies: 1876, 1888, 2000 (Electoral and popular votes were different); 1800 and 1824 (House selects president) ❖ A State's Electoral Votes = ➢ -Number of House Seats + Number of Senate Seats ➢ -Missouri: 8 + 2 = 10 ➢ -California: 53 + 2 = 55 ➢ -Wyoming: 1 + 2 = 3 ❖ ❖ President at War❖ President is Commander in Chief, but... ❖ Article I, Section 8 says Congress: ➢ -Declares war ➢ -Raises and supports an army ➢ -Provides for and maintains a navy ❖ War Powers Resolution (1973) ➢ -Joint Resolution of Congress (based on the necessary and proper clause) ➢ -Vetoed by Nixon ➢ -Overridden by both houses of Congress ➢ -President must notify Congress within 48 hours of committing armed forces ➢ -Forces cannot be committed for longer than 60 days (plus a 30 day withdrawal period) ❖ Who Becomes President? ➢ -Gender ➢ -Race ➢ -Age ➢ -Career ➢ -14 Presidents were vice president (9 assumed the presidency upon death or resignation) ➢ -17 Presidents were state governors ❖ Judiciary Outline ❖ Article III, Section 1 ➢ -Judicial power vested in one Supreme Court... ➢ -...and in such inferior courts as Congress may from time to time ordain and establish ➢ -Judges hold offices during good behavior ❖ Article III, Section 2 ➢ -The judicial power extends to all case arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties: ➢ -Ambassadors and other public ministers ➢ -Cases in which the US is a party ➢ -Cases between 2 or more states ➢ -Cases between a state and citizens of another state ➢ -Supreme Court Original Jurisdiction: cases affecting ambassadors and those in which a state shall be a party ➢ -Appellate Jurisdiction: all other cases before mentioned ❖ Qualifications ➢ -Constitution: Silent ➢ -Age: no minimum➢ -Citizenship: no requirement ➢ -Training/Experience: no requirement ➢ -Federal judges appointed by president ➢ -Senate provides "advice and consent” = confirmation ❖ Structure of the Federal Judiciary ➢ -1 Supreme Court ➢ -12 Regional Appellate Courts (hear appeals from district courts + federal administrative agencies) + 1 national Appellate Court (specialized cases, such as patent law) ➢ -94 District Courts (at least one in each state; large states have up to 4) ❖ The Supreme Court ➢ -9 Justices (number set by Congress) ➢ -Chief Justice: vague reference in Article I, Section 3. ➢ -Supreme Court hears around 1 percent of appeals ➢ -Writ of certiorari: rule of 4 ❖ State Courts ➢ -State/Local courts hear 99% of cases in the US ➢ -Supreme Court ➢ -Appeals Court ➢ -Trial Courts ➢ -In Missouri, Trial Courts are called Circuit Courts and are organized in 45 circuits ➢ -Every Missouri county has a court and the courts are subdivided into categories such as municipal, probate, small claims, criminal ❖ Types of Law ➢ -Criminal Law: violation of statute ➢ -Examples: murder, armed robbery ➢ -At stake: life, liberty, property ➢ -Plaintiff: always government/The State/Defendant: the accused ➢ -Burden of proof: beyond a reasonable doubt ➢ -Civil Law: violation of legal rights or obligations ➢ -Examples: wrongful death, divorce ➢ -At stake: property ➢ -Plaintiff: individual or organization bringing claim/Defendant: individual violating legal relationship ➢ -Burden of proof: preponderance of evidence ➢ -Public Law: cases involving the relationship between an individual or group and the state ➢ -Constitutional Law➢ -Administrative Law ❖ Judicial Review ➢ -Federalist #78: no influence over either the sword or the purse, ...It may truly be said to have neither FORCE nor WILL, but merely judgment. ➢ -Hamilton: Judiciary is the "least dangerous branch” ❖ ❖ Marbury v. Madison (1803) ➢ -Judiciary Act of 1789: Congress ordains and establishes inferior courts (Article III) ➢ -Also altered original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court by giving them the power to issue writ of mandamus ➢ -Marbury was given a commission for a job by the Adams administration ➢ -The Jefferson administration took office in 1801 ➢ -As Secretary of State, Madison refused to execute Marbury's commission ➢ -Marbury petitioned for a writ of mandamus in the US Supreme Court ➢ -Court argued that Madison should grant Marbury his job, BUT … ➢ -The portion of the Judiciary Act granting the Court the ability to issue writs of mandamus was declared unconstitutional since it violated the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court ❖ Solicitor General ➢ -Appointed by the president and works under the Department of Justice ➢ -However, the solicitor general has an office at the Supreme Court building ➢ -Represents the national government in cases in which the US is a party ➢ -Recommends cases to the Supreme Court (not binding, but usually accepted) ❖ Public Opinion ❖ Collective Political beliefs and attitudes of the public ➢ Explains the behavior of citizens and public officials ➢ Helps explain policy outcomes ❖ Early studies found that opinions were inconsistent, non-ideological, and uninformed ➢ 3 criticisms ■ It isnt surprising that many people dont think much about politics ■ Opinions have been more consistent since the original studies in the 50s ■ Most importantly, the original studies were looking for the wrong thing (consistent, stables opinions and a rationale/explanation) ■ Types of opinions ❖ Broad expressions of preferences across a wide range of topics; formed early in life, these are fairly stable and include: ➢ Party identification ➢ General ideology (e.g liberal v. conservative)➢ Beliefs about religion ❖ Latent, on-the-spot opinions are formed by considerations, the relevant information that comes to mind when an opinion is requested. ❖ Nature of opinion ➢ Salience ■ Importance (How important is it to you?) ➢ Stability ■ Doesn’t change whether pres or congress is republican or democratic ➢ Direction ■ Which way do you feel? Positive or negative ➢ Intensity ■ Strength of feelings ■ Political socialization ❖ The process by which we acquire our beliefs about politics ➢ 3 factors ■ Primacy ● How old were you? ■ Persistence ● How often are you exposed to this? ■ Ideology ❖ Agents of socialization ➢ Family, education, religions, peers, media ➢ Events, group identity, political realignment ➢ Measuring public opinions ❖ Population ❖ Random sample ➢ Every member of the population has to have the same chance of being picked for the sample ❖ Sample size ❖ Nonresponse bias ➢ When a group of people don’t respond to the survey ❖ Survey design issues ➢ Question wording ➢ Question order ➢ Survey problems ❖ The accuracy of public opinion ➢ Some people may not take surveys as seriously as we assume ➢ The more relevant the survey question is to one’s everyday life, the more seriously the respondent tends to treat the question❖ Gaps in factual information ➢ Which party controls the house? Senate? ■ Both republican ➢ Who is the chief justice of the supreme court? ■ John Roberts ➢ How much is spent on foreign aid? ■ Too much ■ Content of public opinion ❖ Economic conditions ❖ Americans are almost always worried about the economy ❖ But what do people mean when they talk about “the economy” ➢ Gas prices ➢ Unemployment ➢ Grocery prices ➢ Stock market ➢ Home prices (the home is the most valuable asset most people possess) ➢ Public opinion and democracy ❖ Miracle of aggregation ➢ Group consists of ignorant individuals whose collective opinion makes sense ❖ Partisanship simplifies public opinion ❖ Some people may not take surveys as seriously as we assume ➢ The most relevant the survey question is to one’s everyday life, the more seriously the respondent tends to treat the question. ➢ Political knowledge ❖ Americans possess less knowledge than they should, but more than alleged ❖ Converse (1964): some have stable and coherent attitudes, most people change attitude frequently ❖ Ideology is more complex than left/right ❖ Scope of Power ❖ Neustadt ➢ Presidential power is the power to persuade ❖ Only about 20% of presidents served two complete terms ❖ From 1945 to the end of the 20th century, only Eisenhower, Reagan, and Clinton served 2 fulls terms ❖ Presidential Expansion ❖ Traditional presidency ➢ Limited policymaking ❖ Modern Presidency ➢ Presidents dominate policymaking➢ Four features ■ Develop a legislative program ■ Engage in direct policymaking without congressional approval ■ An extensive bureaucracy enables presidents to achieve the first two features ■ Presidents are symbolic and seen as responsible ■ Presidential Culture ❖ Washington ➢ Symbol of the new nation, its hero who embodies in his person its values and aspirations ❖ Presidency meets emotional and psychological needs ❖ Lowi: “the expectations of the masses have grown faster than the capacity of presidential government to meet them” ❖ Presidents resort to illusions and quick fixes ❖ Interbranch Relations ❖ Jones: separate institutions compete for shared power ❖ Competition by design ➢ Federalist 51 ➢ Presidents can act more immediately and decisively ■ Deficits, economy, terrorism ❖ Divided government ➢ The norm? ■ Having different parties control congress and presidency ■ Responding to presidents through congress ■ Sometimes get unified government ➢ Gridlock? ■ - Nothing gets done ■ Is it bad? ■ Can happen at anytime - Congress is not one thing ■ Designers made process slow through gridlock ➢ Mayhew ■ No difference ■ If you look at terms where there’s divided govt and unified govt, there's no difference in policymaking ➢ Fiorina ■ Consequences are not necessarily bad ➢ Polarization is the problem ■ No compromise; parties are distant ➢ Representation vs. lawmaking vs. oversight➢ Explaining success ❖ Popular Support ➢ Popular presidents are given leeway ➢ Provides leverage but not control ❖ Presidential style and legislative skills ➢ Accessibility to members ■ Popular too members of congress ■ Open channel of communication ➢ Interaction with and sensitivity to members ■ Does the president care about their needs? ➢ Extent of involvement in legislative process ■ Are they involved? ➢ Johnson and Ford - accessible ➢ Nixon - distant ➢ Clinton - too accessible ■ Too manipulatable ■ Character and Performance ❖ Subjective judgments ➢ Appearance and demeanor of leadership ❖ Objective judgments ➢ Skill, short-term success, or lasting results ➢ Economy effects, judge what they’ve done against their agenda ➢ Did they do what they said they’re going to do? ❖ Pfiffner - Justified lie ➢ National security, trivial matters, prevent embarrassment ❖ Shaped by 6 qualities (Burns) ➢ Proficiency as public communicator ➢ Organizational capacity to rally colleagues and ➢ Structure activities ➢ Political skills liked to a vision of public policy ■ Know how policies are made ➢ Cognitive style in processing advice ■ Will they listen to advice? ➢ Emotional intelligence ■ Can they take a joke or criticism ■ Do they have thick skin ■ Bureaucracy ❖ DEFINITION ❖ Ideal type form of bureaucracy➢ Hierarchy ■ Organization that has levels ➢ Division of labor ■ Divide the work ➢ Specialization ■ Give someone a specific (specialized) job ➢ Formalized rules ■ Written rules ■ Like an employee manual ❖ Goals ➢ Efficiency ■ Greatest output for minimal effort ➢ Standardization ■ Every product should be the same ■ Everyone’s experience should be similar ● People being treated the same ● Federal Bureaucracy ❖ Comprised of ➢ Millions of permanent employees (civil servants) ➢ Thousands of temporary political appointees ■ President appoints about 7,000 ■ Political control over bureaucracy ❖ Political tension between permanent civil servants and political appointees ➢ Is the president capable? Competent? ➢ Expected job life for an appointee is 2 years ❖ Bureaucratic personnel ➢ “Govt of strangers” ➢ Selection of political executives ■ Loyalty ■ Party membership ■ Technical competence ● Should probs be #1 ■ Wishes of other actors ● Maybe a senator wants this person ● Pres does not personally know all 7,000 appointees ■ Congressional demands ■ Interest groups ➢ Success depends on an active president who provides sustained support ➢ Spoils vs. Merit❖ Spoils system: public employees receive jobs due to political connections and favors ❖ Merit system: public employees receive jobs based on experience, education and merit ❖ Civil service system: established by the Pendleton Act 1883 ➢ President died because someone who was promised a job, didn’t get it ➢ Bureaucracy ❖ What do bureaucrats do? ➢ Implement policies established by congress and the president ➢ Develop programs and policies to achieve the goals of the laws ■ Specific laws produce little bureaucratic discretion ■ Vague laws produce much discretion ➢ Enforce regulations ■ Rules that give govt control over individual and corporate behavior ❖ Bureaucratic expertise ➢ Bureaucrats arrive with (or develop) more expertise than congress or the president ➢ Expertise is related to competence ❖ Red tape ➢ Excessive rules ➢ “No one cuts through red tape” ➢ Challenges ❖ Principal-agent problem ➢ Idea that Boss (Principal) can’t do it alone. So hire agents to help, make them have same goal ➢ Monitoring costs ■ Pay attention to make sure people are doing what they’re supposed to ➢ Slack ■ People aren’t doing what they’re supposed to ➢ Drift (goal displacement) ❖ Street level bureaucracy (lack of direct supervision + directly serves clientele = increased discretion) ➢ No direct supervision ➢ On their own interacting with clientele ➢ Ted talk ❖ Social Media is a business ➢ It’s time and money ➢ Media has more to do about views - Media wants your attention ■ Drama, Conflict, controversy ■ Makes you wanna watch ❖ Fear is the driver ➢ In a societal sense■ Not fitting in ■ Not having something that could change your life ❖ Echo Chamber concept ➢ You live in your echo chamber - a comfort zone ➢ We are reintroduced to our comfort zone due to cookies and internet cache - we then become closed minded towards other people's’ ideas ➢ Being bullied through political correctness - dived through unfriending people who have opposing views. ❖ Carbon monoxide detector for media ❖ Media ❖ Mass media -> sources that provide information to average citizens on a day-to-day basis. ❖ Privately owned ❖ Stress objective coverage ❖ Watchddog role ❖ Largely unfettered by regulation ➢ Federal Communications Commission (1934) ❖ News cycle -> The time between the release of information and its publication ➢ Politician said it and now it's on youtube 30 seconds later ➢ Used to be day(s) after something was said until news paper was released. ➢ Evolution of press ❖ Penny press ➢ Made newspapers available to more of the population ❖ Wire service ➢ An organization that gathers news and sells it to other media outlets. ❖ Yellow journalism ➢ A style of newspaper featuring sensationalized stories, bold headlines, and illustrations. ➢ Types of media ❖ Mainstream media ➢ Media sources that predate the internet ■ Such as: ● Newspapers ● Magazines ● broadcast news ❖ Newspapers: dramatic decline in readership ❖ Broadcast TV: slight decline in viewership ➢ National: decline ➢ Local: high usage and stable ❖ Cable TV: increasing outlets, increasing usage❖ Web: steadily increasing usage ❖ How media works ❖ Leak ➢ The release of classified or politically embarrassing information by a government employee to a member of the press ❖ Shield laws ➢ Legislation, which exists in some states but not at the federal level, that gives reporters the right to refuse to name the sources of the information ❖ On background/off the record ➢ When politicians speak to single reporters and stipulate that they can be quoted, but not by name ➢ Bias ❖ Anecdotal evidence is mixed ❖ Self-reports indicate that most reporters are liberal ❖ Gatekeeping bias: more favorable coverage to one party or candidate ❖ Statement biasL making positive statements ❖ Effects on public opinion ❖ Agenda setting ➢ Are we going to talk about this or no? When are we gonna talk about this? ❖ Priming ➢ Making you think something is important ❖ Framing ➢ ❖ Selective exposure ➢ You’re selectively exposing yourself to the media outlet that supports your POV ❖ Selective perception ➢ Bring your bias and perspective to a story ❖ Selective retention ➢ Remember what you want to remember ❖ Political attentiveness ➢ How much attention you pay to media and shit ❖ Political predisposition ❖ The electorate (who can vote) ❖ 15th Amendment (1870) : Race ❖ 19th Amendment (1920) : Gender ❖ 26th Amendment (1971) : Age ❖ 24th Amendment (1964) : Outlaw poll tax ❖ Voting Rights Act of 1965: Outlaws literacy tests ❖ Paradox of Participation❖ Costs ➢ Time ➢ Registration ■ May stop people from voting ❖ Individual impact is minimal ➢ People believe their vote doesn’t matter ❖ Why do people participate? ➢ Elections an investment behavior ➢ Elections as consumption behavior ➢ Elections/Voting behavior ❖ Party Ratio ➢ The proportion of seats in the house and senate controlled by each major party ❖ Seat shift ➢ The change in the party ratio between the last election and the current one ➢ Turnout ❖ Turnout -> # of votes / # of voting age population ❖ Presidential election = 50% ❖ Congressional midterm = 35% ❖ Local election (school board) = 10% ❖ Turnout is low but… ❖ Participation is multifaceted ❖ Discuss politics (70%) ❖ Volunteer (39%) ❖ Join community organization (31%) ❖ Contact officials (19%) ❖ Campaign contributions (15%) ❖ Attend campaign meeting (8%) ❖ Factors that influence participation (who does vote) ❖ Education ➢ Higher education more likely - more educated about politics ❖ Income ➢ Higher income more likely to vote ■ Taxes have to do with this ❖ Age ➢ Older people are more likely to vote ➢ ❖ Partisanship (Republicans slightly more) ❖ Ideology (Conservatives slightly more) ❖ Region (non-south slightly more)❖ Would participation increase if... ❖ We adopted automatic registration ❖ We held elections on the weekends ❖ We had an election holiday ❖ We had more political parties ❖ States offered election day registration ➢ This works ❖ States offered early voting ➢ Doesn’t draw new people in ➢ Political efficacy ❖ Internal : The extent to which an individual understands politics ➢ High/ Consistently high ➢ People say they understand ❖ External : The extent to which an individual believes their participation makes an impact ➢ Low / Declining ➢ Electoral system ❖ The winner of the presidential election must get a MAJORITY of the electoral vote, but… ❖ ...most elections in the US are based on: ➢ Single-member districts ■ One seat district ➢ Plurality elections ■ The most votes - could be a majority, but doesn’t have to be ➢ SIngle member plurality districts ■ tend to produce 2 competitive political parties ■ Nominating Events ❖ Caucus ➢ Closed meeting at a fixed time and location with party members to elect who they want for their candidate ❖ Primary ➢ Open ■ Can declare party affiliation at the election ● Swingers ➢ Closed ■ Have to declare party affiliation BEFORE election ■ Gives parties a little more power ❖ Trend has been to move away from caucuses toward primaries ➢ It has weakened parties ❖ Trend has been toward earlier primaries❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ Individual voter choice ❖ Party ➢ Highly stable over time ➢ Fiorina, “Running tally” ❖ Issues: ➢ Retrospective ■ What the candidate has done in the past ● DId they do what they said? ➢ Perspective ■ What they will do in the future ● Weigh options ❖ Candidate characteristics ➢ Religion, Educational background, etc ➢ Predicting the presidency ❖ Partisan orientation of the electorate ➢ Is the electorate more democratic or republican ❖ Job approval rating of incumbent president ➢ Is he doing well? If so, they will continue to do well ❖ Performance of the economy ➢ Can ruin the likelihood of getting reelected ❖ Incumbency ➢ Incumbent more likely to win unless open seat (can’t run again) ❖ Successful campaign should… ❖ Achieve high turnout among party base ❖ Win large vote share from party base ❖ Encourage defections from the other party ❖ Reduce turnout among the other party ❖ Court independent voters ❖ Presidential elections ❖ Nominating process ➢ Primary elections ■ Front-loading■ Super Tuesday ■ Regional nature ➢ National convention ■ Formally selects candidate ■ Introduces the vice-presidential candidate ■ Adopt the platform ■ Campaign Finance ❖ FEC ➢ Federal election commission is in charge of administering election laws ❖ Bipartisan campaign finance reform act (BCRA) ➢ ALA “McCain-Feingold” legislation; it outlawed soft money and created a “Stand by your Ad” disclaimer requirement ❖ Citizens United vs. FEC changed campaign finance rules by removing all restrictions on independent efforts funded by corporations and unions ❖ Hard money: money contributed expressly for campaign purposes; reported to FEC ❖ Soft money: used for non-campaign related political purposes, including voter registration drives and issue ads ❖ FEC sets campaign finance limits ❖ In 2008, Obama spent $650 million; McCain spent $350 million ❖ In 2012, Obama spent $986 million; Romney spent $992 million ❖ Average house campaign spend $1.1 million; Average senate campaign spends $6.5 million ❖ Spending depends on many factors, including incumbency and competitiveness ❖ Party Identification 2008 (National Election Studies) ❖ Strong D = 19% ❖ Weak D = 15% ❖ Independent leans D = 17% ❖ Independent = 11% ❖ Independent leans R = 12% ❖ Weak R = 13% ❖ Strong R = 13% ❖ Competitiveness ❖ Safe seat ---> A seat that is safe for a candidate or party ❖ Open seat ---> No incumbent; an open seat can still be “safe” for a party or candidate ❖ Battleground states ---> States in which neither party has decided advantage ❖ Political Parties ❖ Like interest groups, seek to influence government ❖ Parties influence government by winning elections ❖ Once elected, parties influence government by enacting legislative agenda❖ Realignment ➢ A change in the size or composition of the party coalitions or in the nature of the issues that divide the parties ❖ Crosscutting ➢ A term describing issues that raise disagreements within a party coalition or between parties about what government should do. ➢ Party Organization ❖ Early parties were informally organized ❖ By 1870, parties were highly organized into political machines ❖ Progressive reforms: increased use of primary elections (instead of caucuses); Australian ballot (as opposed to straight-ticket voting) ❖ Party in three forms ❖ Party in the electorate ➢ You and me ❖ Party in office ➢ Elected officials ❖ Party organization ➢ DNC and RNC chairs ❖ Party organization is the purest representation of the party’s ideals ❖ Functions of parties ❖ Recruit candidates ❖ Nominate candidates ❖ Fund campaigns ❖ Educate voters ❖ Provide voter cues ❖ Make policy ❖ A party platform ➢ The list of pledges and promises about what candidates from a party stand for and will fight for if elected ➢ Candidates are not required to support the party platform and many ignore key provisions of it (e.g pro-gun Democrats or pro-choice Republicans). ➢ Two-party system ❖ Some countries have a proportional representation (PR) system and multi-member districts ❖ PR systems encourage multiple parties ❖ The US uses a plurality system with single member districts ❖ Single-member plurality systems encourage two dominant parties ❖ Parties in the US ❖ Federalist (1789-1816)❖ Democratic-Republican (1790-1824) ❖ Democrat (1828-present) ❖ Whig (1824-1854) ❖ Republican (1854-present) ❖ Realignment: shift in dominant coalition ❖ Dealignment: distancing from parties ❖ Third parties ❖ Unlikely to win in the United States ❖ Attempt to promote an issue ❖ Attempt to promote a candidate ❖ Attempt to affect election outcome ❖ Ross Perot (1992): 19% of the popular vote, no electoral votes ❖ The electorate ❖ Party identification (PID) ➢ A citizen’s loyalty to a specific party ➢ Stable ❖ Party coalitions ➢ Groups of citizens who identify with a party; often thought of in demographic terms ➢ Federalist #10 ❖ Faction: group with a shared interest ❖ Could tyrannize other members of society ❖ Solution: remove the causes or control the effects ❖ Remove the causes: “Liberty is to faction as air is to fire” ❖ Control the effects: Large republic with lots of groups (pluralism) ❖ Interest groups ❖ Political parties and interest groups both seek to influence government ❖ Parties do so by winning elections ❖ Groups attempt to influence government institutions and decision processes ❖ Parties are free to join; group members pay dues ➢ Can’t be a member until you join (paying dues) ❖ Parties are more broadly focused; groups have a more narrow focus ➢ Have an array of ideas on one specific thing (ex: NRA (National Rifle Association) and gun control) ➢ Pluralism ❖ Pluralism vs. plurality ➢ Plurality is Most not Majority ■ Winning by plurality means winning by most votes instead of a majority of votes❖ Are all sectors of society represented? ➢ no ❖ Are all issues/policies considered? ➢ no ❖ Disturbance theory: groups form as a response to social, political, economic change ❖ Groups must: ➢ Attract members ➢ Maintain membership ➢ Collective action ❖ Prisoner’s dilemma ➢ Communicating ❖ Large vs. small groups ➢ Individual impact ■ In a large group - hard to feel like your opinion matters ➢ Coercion ➢ The free rider problem ❖ A collective action problem ➢ Group formation is not automatic ❖ Individuals would all benefit from some action, but the individual cost is too great ❖ Therefore, group action is beneficial ❖ A free rider is someone who receives the benefits of group activity without contributing ❖ Solutions: selective incentives ❖ Material: a tangible good or service; can include magazines, discounts, t-shirts ➢ If trying to attract new members ❖ Solidary (social): the benefit of belonging to a group of like-minded individuals ❖ Purposive: the benefit of contributing to the group’s purpose by joining ➢ You just believe in the cause; joining is enough of an incentive ➢ To keep members ➢ Olson ❖ By product theory ➢ Selective incentives are invulnerable to freeriding, but the public good is vulnerable ➢ A groups public goods can be provided as byproducts of the sale of the selective incentives ➢ Collective action problem more likely to affect large groups ➢ High and low demanders for goods ➢ Effect of social pressure and coercion ❖ If individuals value the selective incentive enough, shared values may not be necessary➢ If you just want the thing they’re selling enough, join to get that; don’t have to share values/ideology ➢ Evidence ❖ Group formation relies on more than shared values ❖ Groups finances depended little on the sale of selective incentives ❖ Revenue sources ➢ Member dues ➢ Outside sources (Gifts, foundations, government subsidies) ➢ Attraction vs. Retention ➢ Free riders? ❖ Focus on joiners or freeriders? ➢ Few groups mobilize more than 5-10 percent of their natural clientele ❖ Are all groups equally well mobilized? ➢ No they are not; some are more effective at getting new members than others ➢ Group types ❖ Economic group ➢ A type of interest groups that seeks public policies that will provide monetary benefits to its members (Corporations, unions, trade associations, professions) ➢ Makes up most interest groups ❖ Citizen group ➢ A type of interest group that seeks changes in spending, regulations, or government programs concerning a wide range of policies (also known as a public interest group) ❖ Single-issue group ➢ A type of interest group that has a narrowly focused goal and seeks change on a single topic, government program, or piece of legislation ➢ The electorate ❖ Party ID ❖ A citizen’s loyalty to a specific party ❖ Stable ❖ Party coalitions ❖ Groups of citizens who identify with a party; often thought of in demographic terms ❖ Federalist #10 ➢ Faction: group with a shared interest ➢ Could tyrannize other members of society ➢ Solution: remove the causes or control the effects ➢ Remove the causes: “liberty is to faction as air is to fire” ➢ Control the effects: large republic with lots of groups (pluralism)■ Interest groups ● Political parties and interest groups both seek to influence government ● Parties do so by winning elections ● Groups attempt to influence government institutions and decision processes ● Parties are free to join; group members pay dues (interest groups) ● Parties are more broadly focused; groups have a more narrow focus ■ Pluralism ● Pluralism v. plurality-the government is based on group interaction ● Are all sectors of society represented? ● Are all issues/policies considered? ● Disturbance theory: groups form as a response to social, political, economic change ● Groups must ◆ Attract members ◆ Maintain members ■ Collective action ● Prisoner’s dilemma ◆ Main problem: can’t coordinate since they aren’t together ● Large v. small groups ◆ Individual impact (feel it more in a small group rather than a large group) ◆ Coercion (works more in a smaller group) ■ Free Rider Problem (all about how people react to incentive) ● A collective action problem ➢ Group formation is not automatic ◆ Individuals would all benefit from some action, but the individual cost is too great ◆ Therefore, group action is beneficial ◆ A free rider is someone who receives the benefits of group activity without contributing ■ Solutions to free rider problem: Selective incentives ● Material: a tangible good or service; can include magazines, discounts, t-shirts ● Solidary (social): the benefit of belonging to a groups of like-minded individuals● Purposive: the benefit of contributing to the group’s purpose by joining (believing in the cause=that’s the incentive) ■ Olson ● Byproduct theory ◆ Selective incentives are invulnerable to freeriding, but the public good is vulnerable ◆ A groups public goods can be provided as byproducts of the sale of the selective incentives ◆ Collective action problem more likely to affect large groups ◆ High and low demanders for goods ◆ Effect of social pressure and coercion ● If individuals value the selective incentive enough, shared values may not be necessary ■ Evidence ● Group formation relies on more than shared values ● Groups finances depended little on the sale of selective incentives ● Revenue sources ◆ Member dues ◆ Outside sources (gifts, foundations, government) ● Attraction v. retention ■ Free Riders? ● Focus on joiners or freeriders? ◆ Few groups mobilize more than 5-10% of their natural clientele ● Are all groups equally well mobilized? ◆ No ■ Group types ● Economic groups ◆ A type of interest group that seeks public policies that will provide monetary benefits to it members (corporations, unions, trade associations, professions)-most groups are economic groups ● Citizen group ◆ A type of interest group that seeks changes in spending, regulations, or government programs concerning a wide range of policies (also known as the public interest group)-NRA/MADD ● Single-issue group◆ A type of interest group that has a narrowly focused goal and seeks change on a single topic, government program, or piece of legislation-MADD ■ ● *Look in book for types of groups for the type of organizations tax codes and what they can do ➢ 4/21/17 ➢ Groups activities: ■ Inside strategies ● Direct lobbying ● Drafting legislation ● Research ● Hearings ● Litigations ➢ Look at iron triangle ■ Outside strategies ● Grassroots (outside) lobbying: lobby citizens to contact government ◆ Grassroots lobbying expands the scope of conflict ◆ *Interest groups can’t vote, but you can ● Mobilizing Public Opinion ● Electioneering ◆ Political Action Campaign contributions; remember that incumbents are most likely to benefit ➢ ➢ Truman ■ Disturbance theory ● Changes in the group universe attributed to social, economic, technological, or political disturbances ● As society’s social and economic interactions became more complicated, group affiliations got more complicated ● Individuals are fully human when they form groups ● Only social misfits live alone ➢ Models of influence on policy ■ Pluralism and elitism ● Truman: disturbance theory ● Mobilization encourages counter mobilization ● Policymakers respond to the number of people affected and the perceived level of harm● Hunter and Mills: elites are in control ● Elite theory fails to explain the policy process ◆ How do unions secure high wages ◆ How does consumer protection policy occur ➢ Models of influence ■ Dahl ● Elite theory assumes there is a ruling elite by asking people to identify it ● Different interests are active in different policy arenas ● Policymaking is a process that occurs over time, not a one-shot game ➢ Models ■ Policy issue ● A social, political, or economic problem that the government considers acting upon ■ Neopluralist model ● Most policy issues involve competition among organized interests ● Each side has sufficient resources to lobby successfully ● Equilibrium ➢ Neopluralism ■ 4 basic aspects borrowed from pluralism ● Policymaking is a process that occurs over time ● The influence of organized interests is generally limited to a specific policy are ● Major policy changes involve multiple groups ● Ideologies, parties, and elections limit groups and are typically more important in determining policy ● And… ■ 2 basic ideas borrowed from exchange ● Accept the collection action problem (free rider problem) ● Sometimes the system favors groups with more resources ■ Salisbury ● Groups with individuals as members do little lobbying ● Lobbying activity dominated by corporations, unions, governments, health industry ■ Distinction between high politics and routine politics ● High politics: nonincremental policy changes and modifications in the issue network ● Interest groups can hide in routine politics➢ Exchange model ■ Public officials have multiple goals ● Advance career ● Gain political power ● Good public policy ● Represent constituents ■ Reelection is the predominant objective ■ Unelected policymakers ● Also desire career advancement, political power, good public policy ● Jobs-revolving door ● Bureaucrats are not neutral ➢ Models ■ Exchange model ● Assume that participants in the political process engage in exchanges to improve their economic, social, or political welfare ● Participants make exchanges to make the both better off ● Electoral support, campaign contributions in exchange for policy support ● Policymakers charge different rates to different groups ● When we talk about interest groups, are they buying access or influence? ➢ Stages ■ Agenda Setting ● How problems are perceived, defined, command attention, and reach the agenda of policymakers ● Crises/focusing events ● Competition ■ Policy formulation ● The drafting of alternative policy options to resolve the problem that has reached the agenda ■ Policy Legitimation ● Includes the mobilization of support for the various policy alternatives and public officials following the legitimate procedures for reaching a decision ■ Policy Implementation ● Government allocates resources to the bureaucracy to implement the law ■ Evaluation and Feedback● Efforts to determine whether the policy had the expected outcomes ➢ Stages ■ Kingdom-policy gets made when streams connect ● Streams ◆ Political ➢ Political climate ◆ Problem ◆ Policy (solution) ● Policy window ■ Problem definition ■ Stages suggests an undidirectional process ■ In fact, the process can stop, reverse, or skip steps ■ Focusing on stages encourages us to focus on both sides of agenda setting ■ This model also emphasizes the role of entrepreneurs ➢ Tullock ■ Tariffs, tax breaks, and subsidies decrease the nation’s economic efficiency ■ Prices artificially propped up and valuable resources and talents are poorly utilized ■ Although lobbying creates waste and inefficiency for society, is it profitable for interest organizations? ■ Lobbying as a raffle in which firms buy tickets ■ Tickets= lobbying expenditures ■ Prize= private good of a government contract ■ A firm buys a number of tickets expected to maximize profits ■ Probability of a win=number of tickets bought divided by the total number of tickets purchased ■ Buying a larger share of tickets increases the probability ■ Once any firm buys a ticket, all interested firms buy tickets ➢ ❖ 1803 Madison vs. Marbury ➢ John Marshall - Constitution allows the judiciary branch to make interpretations ➢ Started because commissions were never delivered ❖ Section 13 ➢ Authorizes supreme justices to issue order to direct Madison to produce the commissions ➢ “In cases ➢ Big controversy over how the judiciary branch should interpret the constitution ➢❖ President Jefferson viewed the order as an attack against him and the executive branch ❖ Can the supreme court direct Madison to produce the commissions? ➢ “Section 13 of the judiciary act is unconstitutional.” ❖ Who is to say what the constitution means? ➢ The supreme court ❖ Established the right of the interpretation of the constitution is up to the supreme court. ❖ Confirms that judiciary branch can decide when other branches exceed their duties ❖ John Marshall - The great chief justice