Final Study Guide
Final Study Guide IAFF 2093
Popular in Africa: Problems and Promise
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Popular in International Affairs
This 51 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amaris Mae on Saturday May 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to IAFF 2093 at George Washington University taught by Shinn in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 341 views. For similar materials see Africa: Problems and Promise in International Affairs at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 05/02/15
Health Issues in Africa Chronic Disease Heart disease Cancer Account for less than 14 of all deaths due to illness in Africa Far lower percent than in the developed world Cancer in particularly is becoming a greater threat in the power countries Largely because of the high cost of treatment They don39t have facilities for patients Tiny compared to HIVAIDS Tuberculosis and malaria are also more rampant issue compared to cancer The amount of assistance going to cancer and heart disease barely registers Not prepared to deal with the various types of cancer In terms of heart problems diabetes is the greatest issue Diabetes is a growing issue Less exercise Change in diet more western Malaria More serious than HIVAIDS Malaria affects more people But people survive Except for young children and the elderly Vast majority of malaria deaths occur in subSaharan Africa 8590 of all death due to malaria occur in just 7 African countries 90 of all malaria deaths are in subSaharan Africa 300 million cases of malaria Nigeria alone accounts for 25 of the world39s cases of Malaria Strains very across the continent Higher death rate in East Africa 3 reasons why malaria is a problem 1 Most severe and life threatening form is common in subSaharan Africa 2 Most deadly kind of mosquito is found in Africa 3 Lack of health infrastructure a Although some have an antimalaria campaign Resistance to standard anti malaria drugs have become common Forcing them to use more expensive versions of drugs Artamesicine made from a Chinese herb is the most recent drug But also losing its potency But has to be used with another drug as well quotMalaria is the Darwinism of the parasite worldquot Insecticide treated bed nets Are effective Can reduce malaria transmission by up to 90 Relatively cheap Success depends on how widespread the nets are DDT US banned Harmful in large quantity Many African government are calling for it Is an effective killer of the mosquito Cheap Some mosquitos have developed resistance Neither the ultimate pesticide nor the ultimate poison Rachel Carson the Silent Spring Highlighted the problems of DDT But the WHO has endorse the wide use of DDT For indoor spraying only Cholera Sporadic outbreaks Doesn t kill many Makes the news cycle 2011 Chad basin area 1000 people died Main causes of cholera is poor sanitation Measles Vaccines are necessary Cannot be administered under the age of 1 So if older children are not given the vaccine they can get measles to babies who will die Measles can crop up Malawi Burkina Faso Happens when a group of people miss the vaccination campaign Vaccine cost lt1 to protect each child International donors are more than happy to pay the cost African countries cannot also provide it Best program can provide vaccines for measles and poio Bedside nets Warming medicine Leprosy Being eliminated from Africa New cases are still identi ed in Africa But on the decline Disease of poverty Easily cured by a combination of drugs Not contagious at all Poio Was eliminated from most African countries Spread out of Nigeria Affected 9 more states Because of poor vaccination Sugar pi But many refuse the pill And other medication because of fear of western in uence Children born in very recent years have not yet received the medication And are subject to coming down to poio Need follow up campaigns nation wide Rotary international works on eradicating polio Con ict becomes a major issue in aiding with poio Guinea Worm Water eas People drink water contaminated by the eas Digestive track kills the eas But not the larvae After about a year the worm emerges from the carrier Causes disabling pain As long as a 3 foot long spaghetti noodle Have to carefully draw it out of you With access to safe drinking water the worm disappeared Carter began a wide eradication campaign 1986 4 million cases By 2009 only 3500 cases Ethiopia Mali and Ghana have guinea worm Filtered with a cotton cloth Keep infected persons out of water sources Gates foundation has contributed 40 dollars to end guinea worm Tuberculosis is a major issue Compounded by con ict Refugee movements Poverty Etc Meningitis Senegal through the central part of Africa Covers 25 different countries Group A meningitis 810 cases in Africa Costs less than 50 cents a dose Campaigns are underway in a few countries Should be possible to climate Yellow Fever By mosquitos Large problems As long as there is a large population that is not immune to yellow fever the potential exists Needs rapid vaccination River Blindness DebH aUng Has been controlled Water ayed that likes rushing water Carried by the snail Parasite in the intestinal track One shot deal now Female Circumcision Spread from Nile valley Through migration routes Went everywhere Except southerncentral Africa Most impacted area today Somalia Egypt Mali Sudan and Ethiopia Not speci ed by religion Customary more than anything else Various medical procedures Health risks in all of them Most severe form is common in northeastern Africa Not a taboo subject everyone must undergo it Thought to purify and protect the next generation Also binds youth to the same age set Education campaigns have had limited success WHO Supports Wider Use of DDT vs Malaria Mosquitos cause malaria The disease kills more than a million people a year 2000 800000 of them young children 12 billion Malaria program initiated by Bush Fierce debates between indoor spraying and the use of mosquito nets impregnated with insecticide Though most agree that both spraying and nets are important tools 17 African countries now sing at least some indoor spraying of insecticides to combat malaria Only 10 of them use DDT Eritrea Madagascar Ethiopia Swaziland South Africa Mauritius Mozambique Zimbabwe Namibia and Zambia DDT is seen as bad because it can have negative environmental repercussions when sprayed on crops Does not apply to indoor spraying Also got a bad reputation after 1962 Rachel Carson39s book Silent Spring Cholera Soars in Lake Chad Basin 1200 people killed a year 2011 because of Cholera in the Lake Chad region Cameroon Chad Niger and Nigeria Linked to poor sanitation and lack to potable water Affected 38800 people Lake Chad is the center of economy activity Commerce shing farming For 11 million pope Population movement for social and commercial activity are constant between areas where sanitation is poor Disease spreads ore icily UNICEF says a crossborder decentralized approach is necessary Cholera seriously undermines economic development Most serious outbreak was in 2010 58000 cases and 2300 deaths Worst case most lethal in Cameroon Epidemic on the Run ApaceUganda Worst case of Malaria Average person is bitten 4 times a day by malaria infected mosquitos Malaria may not kill you but it can start an endless cycle of illness and poverty If a kid gets malaria they miss a lot of school they don39t39 do well and can39t earn money Parents have to stay home with the kids and look after the missing work Could cost 500 year for someone who earns 1 a day or less Does aid work Some worry aid has turned into a giant cooperation Global aid is worth about 150 billion a year About the same as he combined annual output for the 20 poorest countries in Africa Aid contracts are awarded by companies Should focus on closing up shop someday When the disease is eradicated But most want to expand Aid also goes to events not long standing problems Total economic loss of malaria may be in the billions of dollars Treating the problem would be a relative bargain at 3 billion dollars A prosperous healthy Africa would sot the west less in assistance and bene t the world more as a trading partner Malaria campaign began with distributing a bed net to everyone in the world who needed one In 3 years Chambers leader of the malaria campaign delivered 3825 million nets enough to cover 765 million people And save 25 million lives by 2015 Education in Africa Missionary education was the foremost education program in Africa Without it there wouldn39t have been education for African populating Modeled after European schools Re ected little African content Few Africans reached any form of formal education at any level Without colonial power Schools established by the colonial authorities used an authoritarian model brought from Europe Teacher exercised unquestioned authority New governments in Africa launched massive education expansion after 19605 Or after the date of independence Percentage of students in school has increased dramatically But quality has fallen Speci cally in the last decade or two Knowledge is certain factual and objective Not contentious Not subject to change in interpretation Little discussion and dialogue Two factors have contributed to authoritarian environment 1 Colonial legacy 2 Traditional African features More education less control for an authoritarian ruler More demand for skilled workers rather than educated laborers Most Africans do not go to secondary school Highest population growth rate And the fastest urban growth rate Almost 40 of adult Africans cannot read or write 30 of young people Children often do not receive an education in con ict areas Africanization of education Education is the largest chunk of African government budgets Better government education policies are improving the situation Change in the curriculum From content that re ected the world view of colonial powers To building African nationalism and identity But may not know a lot about neighboring countries Started using local languages Begin with the vernacular And then switch to the colonial language African countries have spent more time giving vocational education Split education between textbooks and workshops or agriculture More spending on primary education as opposed to secondary or tertiary education Challenge now to reform African education so it can deal with technological changes and globalization 1 Prioritization of where money is spent a And where it is needed in education b ie notjust on expanding the program but also on improving quality c training teachers d higher salaries to retain teachers 2 local jurisdiction never education 3 new information technology a technology is not distrusted evenly b higher institution suffer greatly y from this i could travel out of state for better facilities 4 more emphasis on science engineering and medicine 5 more resourced for universe research in STEM Higher Education Number of people enrolled has sincerest signi cantly Perhaps too much Universities cannot accommodate the amount of students they have Still has lowest number of people enrolled in the world Decrease in government spending and more enrollment D overcrowding Nationalism got in the way of severing ties with European universities Long term education implication negative Fewer ties with France especially in northern Africa Brain drain 120 00 students studying abroad More than 15 other continents total higher education population University of Cairo is the most prestigious of Africa Education in Africa Since Independence CC Wolhuter Education has laid claim to the biggest single share of the public budgets of most African states and has occupied a central place in national development programmers By the early 19805 international aid to education in SubSaharan Africa equal d15 of domestic public expenditure on education Bank lending to education projects in Africa between 1992 1997 averages 27706 million annually 1960 Launch Pad Skeleton imported Education system stretched over vast untallied eld Base of formal school system in aria was laid by nineteenth century missionaries Modelled after European schools Colonial education became an adapted secular form of missionary education Indigenous populations were educated outside the context of their own cultures and environment Also served colonial interests Trained locals to be of cial tools of the government Popular social demand for education increases towards the end of the colonial era Education was seen to forge national unity On the eve of 1960 Africa had an adult literacy rate of 9 But primary and secondary enrollment rates of 44 and 5 Ready for an education revolution 1961 Addis Ababa Charting a Course for Africa39s Educational Development Ministers of Education of the 36 independent countries met in Addis Ababa in 1961 Outline of a plan for Educational Development in Africa Addis Ababa Plan Set the goal of universal primary education rate 28 Secondary 2 and Tertiary Duran 1998 Addis Ababa was rst in a series of seven MINEDAF Themes expansion of educational opportunities Eradication of adult illiteracy Africanisation of curricula Linking education with development Increasing teacher training capacity In Nairobi it was stated that the Africanisation of education also entails the replacing by the excolonial language as the medium of instruction in schools with indigenous languages Since the conference in Dakar there has been a decline in education quality Ex in 1988 Cote d lvoire used 46 of their budget on education Multiple shift schooling was introduced in high population density areas As was y of obviating the problems of a shortage of school building and the undersoppy f quali ed teaching Doubleshit schoolings establishing inter alia Burundi Egypt Zimbabwe and Botswana Zambia and Mozambique even instated triple shift school The Undug projection Kenya NGO targets destitute street children in urban areas and provides them education Three literacy approaches 1 Project approach small scale 2 Program approach nationwide but under bureaucratic control 3 Campaign big scale and involving high political fervor and popular mobilization a Ex Somali urban literacy campaign 1973 Distance Education Hampered by a hostage of teachers and school buildings in tier pursuit of loft expansion targets Incasing nancial constraints Africanisation of Curricula Knowledge and attitudes that built nationalism African identity An application of African history culture and environment 3 major continent wide initiations 1 African Mathematica program 1963 2 Africa primary Science Programmed 1965 3 African Social Studies Programmed Most notable result was the institution of the subject Social Studies Arabic became the medium of instruction in Northern Africa Not in SubSaharan Africa Examination Most states have introduced vocational subjects in the curricula Zimbabwe made them obligator for all pupils Introduction of polytechnic education Spend part of the day on farmsin work shops Turning of schools into production units Ex Benin in 1971 National Youth Community Services Schemes Malawi Ghana Botswana and Nigeria Generally not successful Teacher Training Traditional modes of teacher training could not supply the quantity needed Aloes a lot of unquali ed teacher inhere tied at independence Two new types 1 Comparative Education literature a In Tanzania b To train primary school graduates as primary school teachers 2 ZINTEC scheme a Slight variation on the Tainan model Community Initiatives Haram beeschool movement in Kenya Selfhelp schools Cater more than half of Kenya s secondary school population Ghana Tanzania Malawi Zambia Zimbabwe Nigeria Mali GuineaBissau Botswanan and Swaziland Al have had improvement in education thanks to community initiatives Progress and Problems The ideal of universal primary education is eluding Africa Secondary and tertiary enrollments have slightly exceeded targets Africanisation has a long way to go In francophone West Africa a book form the 1940s was being used in the 19805 Only 70 some percent of teachers are quali ed Apart from Somalia no progress had been made with the development of Africa languages as a medium of instruction at secondary school Reforming African Education for the 21st Century 25 of all children in 1960 were educated to 60 in 1999 UNESCO reports that 40 million primary school la get children in subSaharan Africa have received no education Dynamic growth of quantity has been at the expense of quality and relevance Teacher salaries have fallen to desperately low levels Cuts combined with economic crises have contributed to low education standards SubSaharan Africa deals with a different set of problems Dif culty in providing minimum basic education for a rapidly growing primary school population Development of skills adequate for improving standards living in both rural and urban areas Lack of global technology Lower standard of living Limited Access Demand for education remains high Promise of guaranteed employment for university graduates followed by any African government until the economic collapse of hte805 In the past 3 decade39s African primary school age children have focused on expanding access to education Some 40 million are out of school At least 20 million are in school Higher Dropout Rates Number of pupils dropping out before grade 5 has been on the incise Pyramid structure As increased demand came governments had to limit the in ux Allowed a large number of pupils to enter primary school Then get progressively restrictive Examination system isn39t a tool for measuring progress but a tool for rationing limited space Low Quality Education Sever lack of tools Technology Instructional materials and textbook Poorly trained and unquali ed teacher Curricula and syllabi not closely linked to performance standards and measures of outcome Until recently methods of improvement have been focus on teacher training and reducing studenttoteacher talon However the system has fallen short Due to a shortage of train teaches and low rotation rations because of low salaries Recommends a more ef cient use of existing resources A disproportionate amount no public funding gates to tertiary education rather than primary education Which would bene t the poor Barely 4 of university age people enter tertiary education IMF and World Bank misguided policies of the 805 High unemployment among graduates Lots of misperception about wellpaying jobs lntel modern sector for university students 250000 schoolleavers 40000 jobs In equable opportunities between boys and girls What American capital had done in Western Europe Marshall Plan could be replicated in Africa if Africans invested more in the development of their human resources and if additional foreign capital was channeled into these countries for education purposes International organizations and foundations responded to this perceived need by fungi educational training programs 9 Accounts for the rapid expansions of education opportunities 0 But also the lack quality Predominant themes of education 1 Must foster a sense of nationhood and national unity 2 The skills and knowledge required for national development 9 Money went to expansion only Education has been previously basso n race So the African independent countries had to expand to counter this Ex in 1963 right after independence 30 of all secondary schools were located in the urban areas and catered other European and Asian communities 9 Lack of number of quali ed African to modernize the enemy and run the affairs of the new states at the time of independence 19701980 emphasis on education and employment Since the 1970s education was driven by political considerations Rather than decision to improve the quality of education Or streamline management Or contain costs Measures take not deal with the problem of graduate unemployment in Africa have concentrated on curriculum changes and the expansion of instigation to provide technical and agricultural education quotWhite collar attitude was one of the main causes of graduate unemployment Not many private sector jobs Mostly agrarian Promoted practicaloriented training Village polytechnic to equip primaryschool leavers with simple practical skills Run by churches and NGOs Wanted to increase rural income and lower the rate of ruraltourban migration HOWEVER rather than truly modifying the colonial system it simply consolidated it They then geared secondary education towards technical jobs Which became scares So they became to empathize the important of techno land vocation education for selfemployment in the informal sector Post1980 reform the ef cient approach Economic deterioration no the 198s forced many African governments to sign up to structural adjustment programmers with the IMF and World Bank Introduction of user fees have done more to undermine the Africa education system than the exclusionary policy practiced by colonial powers It should be a priority of African governments to invest in Hua capital across the board Main concern should be if the funds are being used ef ciently Priorities and Strategies for Education Knowledgeinformation divide is becoming more apparent in the speci c case of SubSaharan Africa New strategy of technological promotion must be based on the interplay of academia government and industry Steps 1 Establishing better regulator frameworks and administrative mechanisms 2 Delineating more sharply responsibilities among different levels of government 3 Ensuring that decentralization does not lead to inequitable distribution of resources 4 Making more ef cient use of existing human and nical resources 5 Improving capacities for managing diversity 6 Integrating programs within education and strengthening their convergence with those of other sectors especially health labor and social welfare 7 Proving training for school leaders and other educational personnel 8 Ensuring gender equality Should invest in basic education technical and vocation training science and technology and agricultural research and development Fees loans taxes and other means should be used to nance upper secondary yarn higher education Achievement standards must be set and outcomes monitored Gendergap Once enrolled in university women are more likely to drop out than men And less women attend tertiary level school than men Academic achievement is below that of gobs Few women opt for mathematics and science related elds of study Lack of role models Negative attitudes on the part of teachers Gender streaming is pervasive in many African universities Women being overrepresented in humanities and ovation schools commercial secretarial triaging Af rmative action programs should be explored in the future Knowledge production through sharing Regional approach to knowledge production NGOs in research encourage education Hire the graduates who then do work and research for the company on the side Ex African Economic Research Consortium Africa39s Storied Colleges Jammed and Crumbling Dorms are overcrowded 6 in a room built for 2 60000 people in a university built for 5000 70 fail their rst or second year exams at the university Too many students in the room Can39t hear the professor quotInternational development policies that for decades have favored basic education over higher learning vent as a population explosion propels more young people than ever toward the already strained institutionsquot Universities across have become hotbeds of decent Dangerous intersection of optics and crime Student union leaders played large role in stirring up xenophobia that led to civil war In Nigeria elite schools are overrun by violent criminal gang Professors want to go abroad Better salary Better technology Less students IMF and World Bank offered economic reforms Bitter cocktail that included currency evaluation opening of markets and privations Higher education was on the low list of priorities Student unions play a big role in elections Leaders are fearful of widespread discontent among the educated youth News 422015 Kenyan University attack Suicide shooter by AIShabab 147 dead as of 348 pm 422015 AIShabab has still been active in Somali Attacking a hotel with a parliament member inside Attacks in Mogadishu Nigerian Elections Good IuckJonathan is voted out Muhammadu Buhari is now the presidentelect Buhari pledges to remove Boko Haram Also pledged to wage a war against corruption Egyptian Soldiers killed in Sinai Gunmen attacked military checkpoints 17 killed Islamic State group known as Sinai Province The army has killed 70 people thus far Egypt Sudan and Ethiopia signed a preliminary deal for a dam Reconciliation On the future of the dam US removed an armed freeze to Egypt President Obama announced he would visit Kenya Tolerance and Tension Traditional African Religions Belief in a supreme being Believe in a spirit or divinities Life after death Religious personnel Witchcraft and magic Most don39t have a sacred text Used oral tradition Because written language wasn t established at the founding of these religions Belief in goad appears to be universal Although god is seen in various forms Nature number functions of god differ throughout Africa Worship god through ancestors Sorceress are male witches female Magic is normally used to protect people in family from witches Can be used to harm or kill with curses Egypt was the rst country to accept Christie y Coptic Church Muslim conquered in the 7th century Christianity came to Ethiopia in the 4th century Portuguese brought Christianity with them to the West Coast in 15th century Translation of bible allowed African to read and interpret bibles for themselves Indigenous churches were then established Zionist churches grew as well as evangelist church Growth of protestant churches by 19 Arab rule was less oppressive than Byzantine ruIe Gradual lslamization of North Africa through conquest Easter African merchants persona merchant and Arab merchants spread Islam Mobilized resistance to European rule Islam was found to be compatible with circumcision spirits polygamy etc Tolerant in turning customary law to Islamic law Marginal young poor universe students grieve towards fundamentalism Conversion to Islam and Christianity are continuing Preserving trident beliefs with the new religion and Muslim less than 25 in Sub Saharan African in 1900 now they are the majority Around 95 Very little conversion between the faiths Christians remain Christian Muslims remain Muslim Exception is Uganda Large majority interpret the literal truth of their religious scriptures Christens and Muslims favor democracy but they also favor religious law WiII allow rulers and judges to base their decision on personal religion Also want the law to be based on their sacred text Tolerance and Tension Islam and Christianity Pew Forum As of 1900 Muslims and Christians were relatively small minorities in the region Vast majority of people in African practiced traditional religions Since then however Muslims living between the Sahara Desert and the Cape of Good Hope has increased more than 20 fold From 11 million to 234 million Number of Christians has grown 70 fold 7 million to 470 million Northern Africa is heavily Muslim And southern Africa is heavily Christian Great meeting place is in the middle a 4000 mile swatch from Somalia in the east to Senegal in the West Site of AlQaeda39s rst major terrorist strike Bombing of the US embassies in Keya and Tanzanian Ian 1998 More recently of thionic an secretariat bloodshed in Nigeria In subSaehan Africa religious leaders and movement are a major force in civil society and a key provider of relieve and development for the needy Executive summary The vast majority of people in subsaran Africa nations are deploy committed to the practices and more tense of one or the other of the world39s two largest religions Charismatic and Islam Large majority39s say they belong to toe of these faiths As opposed to Europe and the US where few are religious af liated Traditional African religious beliefs and practices have not disappeared Rather they coexist with Islam and Christianity Belief in witchcraft evil spirits sacri ces to ancestors traditional regions hears reincarnating and other elements of traditional African religions Christianity and Islam also exist with one another Few see evidence of widespread antiMuslim or antiChristian hostility Although they acknowledge they know relatively little auto each other39s faith 40 of Africa Christina condor Muslims to be violent Muslims are signi cantly more positive in their assessment of Christen Signi cant gaps in the degree of support among Christina and Muslims for democracy Most subshrank Africans Regardless of faith say they favor democracy However substantial backing among Muslims and Christians alike for a government based on either the bible or sharia law And consider sport among Muslims for the imposition of sever punishments Such as stoning people who commit adultery 25000 face to face interviews 60anguages 19 subSaharan African nations Form December 2008 to April 2009 Other Findings Africans general rank unemployment crime and corruption as bigger problems than religious con ict Except 6 in 10 Nigerians and Rwandans Degree of concern about religions tracks closely with the degree of concern about ethnic con ict in many countries Many African are concern about religious extremism Including in their own fate h Muslims say they are more concern about sulci extremism than about Christian extremist m And Christin in 4 counters say they are more concerned about Christin extremism than about Muslim extremism Neither certainty nor Islam is growing signi cant yin subSaharan Africa at the expend of the other Half of al christen say Jesus will return in their lifetime 30 of Muslims expect to live to see the reestablishment of the caliphate 20 say violence against civilians in defense of one s religion is justi ed In most countries at least half of Muslims say that women should not have the right to decide whether to wear a veil saying instead that the decision should be up to society as a whole Circumcision of girls is highest in the predominantly Muslim countries of Mali and Djibouti But more common among Christians than Muslims in Uganda Most say western music movies and television have harmed morality yin their nation Yet they also like western entertainment Optimistic that their lives will change for the better Adherence or Islam and Christianity y Most believe in one god and in heaven and hell Also believe in the literal truth of their scriptures Attend services at least once a week Pray every day Fast during holy periods Or give alms 910 say religion is very important in their lives Persistence of Traditional African religious practices In Tanzania Mali Senegal and South Africa more than half the people believe that sacri ces to ancestors or sprites can protect them from harm Believe in the protective power ofjuju Charms or amulets Most people consult traditional religious healers when someone in their household is sick Sizeable ministries in several countries keep sacred objects such as animal skins and skulls in their homes And participate in ceremonies to honor their ancestors African religions have no formal creeds or sacred texts Find expression in oral tradition myths rituals festivals shrines art and symbols Primary role is to provide for human wellbeginning the present As opposed to offering salvation in a future world Overall characterize by a belief in a supreme being who created and ordered the owl but is often expiries as distant or unavailable Lesser divinities or spirits how are more accessible are sometime believed to act as intermediaries Lapsed social responsibilities or violations of taboos are widely believed to result in hardship suffering and illness for individuals Must e countered with ritual acts to reestablish order harmony and well being Tolerance but also Tensions Muslims generally say Christian are tolerant honest and respect If women Christina say Muslims are honest devout and respectful of women Sizeable majorities in ever country surveyed say that people of different faiths are very free to practice their religion n And most add that this is a good thing rather than a bad thing Christians are less positive in their views of Muslims than Muslims are of Christians 70 in Chad think of Muslims as violent 20 in Guinea Bissau think of Muslims as violent People in most countries surveyed especial Christians tend to view the two faiths as very different rather than as having a lot in common In Toscana and Zambia religious con ict as a very big problem And 58 say so in Nigeria and Rwanda Support for Both Democracy and Religious Law Strong support for democracy Not much variance between Christians and Muslims on this Strong backing for basic civil law on sacred texts May simply re ect their importance of religion in Africa A substantial ministry of Christian favor making the bible the of cial law of the land Whereas large numbers of Muslims say they would like to enshrine sharia law Majorities soft Muslims in near y al outcries support allowing leaders and urges to use their religious believes when deicing family and property disputes As do sizeable minorities 30 or more of Christians 13 or more of Muslims in seven countries support the death penalty for those who leave Islam The End of Christianity and Muslim Expansion While expanding they are not doing so as rapidly as in the past Most people have already committed to Christianity or Islam Smaller pool of converts Neither Christianity or Islam are growing at the expense of heather Except Uganda 13 of people raised Muslim now describe themselves as Christian Intense Religious Experiences and the In uence of Pentecostalism Many christens and Muslims experiences their faith in a very intense immediate and personal way 310 of people say they have experienced a divine healing witnessed the diving being driven out of person or received a direct revelation from God Also characteristic of African reigns Within Christianity these kinds of experiences are associated with Pentecostalism Emphasized such gifts other holy spits such as peaking in tongues giving or interpreting prophecy receiving direct revelations form God exorcising evil and healing through pare 14 of all christen in Ethiopia Ghana Liberia and Niger now belong or Pentecostal denominations As do 110 of Christina in other countries Morality and Culture Large majorities believe it is necessary to believe in God in order or be moral and have good values Western in uences are seen as demoralizing And people are more inclined to say that there is not a con ict between being a devout religious person living in modern society than to say there is con ict Strong opposition to homosexual behavior Strong opposition to abortion Strong opposition to prestigious and sex between unmarried people Muslims are more inclined to approve of polygamy Optimist and Progress Unemployment is cited as a major problem More than half say they are dissatis ed with the way things are going in their country At least 30 in every country said there have been items in the last year they could not buy food for their family Yet many say life has improved in the last 5 years News 3242015 Nigerian tycoon is funding the private sector by sponsoring entrepreneurial endeavors UN expects no new cases of Ebola by August Rwanda just passed full paid maternity leave Nile Dam Ethiopia Sudan and Egypt met to discuss Millennium challenge On Blue Nile Egypt believes it will create water problems in Egypt So want to ll the dam on a one time basis without affected Egypt Bombing of the Tunisian museum 20 people killed Many injured Two Tunisians were killed were trained in Libya lSlS has taken responsibility for the bombing But unclear if they were actually involved Top 5 security officials were red for the bombing UK of cially declared Libya a security threat to themselves Rebel group in the Central African Republic kidnapped a group and took them to Cameroon Unsure what rebel group is responsible Possibly for ransom 70 bodies found in northern Nigerian town Liberated from Boko Haram Form Chad and Niger Terrorist Isis cell put out of commission Son of a former Senegalese president was sentenced to prison in 6 years for corruption Internally Displaced Persons Refugee Camps Over crowded Chao c quotTown likequot once settled and several years old New refugee camps are shambling and disorganized UNHCR not present Refugee move from the same reasons as an IDP but leave the borders of their own country Move for famine or violence Internally Displaced People leave their normal place of residence to escape famine or violence but remain in their own country Do not enjoy the same legal or institutional support that refugees receive UNHCR can on occasion take care of IDPs but not often No organization dedicated to just this Refugees and IDPS that have returned to their own country original home returnee Africa constituted 15 of the world39s population But it accounts for 25 of the World39s refugees In 2014 there were 13 million refugees world wide Asia accounted for 2x as many refugees as Africa Because of Syria mostly And Iraq Yemen will be another new contributor to refugees The three largest African refugee contributors Somalia 11 million refugees Sudan 650000 DRC 500000 All have internal con ict The three largest African receiving countries Kenia 500000 Somalia Etiopia 335000 Somalia Chad 300000 Sudan Older group In recent year Southern Africa has produced fewer refugees Less con ict Share of the goal refugee problem has been falling Due to con icts in the Middle East In 1994 Africa accounted for 50 of the world39s refugees Rwanda genocide Refugee numbers are declining IDP numbers are increasing African countries have the highest numbers of IDP 2014 Nigeria 33 million DRC 3 million Sudan 24 million Somalia 11 million African Union Convention on IDPS Kuala Convention Aimed at protecting and assisting Africa39s lDPs Has no meaning unless the African countries make a political commitment to enforce it Africa was seen as a continent that treated refugees fairly well Because of hospitability African Union Encouraged that countries help the refugees voluntarily to move home Cannot be forced out Improved legal standards for the treatment of refugee populations Number of refugees in the early years was manageable Not a severe economic burden on the host country Host countries used to be able to rely on international agencies like UNHCR to provide food shelter and healthcare for the refugee population 9 But as the numbers increased the international community was less able to contribute Last 20 years Setbacks to traditional African hospitality Less committed to asylum for foreigners Now urge potential refugees to maintain in quotsafe zonesquot Not truly safe Easier to target Ex Hutu had a safe zone in Rwanda Number of refugees have increased in the last years And are not refugees of colonial struggle 9 Less reluctant to accept them because they are less sympathetic African countries see more prosperous countries taking a step back and so wonder why poorer African states must contribute African states that contributed in the past are done quotEnough is enoughquot Donor countries have become less likely to pay for longterm refugee costs Some African states have experienced an economic downturn More dif cult to accommodate refugees Less of an issue now than it was in the 19905 Refugee Camps in Ethiopia Food Vocational training Educann Facilities 9 Facilities in the refugee camps were better than Ethiopia and upset the natives there UNHCR standards Refugees should be located as far from the border as possible Reduces tension at the border itself Not always possible Cannot force refugees to go home Although sometimes the situation the refugees ee to is not better than the one they ed Issues Returning refugees and IDP have legal insecurity Psychological trauma Physical loss No documentation Refugees in America 1 Must comply with the de nition of a refugee 2 Must be among those refugee groups determent by the president to be of special humanitarian concern 3 The refugee must otherwise be admissible under US law 4 They must not be rmly resettled in another country More people have arrived in America from subSaharan Africa now than did under slavery 50000 more annually Africa39s Refuges Pattern Problems and Policy Challenges quotHumanitarian pessimismquot The state of the world is in perpetual decline with life become progressively nastier brutish and short for ever larger numbers of people Ex DRC Rwanda Sierra Leone Ethiopia and Eritrea Patterns of Displacement in Africa 12 of the world39s population 28 of the world39s 115 million refugees And just under 50 of the world39s 20milion internally displaced persons Total number displaced in Africa 127 million And 2 million returnees Who have not been able to reintegrate in their country of origin Not al countries or surgeons of the continent are equally affected by the problems of refuges Southern part of the continent has been realty minor refugee hosting area Angola primary exception Lots of refugees in the 5 neighboring states of Cote d lvoire Guinea Guinea Bissau Liberia and Sierra Leone Since the 19905 Central Africa Eritrea in the north east to Angola l net south west lncludes DRC Congo Brazzaville Burundi Ethiopia Kenya Rwanda Somalia Sudan Tanzania Uganda and Zambia Interlocking problems of war and lDPs While Africa continues to produce a disproportionate number of the world39s refugees in relating to its overall population the continents share of the global refugee problem had diminished 47 in 1994 28 in 1998 Movement of refuges had been a two way process Those moving out of their country for safety Those moving home Ex 20000 boys form southern Sudan who having initially been displaced within their own country were subsequently forced into Ethiopia then back to Sudan and eventually into Kenya Ex Angola Burundi DRC Liberia Rwanda and Sierra Leone Celine in refugees in Africa has been matched by a growth in the continent39s populate on of internally displaced persons From 5 million in the 905 to 95 million The Principle and Practice of Asylum In the 605 805 Africa established a largely welldeserved reputation as a continent which treated refugees in a relatively generous manner The OAU Refugee Convection of 1969 unambiguously stated that the repatriation of refugees to their country of reign should take place voluntarily These conditions no longer prevail Principle of asylum had support in the 605 and 705 declined in the 905 0 Used to be buttressed by international aid 0 They were all sympathetic having just become independent from colonial rule Now longer periods of con ict take economic toll During the last 1015 the ideological and material underpinning of Africa39s quottradition of hospital39 has been progressively dismantled At the beginning there were 1 million refugees Then 6 million Speed and scale of continent s refugee movement also spread to increase form 1980 onwards 1 lndustrialize states rather than those in Africa are taken the lead in eroding the right of asylum and undermine the principles of refugee protection When African countries close their border to refugees they justify their actions by referring to the precedents which have already been set in more prosperous parts of the world 2 Many African states have admitted large numbers of refugees in the past now feel that their generosity has been too quickly forgotten 3 Donors will no longer support longterm refugee assistance efforts 4 In the 605 and 705 they were relatively well place to cope with the in ux over the last 20 years low and negative rates of economic growth impeded this 5 African states increasingly drawn international attention not the negative environment impact of largescale refugee movement and population in countries of asylum a In reality the environment impact may not be as great as Africa governments claim 6 Perception that exiled populations constitute a threat to the social stability and political security a At the local level refugees are frequently associated with problems as crime bandit position alcoholism drugs There is a link between the process of democratization non one hand and the decline in refugee protection standards on the other Insecurity and the rule of law in refugee population areas Liberian refugees in Cote d lvoire have enjoyed a reasonably secure and peaceful existence since their arrives Angolan refugees to northwest Zambia are safe and secure Mozambicans found a genuine degree of safety in Malawi The refugee camps of Africa Rae becoming increasingly danger soup laces Refugeepopulated areas may be the target of direct military attacks Also subjected to threat so robbery Rape Conscription into militia forces Abduction for the purpose of ford marriage Arbitrary arrest and punishment by refugee community leaders and members of tell coal security force Violence between refugees and members of the14 local pupation Fighting between deans and subtribes armed conformation between refugees of different nannaHUes UNHCR has called for scrupulous respect for rather than a dismissal of the principles of international an African refugee law Refugee law has a dual purpose to protect the people who were forced to leave their own country And to protect a state39s national interests and address its own security concerns remember the refugee conventions were rati ed by states not by NGOs or the UNHCR 1 Ensuring refugee protection Forms of coercive and military action hurt international refugee law and destabilize the countries of asylum and of origin Denial of effective protection not refugee and returnees may well serve the purposes of extremist militant and insurgent groups 2 Separating refugees from other exile Some people cannot be refugees Those who have committed a crime against peace a war crime or a crime against humanity People who have committed serious nonpolitical crimes before entering another country People who have been guilty of acts which are contrary to he purpose and principals of the UN Sometimes not possible to separate these people Ex Great Lakes region of Africa These people should be separated into internationally monitored facilities Pending any decision on their future Where the national authorities lack the capacity to d such deploy integration or regional military and civil political forces Refugee camps should be far form the international border Not always possible to do 3 Countering intimidation and disinformation Granting of asylum should not be construed as an unfriendly act by the country of asylum towed hot country of origin lnvisibly jeopardies when exiled population engage in activities which are Cleary designed to destabilize the country from which they have ed Host government the internal media and others could mount information Nan education initiatives to ensure that refugees have access to objective information about their rights their obligation and the situation within their country of origin Countries of asylum would be allowed to halt the dissemination of propaganda which is intended to provoke hatred and violence Ensure that all relied distribution systems are organized in such a way as to prevent them from falling under the control of exiles 4 Establishing the rule of law in refugeepopulated areas It enhances the protection of refugees Reinforce she security of the local population Contribute to the task of ensuring that refugee camps are not sued for subversive purposes Helps establish an environment in which refugees can freely choose whether or not to repatriate 9 UNHCR should secure more funds to support the judicial system 9 Re nance local police and security forces 9 Provide technical support in form of vehicles communications equipment of ce supplies and uniforms Reintegration of Displaced Populations More than 5 million refugees Africa are known to have repatriates nice the early 19905 Number of lDPs who return home is higher possibly twice that gure Voluntary return is vital Upholds the rights of refugees Refuges who return freely can play an important part in the recovery of the country Meaningful and moving experience of return Validates the postcon ict political order Important contribution not the economic reverie of wartorn societies Ex Eritrean town of Alebu Problems of repatriation Physical insecurity Rule of law may not exist Banditry and violent crime are re Demobilized soldiers prey upon civilians Psychosocial insecurity PTSD May not be welcomed back by all Legal insecurity May not have proof of nationality Lack of of cial documentation Do not have rights to property they left behind Material insecurity Rarefy possess resources Must survive in an environment that has been laid waste by armed con ict Marketing and banking system has disintegrated Shops warehoused bridges and other elements of the infrastructure have been deliberately destroyed Agricultural land and irrigation systems have fallen into disuse Africa Progress Report UNHCR Working Environment Projected number of people of concern in Africa in 215 are expected to decrease slightly From 151 million to 149 million Due to repatriation resettlement and other durable solutions Central African Republic and South human are likely to remain in peril 3 million refugees having found exile in safety In Southern Africa an incase in mixed migratory movement has also led to growing hostility towards refugees Putting pressure on asylum and reaction space 1 million Somali refugees Return of Ivorian refugees form neighboring countries since 2011 Between January 2013 and June 2014 some 26 00 refugees returned Repatriation operation had to be suspended because of the spread of Ebola Mali39s population remains displaced internal and externally About 267000 people Insurgency in the federal sates of Adamawa Boron and Kobe in northeastern Nigeria provoked displacement of more people 650000 IDP 70000 take refuge in Cameroon chad and Niger Strategy Maintain protective space Collaborating with government and regional units Combating secular and gender based violence Improving camp security Organizing community watch groups Meeting Basic Needs Large portion of the UNHCR39s budget Reliable food supply Pursuing durable solutions DRC tactic will be implement in Central Africa and the Great Lakes sub region 50000 Congolese Tanzania the UNHCR will strengthen its support for integration of more than 162000 Burundi refugees Norm of Mali remain generally insecure and unpredictable Not yet conducive for the promotion of voluntary repatriation Benin and Ghana working with the Togolese refugees Issued permits for a 10year period for refugees from Chad the DRC Rwanda and Togo Addressing Statelessness Support the modernization not the civil registration process Imitate awareness rains campaign to highlight the important of children registration n To ensure children39s access to basic human rights including education and health care In Sudan people with mixed Sudanese and South Sudanese parentage are at risk of stateliness Building Partnership Partnerships with governments NGOs civil society and international organization ChaHenges Access to people of concern is limited by insecurity impassable roads and heavy rains Refoulement denial of asylum Wake national legal and instigation mechanism in the protection of refuges Nonenjoyment by refugees of basic rights Access 5 to basic services including health and education SGBV Inability to attain selfsuf ciency and build livelihoods Dif culty to ensure the sustainably of return and reintegration Pressure on coasters hosting exceptionally high numbers of refugees UNHCR has 25 billion dollars programs Since 2009 has spent 817 million and needs have more than tripled Human Rights in Africa More communal rights Greater than individual rights in Africa Issues with Law Extra judicial execution Killed without going through legal process Arbitrary arrest Held in detention without trial Internal armed con ict Subverts law Law enforcement officials cannot counter the proliferation of arms African Charter on Human Rights Economic social and cultural rights Group rights Civil and political rights Includes internationally recognized rights African Human Rights Commission Receives cases in the rst instance Educates about human rights Each member state is obligated to submit a report ever 2 years in which they explain the measures the state has taken to improve rights and secure rights Has to prove it has been following or attempting to follow the charter Africa Court of Human Rights Reviews cases sent from the commission quotAfrican System of Human Rights Protectionquot The African system derives its norms from various sources African Charter on Human and People s Rights OAU Convection Governing Speci c Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa of 1969 Came into force in 1974 Provides a framework for the protection of the rift s of refugees and the provision of humanitarian assistance ACHP the African Commission is responsible for supervising the implementation father African Charter Women39s rights recognized by the Protocol to the Africa Charter on Huma and People Rights on the Rights of Women Guarantees for women39s rights what combination of protection and empowerment All states are obliged to adopt all the legislative insulation budgetary social and encomia measures Wants to empower women from actors violence that threat their well being Recognizes the right of women to peace Peaceful existence and protection norm the consequences of violent con ict Requires that the state take measures that enabled owe not contribute to the maintenance of peace and security Provides women39s participation in education programmers for peace And women involvement in the structures and processes for con ict prevention and management And women39s involvement in the decision making process African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the child of 1990 quotNo child shall take a direct part in hostilitiesquot Speci c prohibition of recruiting children Complaint has already been led to his commission on the part of children in the northern Uganda con ict States must also take appropriate action to protect refugee children African Charter The founding insurgent of the African human rights system Dates back to the meeting of African jurists in Lagos Nigeria in 1961 But received the attention of the OAU in 1979 Three parts 1 The list of human and people s rights and individual duties 2 Addresses the establishment and organization not the ACHPR 3 Contains general procedural provisions Provisions dealing whit these and other rights raiment aws As seen in eh Charter39s limitation of rights via drawback clauses Rights can exercised only to the extent that they are not restricted by national law Although it is not meant to allow national laws to override the rights guaranteed in the Charter Although the Charter does not expressly mention this it is interpreted that it allows the rights t social security social insurance and an adequate standard of living The Charter39s most distinguishing feature is its elaboration of the collective rights of peoples le internationally recognized right of all peoples to selfdetermination And to equality existence devilment national den and international peace and environment To help achieve ethnic accommodation and peaceful coexistence Achieving Human Rights in Africa The Challenge for the New Millennium Human rights look black in Africa In 2000 In 1998 there were 35 million refugees 80 were women and children Con ict in Sierra Leone Guinea Bissau Angola Congo the DRC Somalia Rwanda Burundi Ethiopia and Eritrea General Causes of Human Rights Abuses Racism Postcolonialism Poverty More than 75 of the continent lives below the poverty line High growth rate also puts more strain on the economy and environment Ignorance Disease Religious intolerance Internal con icts Debt Bad management Corruption The monopoly of power Lack ofjudicial and press autonomy Border con icts Colonialism and the African State The western liberal conception of individualstate relationships does not easily apply to Africa Because of the collection not ethnopolitical communities that historically lacked intercommunal coherence New African states cannot inspire loyalty Have failed to inculcate in the military and police Do not have a political class with integrity Alternatives to Classical Form Many African leaders have relied on ethnic support in order to achieveamanita power In return they favor their supports with privileges and funding Attempts by state government to force diverse cultural populations into a dominant ethnic mold have led to human rights abuses Two solutions to multi ethnic states with animosity 1 Replace the state with autonomous ethnic cantos that can opt for confederation other Swiss model 2 Creating of small independent ethnic states whose leaders may opt for some form of interstate integration on the EU model Certain things have to be in place for either plan to work And independentjudiciary The domestic laws must include human rights Free and fair trials Judicial authority must be legitimate over the police and government Minority populations must be preached and given some means of participating in the economic process The African Human Rights Charter Africa Charter was created in addition to the UN charter Because they needed to quotdevelop a scheme of human rights norms and principles founded on the historical traditions and values of Africa civilizations Fairly typical human rights Then followed by peoples rights Also includes the state obligations Ex state is obligated to eliminate all forms of foreign and domestic economic exploitation of natural resources It also de nes the citizens39 duty to the state e exercise your rights and freedoms with respect of others Human Rights Commission Created in 1987 by the OAU and under the Charter To monitor states compliance and obligations under the charter The Assembly picks 11 members to the commission Commissioners serve for a renewable term of six years And elect a VP and P from among themselves Every state has to submit a report to the Commission every 2 years To say what it has done to eliminate human rights abusespromote H peace However as of 1998 3051 states failed to submit a single reports All others were in arrears Except for Zimbabwe its report was good The commission could here interstate accusations But no one has done this yet as of 2000 Problems in Creating a Human Rights Court As of 1999 only Burkina Faso and Senegal had rati ed the plan to build a court 11 judges with equal regional and gender distribution Shall have autonomy Books of law will be the Charger and UN declarations of human rights Will be able to order a state to repay victims And should be funded by the OAU But seeing the OAU has trouble funding the commission let alone the court this remains to be seen International Affairs African Union Came into 2002 Replaced Organization of African Unity 1963 New charter Looked of the EU However the parliamentary organ is not strong Many were critical of the former organization Could not meet the demand of a changing world Wanted a strong regional organization for peace on the continent Secretary General had too little authority And increase funding The new charter re ects a compromise between those how wanted a super national entity and those who wanted to maintain key components of national severity 54 states involved Leading to the new Charter Reaction of the rise of a neoliberal encomia ideology Growing need to reset Human nights Some personal rivalries among leaders quotGood governancequot in the new charter Old OAU principles human rights rule of law sanctity of human life good governance peaceful resolution of con icts prohibition of the use of force against member states balanced economic development through the promotion of social justice Essentially good governance law and economy Structure of AU The Assembly the supreme organ of the AU PresidentPrime Ministers Holds enormous power Determines policies Admits new members Adopts the budget Decides on intervention in other states if any Executive Council Consists of foreign minister Can make decisions on a wide range of issues such as foreign trade and education Prepares the agenda for the Heads of State summit Assembly Pan African Parliament Based in South Africa Platform To represent the views of the African people Has an advisory role But is expected eventually to hold full powers 5 legislators from each member state 20 of the members are female Peace and Security Council Responsible for promoting Opeace security and responsibility 15 elected members Very effective Amanas Operation The Somali government would not be in Mogadishu today AlShabab would still be there Long way to go but have done some work Burundi Comoro Islands Bad project Darfur Got overwhelmed Quickly became a hybrid between AU and UN Have accomplished precious little in Darfur Economic Social and cultural council Encourage democracy Has done little beyond providing monitoring Had done little to go beyond corruption Combatting corruption is not something the AU can do AU has denounced military dictatorship Mauritania twice Mali Guinea etc And has removed them from the Au Promote respect Good governance Human rights Commission AU administrative structure Runs between summit meetings Lacks professionalism a collegial nature a panAfricanist vision and good management system Funding 130 million Algeria Egypt Lydia Nigeria and South Africa provide 75 of the funding Many countries are under sanctions And many countries do not pay their dues Many people do not feel connected to the Au Is not people driven But state driven AU has been far more outspoken in condemning military coups Much different form the OAU NEPAD Adopted by the OAU in 2001 And then readopted in 2002 The goal is to eradicate poverty Promote sustainable growth and development And empower women Blueprint for Africa39s development in the 21St century Goals Reducing the risk of doing business in Affric a Creating condition conducive to investment and high economic growth Increasing Africa39s competitiveness Transforming the relationship with donor countries And working with multilateral institutions To increase investment in Africa Africa Union created the NEPAD Coordinating lndustry To facilitate and coordinate the implementation of priority programs and projectsj Started out as its own project Now supervised by the AU bureaucracy Beginning Under Mbeki president of South Africa in 1999 Remains to be seen whether it will become an affective organization Not as much support from the donor countries It operates on the assumption that we will monitor our own improvement and make the changes that we think are necessary to encourage economic development but donor want to see the improvements rst African Development Bank Improving service delivery and nancing for countries Since 2001 the focus has been to support regional strategies to prevent con ict and to stabilize postcon ict states Done in an economic way 1 Governance Captivity building Recon structure of Infrastructure 2 Onetime payment for debt arrears of fragile states 3 Improving the capacity of bureaucracy Management technology Criticism 1 Looks at technological solutions only 2 Prioritizes profitneed 3 Can encouragesustain leaders a Regardless of whether they be good leaders 4 Need to coordinate with other resourcesinfrastructures Problems with all Structures Not enough money Meeting the Challenge of Globalization The African Union Au is the product of preOAU dead But also a response to the globalization and democratization democratization 1961 Kwame Nkrumah had called for an organization similar in suction and ambitions to the Au byte majority of other African leaders rejected it OAU was established in 1963 Legacies of the OAU Globalization and the end often Cold War had compelled African states to recognize the structural weakness that had prevented the OAU from responding effectively to fratricidal intrastate con ict OAU submitted the Political and SocioEconomic Situation in Africa and the fundamental Changes Taking Place in the Worldquot 0 1993 establish the OAUquots mechanism for Con ict Prevention Management and Resolution After all the con ict in CAR DRC Ethiopia Liberia GuineaBissau Rwanda and Somalia they created the Au at the Sirte Libya summit in 1999 During the life of the Oahu African states not only groomed dictates whose obsession with power resulted looting of the coffers But also destructive and bad habits and practices such as corruption Nan nepotism go unchecked Issue of disputed state boundaries is no longer a major problem But Morocco s position on Western Sarahi39s a subset of it OAU used the principle of noninterference and onintervention in the internal affairs of member state stop turn a blind eye to horrendous and egregious actors of brutality y 9 But the AU can interfere in quotrespect of grave circumstancesquot OAU coddles dome dictations such as Uganda39s ldi Amin ldi Amman served as the OAU s chairman for m19751976 While butchering thousands of Uganda s Other OAU chairman dictates Ethiopia39s Mengistu Haile Mariam and Germans Mobutu Sese Seko of the DRC and lbrahim Babangida of Nigeria 9 AU has additional structures that require its members to govern well 9 Au has to observe sound economic policies 9 And AU members have to respect human rights Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe has committed to these goals but he is a dictator and is not observing the good governance principle Political Climate of the African Union Rivalry among leaders appear to revolve around three political gures 1 Libias Muammar Gadda pan Africanista ideal a Single handedly put in more money than anyone else 2 Nigeria39s Olusegun Obasanjo country s political and encomia cloutO 3 South Africa39s Thabo Mbeki country s economic and political clout Gadha Took power in 1969 Overthrew King ldris Who had also called for an African political union 30 year rule Wanted to build nuclear weapons Then pursued the panAfrican project instead South Africa Also had sought to obey a nuclear power Deviled a credible nuclear weapons program by the late 1980s However with renewed pressure for liberation the white minority debated nuclear weapons would be passed on to the black regime and then it was dismantled 9 Signed the Non Proliferation Treaty in July 1991 Mbeki became president in 1999 And then it was too late for a nuclear weapons Gaffe and Mbeki By pursing NEPAD Mbeki sought to satisfy the concerns of the 1960s critics of Nkrumah who sought African unit through economic cooperation NEPAD was regarded as an appropriate governance tool for debtridden Africa All of this context panAfricanism globalization end of the cold war and need for economic relief that led to the creation of the Au and the encouragement of it by 43 states that attend the OAU summit in Libby in 1999 9 AU was formally launched in 2002 Gadhafi gave a speech that heralded Arica39s freedom ended of enslavement and colonialism and the African ownership of their land but sounded like a militant rant thick and rhetoric Through the AU Gadhafi south to greater a hegemony in Africa Some people pitted AU against NEPAD Mbeki39s brainchild Gaffe wanted a continental government one African military force uniform trade and foreign policies and one leader representing it all Also Nkrumah39s dram Mbeki wanted to create a continent ruled by likeminded African democrats who shared his goals of competitive markets technological advancement progressing economies and industrious populations Objectives of the African Union Many of the objectives require a skillful exploitation of the complex relationships between globalization security and governance to be pursued successfully AU makes a pledge to build quota United and strong Africaquot Wants to establish partnerships The Economic Social and Cultural Council has been given this takes It is anticipated that African people will gain more roles in in uencing continental trends and policies through the election no members in the Pan African Parliament AU pledges to defends sovereignty territorial integrity and indene of member states AU encourages the promotion of human rights and good covenants AU promotes de ne of the Africa39s quotcommon position on issues of interest to the continent and its peoplequot Au also pledges to pursue quotpeace security and stability on the continentquot The objective of promoting democracy and good governance cold assume extra signi cance once the PanAfrican Parliament evolves into an organ with full legislative powers Principles of the African Union AU in a Nutshell On 99999 The head 5 of State and Government of the Organization of African Unity declared the establishment of the African Union To address the rightful role of Africa in the local encomia While addressing multifaceted domical economic and political problems Main goal was to rid Africa of colonial and apartheid consequences Lagos Plan of action African Charter on Huma Nan People s Rights Africa39s Rarity Program for Economic recovery OAU Declaration on the Policies and SocieOEocniam Situation in Africa The Charter on Popular Participation Treaty stabling the Africa Economic Community AEC The vision of the African Union is that of quotan integrated prosperous and peaceful Africa driven bit its own citizens and representing a dynamic force in global arenaquot Have moved way from encouraging liberation movements to spearheading Africa39s development and integration Organs of the ALU The Assembly composed of Heads of State and government the supreme organ of the Union The Executive Council compose of ministers or authorizes designated by the governments of member states is responsible to the Assembly The Commission composed of the Chairperson the Deputy Chair son eight Commissions and staff members Each commissioner is responsible for a portfolio The Permanent representative Committee composed of permanent representatives of member states accredited to the Union Prepare work for the Executive Council Peace and Security Council created at the summit of Lusaka in July 200 PanAfrican Parliament is an organ to ensure the full participate no African peoples in government and economic integration of the continent Protocol relating to the composition powers functions and organization of the PanAfrican Parliaments in the process of rati cation ESOSOCC the Economic Social and Cultural Council and advisory organ composed of different social and professional groups of the Members states of the Union The Court ofJustice The Specialized Technical Committees Ex Rural Economic and agricultural Matters Financial Institutions African Central Bank Africa Monetary Fund African investment Bank AU Communion key Oran playing a central role in the daytoday management of the African Union lt represented the Union ad defends its interest s It elaborates draft common positions Of the Union Prepares strategic plans and policy for review by the Executive Council Ensures the14 mainstreaming of gender in all programs and actives of the Union NEPAD in a Nutshell The New Partnership for Africa39s Development Is a programmer of the African Union Begun in 2001 Primary objective of popover eradication promotion of sustainable growth and development and the empowerment of women through building genuine partnerships at country regional and global levels It is a blueprint for Africa39s development in the 21St century Wants to place African countries both individually and collectively on a path towers sustainable growth and development To half the marginalization of Africa in the globalization process To accelerate the empowerment of women To fully integrate Africa into the global economy Acceleration of regional and continental integration Forging new partnerships with the industrial world by ensuring that it changes the unequal relationship between African and the developed world Strategic focus To reduce the risk pro le of doing business in Africa To create the conditions conducive for investment high economic growth and sustainable environment To increase Africa39s competitiveness in the world encomia To transform the unequal and donorrecipient relation with the devised countries and mutilate institutions to a new partnership that is based on usual responsibility and respect To increase investment on the continent in order to ensure special and economic development Governed by the NEPAD planning and coordinating Agency Overseen by the NEPAD Heads of State and government the Orientation Committee and the Steering Committee News 4715 French troops got Dutch hostage release from Mali Was kidnapped by AlQaeda related group AlShabaab will carry out more attacks in Kenya Suicide bomber in Libya Militants blew up gas pipeline in Nigeria Sierra Leone identi ed new Ebola case Final death toll in Kenya at Garish a University is 148 people One of the terrorist was the son of a local chief and was studying to be a lawyer BRICS China China39s relations with Africa goes back to trading before Ming Dynasty Prior to Christianity39s development or spread to the continent Less activity after this point China has 5 main interests in Africa 1 Access to nature resources a 25 of China39s oil is from Africa i Minerals as well like cobalt copper and zinc 2 Political support from Africa a In international organization b Or negotiates c Alliances 3 Chain is interested in ending Taiwan39s diplomatic prescient in Africa a 50 African countries recognize Beijing 1 China has embassy in al those countries 4 Chan sees Africa as growing market for its exports i China is Africa39s largest trained partner 1 Most countries have trade de cits with China 5 China wants to maize the con ict in Africa a As they affect resources b Also affect the state of the market Chinese investment Goes to construction telecommunications and banking in Africa China is willing to take great investment risks Low interests loans to African countries No conditions attached Just have to recognize Beijing and not Taiwan China aids countries that the West wont Has excellent state to state relations Chain39s foreign mistier his been visiting Africa since 1991 Largest news series sheng WA provided by China Confucian institutes Rebroadcasting rights with African governments Student scholarships offered for Africans To go to china More than 18000 medical professionals So far a successful program in helping cure African s of preventable diseases Africa has low security provisions China has no military basis in Africa While it has security ties with 50 countries It provides 25 of arms to SubSaharan Africa China is active in antpiracy As it uses the same waters 20 billion in investments thus far Downsides to SinoAfrican relations China does not keep relations with civil societies or NGOs Can foster corruption China does not worry about human rights violations Single largest supplier of small arms and weapons Being used in con ict zones Poor labor conditions African goods are crowded out of the market with cheap Chinese goods Can be seen in the unit on the informal encomia Counterfeit products India Wants access to energy and minerals Has some advantages over china 1 Geographically closer a Less expensive trade route 2 Appeals to democracies a Serves as an example of them b Encourages the same ideals 3 Uses English as a linguafranca Regular summits with Africa No conditions attached to aid Safe guarding lndian ocean India has 6 5000 military personal in Africa Chain has more peacekeepers about 2000 BrazH 17 million are of African descent Largest population of Africans outside of Africa Brazil has increased the number of embassies in Africa Has invested 1020 billion in Africa Mostly on mining energy and construction Agricultural research is being done Want UN Security Council seat Hopes they can have the African counties there to support it in the councH Russia End of cold war meant the reaction of relations with Africa 2006 interest began to return Putin is more interested in Africa than his predecessors Business is the centerpiece of Russian relations Want to sell services for oil and mineral industry in Africa Nuclear cooperation project with South Africa and Egypt Space cooperation with South Africa and Angola Aid is not much But they do transfer arms Used to be the largest provider of arms Until China came and outsold them More UN peacekeepers than US But less than Chin and India Other Indonesia Turkey Not in BRICS But rising economic intestines in the area BRIC and Africa David Shinn BRICS summit in Durban South Africa in March 2013 5th summit Putin and Xi Jinping and the PM of India will attend 24 llion development bank and bailout fund Which could serve as an alternative to the IMF Lack of agreement on the currency for use in the fund may delay a decision Separate standalone meeting held in January By the security advisors for BRICS To discuss terrorism cyber security piracy and Syria BRICS account for 43 of the world39s population 14 of the world39s GDP Russia and Brazil have the highest per capita GDP But china has the highest GDP at 83 trillion China Reasons to be interested in Africa 1 Access to energy minerals timber and agricultural products a 13 of China39s oil imports come from Africa b Also cobalt manganese tantalum bauxite iron ore and coal 2 Support of African countries in international forums a Ex when Tibet became an issue in the UN in 2008 the African countries remained silentsupported China 3 China wants all countries to recognize Beijing and not Taipei a Only Swaziland Burkina Faso Gambit and Sao tome and Principe still have relations with Taiwan 4 China wants to increase sports to Africa a 2009 China passed the US as Africa39s most important trade partner b There are however large countrybycountry disparities China39s growing assistance program To increase in uence OECD equivalent aid has been 25 billion in recent years Also provided low interest loans tied to infrastructure projects Ex Angola received 145 billion Ex DRC received 65 billion Ex Ethiopia receive 3 billion China has an embassy in 4950 countries that recognize Beijing Forum on ChinaAfrica Cooperating FOCAC meets every three years starting in 2000 Dif culties between China and African Less successful with civil society opposition political parties and labor union Democracy and good governance human rights practice transparency and questionable environmental practices India More of a direct challenge to Chin in Africa than is the US Primary interest in Africa is access to energy and minerals Especially in Nigeria and South Africa Annual trade with Africa about 64 billion Export cheap goods lmport materials 20 of total oil 20 of total goods lndian advantages Over China Closer LanguageEngHsh Democracy GDP growth rate of 7 Only just begun to formalize collaboration Smaller summit with Africa 2011lndia announced a 5 billion line of credit Safeguarding Indian Ocean sea lanes is a vital national interest for India Very sensitive to Chinese naval power India Brazil and South Africa created a strategic alliance in 2004 BrazH 7 million people of African descent Mostly from Nigeria and Benin Nigeria has Brazilian communities because of those who returned after slavery in the 19th century y Trade of 28 billion a year Mostly with Nigeria Egypt Algeria and South Africa 90 of Brazil39s imports are oil and natural resources Has invested 10 20 billion in Africa Primarily in energy mining and the construction sector Brazil looks to Africa to get a permanent spot on the UN Security Council Russia Relations declined after 19805 and fall of USSR Revitalized recently under Putin First RussiaAfrica Business Forum in Addis Ababa in 2011 Russia is the lowest in trade with Africa Totaling 7 billion in 2008 Russia has invested more than 20 billion Africa39s energy sector Russia exports are twice as large as imports from Africa Russian aid is extremely modest 50 million in 2003 210 million in 2007 Moscow has cancelled more than 20 billion in African debt News 492015 Opposition leaders in Kenya demanded they take all troops out of Somalia Somalia put a bounty on the top 11 commanders of the alShabab Kenyan school massacre still in the news Continuing debate on whether the attackers were signaling out Christians for killings Con ict in Africa Importance of Having a Better Understanding of why Con ict takes place States that were previously stuck in civil strife have emerge with peace Ex Randa Cote de lvo ir Angola Liberia Sierra Leone Mozambique Countries once considered basket cases may not be considered so permanently 19905 there was a tendency for countries to intervene directly in the internal affairs of neighbors Dissipated lately Signi cant number of countries engaged in war and con ict in the 19905 Overall improvement Following the Cold War Less military intervention by the western power And the Russians and Chinese Lack of democracy denial of human rights disregard of people39s sovereignty lack of empowerment and accountability bad governance Relatively few interstate con icts until the 19905 Exceptions between Ghana and Togo Mali and Burkina Faso More interstate con icts since the 19905 Lots of con ict between Sudan and South Sudan DRC as many other nations intervened OAU created in 1963 Have actually helped reduced the occurrence of interstate con icts Borders were to remain static OAU discouraged engagement in internal affairs of another country Tribalism While it plays a role it overlooks the lack of clarity in what makes up a tribal group Is it based on language Culture Religion Ethnic identity is a matter of perception Rather than any characteristics Labeling a con ict as a tribal war can lead to failing policies And can increase violence Ethnicity does play a signi cant role But tendency to overstate its importance Competition for Resources Lies at the center of many African resources Con ict can occur along class lines Or more commonly its pastoralists vs agriculturalist Or urban vs rural Resources oil water minerals diamonds play a role in Sierra Leone and Angola Economics don39t always play a factor GDP can go down and yet no con ict Con ict countries show the extreme in human deprecation Adult literacy rate is less than 50 in 12 of the countries Human poverty and lack of social inclusion is on the rise And as con ict continues it will be very dif cult to defeat poverty Con ict countries tend to have governments that disregard human rights Even when you bring con ict to an end the leadership never quite understand why the con ict begun l so con ict will start again What are some ways of getting a better understanding Include the opposition government in the communication process Use of think tanks Ethiopia has think tanks Peace Operations in Africa Today there are 8 UN peace keeping operation in Africa Account for 80 of UN peace keeping expenditures Most con icts are protracted and complex Often cross national borders Often in support of problematic peace agreement 5 That were often not signed by all the con icting parties And do not address all the issues that led to the con ict Many parties in the con ict that operate with militias And want the con ict to continue AU UN ECOWAS EU in Chad and US led coalition tried to help reestablish peace in Somalia Peace keeping missions made it hard to ensure the goals of each actors Poses challenges for the inoperability of doctrine ability and authority Everyone is coming from a different point of view Troops operate differently from other peacekeepers from civilians from government Issue of language differences Mandates are dif cult as well Peace keepers keep to some titles Have to gure out which group is capable and willing to do what Peace keeping operation is low in troops and often slow in building up what strength it does have 1 You almost never has any many troops as you need 2 It takes months oar year to get to the authorize level that the UN or AU has suggested is the magic number Most peace keepers in Africa are from African countries or South Asia Especially Bangladesh India and Pakistan Very few are from western countries today Why so few US peacekeepers attached to UN peace keeping measures Status of forces US doesn39t like to put troops under command of someone else US experience in Somalia is the main reason why there are no peacekeepers in Africa Number of police have gone up as more peacekeepers are assigned to Africa It is harder to nd police than soldiers Ambitious mandates Being asked to help build institutions of liberal democratic governments Electoral supervision Human rights monitoring In addition to providing relief and security But they receive very little resources And not a lot of training And confusing direction Which is the priority Serving the government or the people what if they con ict UN AU EU combine EU provides most of the funding AU authorizes UN sends troops US is the single largest provide for the budget for the peace keeping portion of the UN IN a study 77 coup defat 1958 2008 West Africa account for more than half of that There are also more countries Central Africa also has a large number of these coups Disproportionate to the states there South Africa has been generally free of coups Another study found a strong historical correlation between civil war in subSaharan Africa and a rise in temperature Famine Drought Lower crop yield Nonfarm labor activity declines with higher temperatures What are the Reasons for con ict Resource competition Ethnicity Poverty economic disparity Religion lnstability corruption Human rights violations Who should be responsible for peace keeping in Africa Regional groups lack of funding is a problem The AU UN What role should the US play in African peace keeping making Increase funding to regional organizations Operationlogical support News 4142015 1 year since the kidnapping of 200 girls from Nigeria by Boko Haram Some news on this Someone saw a few Sudanese voting opened yesterday Some independent unknown candidates Running against President Bashir Running the country since 1989 South Africa attack on 5 Malawi Boat of migrants capsized off the coast of Libya Eritrea Somalia Syria 400 people may have drowned Schools reopen in Sierra Leon Having closed due to Ebola Only in certain areas Nigerians elections For state governors And state assembly 9 people were killed during those elections EgyptianAmerica Sentenced to life in prison for supporting the Muslim Brotherhood Just went on trial 14 died in Sinai Peninsula Multinational force of Chad Niger Nigeria and Cameroon have taken control of Boko Haram39s headquarters in Nigeria Ebola 28 people treated in the American created and expensive Ebola centers Islamic State has taken credit for an attack on the Korean and Moroccan embassies in Libya Con ict Part II Most rebel leaders in interstate war used economic incentives to motivate followers But not to the exclusion of ideological inclusionmotivation Economic agendas are not the only or necessarily the main tool for driving rebellion At the same time loot able resources almost always play some role in rebellion Rebels must live off the land Sometimes they become addicted to looting Ex Unite rebel movement in Angola addicting to diamond mining Want to loot because they are rebelling to get access to the spoils of the state But these aren39t guaranteed So they loot for immediate grati cation Some do not seek a democratic governmentchange in government So they don39t necessarily want the government out of power It is by their rebel activity that they stay relevant and important Some suggest that this is what AlShabab is doing today The wars in both Angola and SierraLeone Show where the rebel leaders had economic agenda Liberia also falls into this category However con icts in Burundi Rwanda and Somalia do not t the category of loot able resources Because they do not have many resources Even ideological commitments have an economic element Cases of mandatedcoercive involvement LRA in Uganda Child soldiers LURD in Liberia Child soldiers forcing young adults RUF in Sierra Leone AlShabab in Somalia Rebellions almost always use a complex mixture of political indoctrination physical coercion economic rewards and ethnic attachment to attract and hold followers Leaders of rebellions who face the constant risk of elimination from a strong state must build a cohesive ghting force Where the motivations of soldiers have been internalized Some rebels face weak states Libya weakest Somalia DRC When a rebel group faces a weak state it can take its time While it continues to enrich itself le looting Liberation of Zaire DRC Never engaged in a real ghts With former president Mobutu39s forces Just slowly went Looting as it went And the pushed mouth out of of ce End of Rebel movement that have come to sustainable governments Ivory Coast Sierra Leone Rwanda Liberia Burundi South Africa Mozambique Patterns to African Con ict Usually involve military hostility between rebel groups and governments Take the form of irregular warfare Result in overwhelming civilian injuries Yet modest deaths of those doing the ghting Exception Ethiopia and Eritrea High correlation between poverty and con ict Correlation rises when there is also poor governance Armed Con ict in Africa Not unusual for war economies to develop Where there are invested interests in instability y Ex warlords in Somalia until the early part of this century Occasionally con ict is linked to environmental crimes Ex export of charcoal AlShabab has 30 of the charcoal trade Ex jogging Weapons proliferation has fueled civil wars Sometimes other states supply arms to rebel groups across the bored Common in the horn of Africa Ex Ethiopia funds rebel groups in Eritrea Ex Eritrea funds rebel groups in Ethiopia Ethiopia used to supply the Sudanese Liberation Group Now the government of South Sudan Terrorism is a type of irregular warfare Piracy is pretty much over with in Somalia Golf of Guinea lose oil from theft Money is used to fuel rebel movements Ex Liberation of the Niger Delta Neutralized by GoodLuckJonathan Drug traf cking has become serous Cocaine smuggled through South America through West Africa to Europe Heroine smuggled through Asia to East Africa to Europe Greater use of these hard drugs in Africa Human smuggle in nag traf cking Nigeria Ghana Benin Morocco Kidnapping especially of children long standing problem lllegal shing Account for 1520 of all sh caught off the coast of Somalia Paused during piracy Endangered species collection can lead to con ict And some of the pro ts used can lead to con ictrebel groups lvory mostly ends up in Asia China Vietnam and Thailand may take proportionally more of these materials All of these problems create a vicious cycle of insecurity Maritime crime interferes with sea communication The International Community is helping to train and equip their security forces Must be a greater emphasis on police reform Lots of the problems are related to corruption Water attacks Piracy Most attacks have happened off the coast of Nigeria Because of lack of infrastructure Why has piracy disappeared from Somalia Boats have better protection Restructu red Armed forces on board Third Article 80 of arms in Africa are in the hands of civilians and not the military US arms embargoes have been ineffective on limiting the arrival of new equipment into con icts Libya actually an exporter of arms South Sudan DRC Children are capable of operating small arms Contribute to the issue of con ict Ex DRC EX CAR Ex Somalia Model of effectiveness at demobilization Ex Sierra Leone the most successful Lack of resources often prevent African countries from implement demobilization programs Water Lake Chad 50 the sized it used to be Due to decreased rainfall Irrigation Deserti cation May well be that one of the problems of Boko Haram is the diminished nature of Lake Chad Lake Turkana On Ethiopia39s border with Kenya Upstream development has hurt it Lake Victoria Over shing Receding shoreline Industrial pollution Especially vulnerable to climate change 80 year low of water levels in this past year River Nile basin Lower water amounts as well Less freshwater Peace Operations in Africa lessons Learned Since 2000 Over 50 peace operations To 18 countries Partnership peacekeeping Using multilateral and bilateral institutions Force vernation efforts should focus on deploying the capabilities needed to realize mission objective and not solely on numbers of peacekeepers Maintaining legitimacy is crucial International disagreements persist over the fundamental purpose of peace operations Especially in regards to the use of military force Organized valence has killed million and displaced million more Traumatized a generation of children and young adults Broken bonds of trust Authority structures in local communities are ruined The direct and indirect cost of con icts in Africa sink 2000 900 billion AlShabab Somalia Democratic Force for the Liberation of Rwanda M23 Rebels in the DRC Janjaweed in Darfur AlQaeda in the Islamic Maghreb Ansari al Dine in Mali Usled international withdrawal form peacekeeping in Africa fatter the quotblack Hawk Dawnquot episode in Mogadishu in October 1993 But some missions in the late 1995 the DRC Sierra Leone and the CAR Conducted by UN AU EU and the ECOWAS Since 2006 the UN has spent over 36 billion in the region And sent 70000 peacekeepers 11 operations Since 2003 the AU has helped increase the tempo of missions AU authorized 40 00 peacekeepers To Burin the Comoros Darfur Somalia central Africa and Mali Peacekeepers have not always Extinguished the ames of war Managed to protect the civilian victims Contorted illegal arm group Have been accused of incompetence corruption or sexually exploiting the people they were to protect Key Lessons 1 An effective political strategy is a prerequisite for success a Peace operations cannot be as substitute for political strategy or the peace process 2 Strategic coordination is crucial a Contemporary peace actions involve a variety of actors i Coordination will be political ii Need to ensure that relevant actors share a similar vison of the operation39s purpose iii The practical forces of many stagey coordination issues will be developing sensible division of labor in the complicated UNAUEUUS nexus 3 Ends and means must be in synch a Goals of the operation should be set out in clear cradle and exible mandates b Ex MONUC in the DRC was told to assist successive Congolese government and their security forces and protect villains when the former were often a major threat to the latter c Once mandated policy makes must present large vacancy vent ie discrepancies between the authorized force level and the actual numbers d Ex large fancy rates damaged performance in Umami39s rst year in Sudan 4 De ne and deliver 39robustquot operations a Brahimi Report clouded that once deployed peace operations must be based on a robust doctrine and force posture 5 Generate speci c mission capabilities not just numbers of personnel a Peace operations must achieve particular political effects on the ground such as to coerce spoilers protect displacement camps and supply toes demobilize armed factions and promote the rule of law 6 Legitimacy matters a Eroded when peace keepers are accused of war crimes i Corruption ii Sexual exploitation 7 Female peacekeepers enhance operations effectiveness a Rare i But presence is increasing b Has dance the operational effective of missions in several ways i Enhances gender quality ii Signi cantly enhances the situational awareness and acceptance of a force by local communities Policy Implications Greater clarity and wider consensus are required Comprehending African Con ict Adebayo Adedeji 1960s 1990s era of independence 80 violent changes of government in the country SubSaharan Arica has earned a reputation of being perpetually at war with itself There is a growing tendency for neighboring countries to intervene directly in their neighbor s internal con icts Ex Uganda Rwanda and Burundi assisted the Laurent Kabila forces to overthrew the Moure regime in the DRC in 1996 Direct it intervention has also become commonplace More in bilateral than multilateral form South Africa in Lesotho Senegal in Guinea Bissau The Economic community Monitoring Group is a unique example of intervention 0 n a multilateral basis OAU charter prohibits such intervention Helpless to enforce it 3 categories 1 Countries engaged in armed con ict or civil strife 2 Countries in several and prolonged political crises and turbulence 3 Countries enjoying a more or less stable political condition n Lots of interaction between countries During the Couse of the past 4 decades large numbers of countries in all three countries have undergone violent changes in government Nigeria lies at the top of the list 30 month long civil war 1 million killed maimed or displaced Sudan Uganda Ghana and Burundi and Benin Have all undergone brutal transitions 5 times Chad Burkina Faso and Sierra Leone Have all undergone brutal transitions 4 times Basket cases need not be permanent Con ict can only be mastered however if and when they are fully comprehended Good governance democracy and development will continue to elude the people of Africa Need to move away from the mere quotpeace makingquot platitude And into the realms of proactive empirical research Need to do wary with the notion that cessation no hesitation amounts t peace Cessation of hospitalization negotiated cease res peace agreements ant national elections are no more useful markers in the con ict resolution continuum There are common characteristics of a dived society Divided violent and con ictridden country or society justice which encompasses equity and fair play as the ethical national policies is conspicuous for its absence Ethnics and Tribalism are often put Foard as the main factors responsible for intra state con ict However this de nition is unclear Language can39t even be used as a guide to ethnics or tribal identity In the horn of Africa while the ethnic factor cannot be informed entirely is more often hand not exploited and manipulated by those who are bent on promoting con ict Elites in African society s particularly members other political class have shown no res rain in manipulating people and feeding the prejudice Degenerates in to people to people violence Also take note that the Hutu and Tutsi speak the same language share the same territory and follow the same tradition It was just deponent on which group came into power And even then it is dif cult to differentiate News 4162015 Nigerian President cannot locate the Boko Haram girls Kenya is trying to close Somali refugee camp Dada UN Protesting not to close Sudan extended its balloting because of low voter turnout President Omar El Bashir is reelected Been in power since 1989 Sluice bomber attacked UN Peacekeeping northern Mali Peace Keeping Trends Small scale civil wars Will continue to be the trend May result in more international attention Because of the threat of terrorism Bush administration inbred Somali until terrorist events and embassy bombing We need to prevent con ict from early warning measures Not wait UN has not made Somalia a UN peacekeeping operation Common African management and peacekeeping operations under words Africa may have to undertake peace operations on his own In special circumstances Like Somalia where the UN isn39t stepping in But the AU doesn39t have enough money to counter these issues UN is prohibited as well Donor countries only willing to make menial contribution to peacekeeping operations Funding issue is the heart of both And why the AU has problems with furthering peacekeeping missions 5 concerns with peacekeeping 1 The idea that Africans should do their peacekeeping is misleading because it assumes UN will reduce its own peacekeeping role 2 One of the central challenges should note thought of as solely as African problems such as genocide and ethnic cleansing 3 African issues are not monolithic 4 African subregional orgs lack the experience and resources to further effective peace operations 5 Do not have required number of trained troops OAU is not involved in peacekeeping AU is more involved US has expanded its peacekeeping in Arica especially in the Horn of African Located in Djibouti Both focus on counterterrorism and counterpiracy now Seychelles has piracy Niger has terrorism groups US security in Africa Up to date assessment of security interest in Africa Strengthen institutions Strengthening militaries Develop clear strategies like training laws police and prosecutors Mission of Africa maritime security Terrorism Embassies Establish illegal shing areas Improve security assistant funds News 4212015 Morsi was sentenced to 20 years in prison Antiforeign sentiment becoming more intense 900 economic migrants from Syria to Libya that capsized in Mediterranean biggest death rate of boat that sunk in that ocean FBI stopped six SomaliAmericans that lives in Minneapolis that were going to join ISIS in Syria Terrorism Sub statedomestic terrorism vs transnational terrorism Mostly domestic terrorism in Africa Terrorism is used as a tactic in war movement39s insurgencies etc Do not challenge foreigners or international interests Overton ingenious governments Embassy bombings is a form of international terrorism Such as ISIS in Libya Inequality identity political marginalization are reasons for terrorism Terrorism doesn39t ignite spontaneously It needs organization and politicization Media can in uence Becoming more of a presence as of late Al Qaeda is the best known terrorist org Split into branches Such as AlShabab ISIS is not AQ af liate Local subgroups aver own autonomy 2003 Kenya foiled plans to attack US cell Transiently Developed from domestic tourism Algerian group Al Q and Islamic Maghreb AQIM The gap between transnational and domestic terrorism is shrinking Failed states such as Somalia suitable environment for international terrorist groups Al Qaeda has used trade in rough diamonds as a source of income for terrorism tourist groups are very entrepreneurial for how they found themselves Domestic terrorism has become so widespread the normal use of the term has become virtual meaningless Counters like Somali must establishing a functionalism to kick out theorems International terrorism has been con ned to Northern Africa East and the Horn of Africa Sudan has the longest association with tourist groups Predates 199 When it was declared an Islamic state After 1998 attack in Nairobi US launched attacks at pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum US included Sudan inti 5 list of countries that have terrorist threat Lent past the time they have engages in terrorist attacks Djibouti has allowed us to have a bas e there to monitor terrorism activities in the region Somalia draws most terrorist concerns Al Qaeda prevalent there Convert became greater because of rise of Al Shabaab and its alliance to Al Qaeda AQIM Establish a caliphate Overthrow Algerian government Libya morocco Tunisia ET Operate in northern Africa and Sahel area Started in Algeria and spreading to neighboring countries Eliminate western in uence and assert Islamic law Assassination traf cking guerilla raids bombings etc Major players in rebellion in Mali Al Shabab mal attack in Nairobi Where elite and wealth Kenyans went Attacks tried to single out nonMuslims But ended up killing both Was to punish Kenya39s intervention in Somalia Boko Haram Islamic sect that rst appeared in 2002 Wants to fully establish an Islamic state in Nigeria quotWestern education is sinquot Attacks Nigerian politicians schools places of worship civilians More than 5 00 have been killed 2009quot wanted to overthrow Nigerian government 2013 closer collaboration with AQIM US designated a foreign terrorist organization Many mummers from impoverished backgrounds Two subgroups Focus on regional vs IocaI interests Boko Haram concentrates on graveness such as poor governance and inequality Police brutality
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