FINAL study guide
FINAL study guide HIST 2340W
Popular in US Diplomatic History
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by email@example.com Notetaker on Saturday May 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 2340W at George Washington University taught by Professor Brasinzky in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 379 views. For similar materials see US Diplomatic History in History at George Washington University.
Reviews for FINAL study guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 05/02/15
Part 1 Possible ESSAY questions 1 What were caused the end of the Cold War a War in Afghanistan i USSR lost there and did not have any more economic funds of recuperating b USSR economic exacerbation c Reagan s increase in military spending d Decrease in price of oil i Russia s economy depended a lot in exporting oil and with a decrease in price their profits decreased 2 Compare and contrast two different Cold War Polices and their repercussions a D tente i Established by Kissinger idea of a truce 1 SALT limitation of nuclear weapons treaty b Containment i Eisenhower and Truman 1 Communism should be contained at all costs c Massive Retaliation i Started by Dulles ii Idea that the USA would retaliate at a much greater scale use of nuclear weapons iii Save on USA military budget 3 Compare and Contrast two different USA interventions a Chile i Deposition of democratically elected Allende threat of communism ii Yet the establishment of Augusto Pinochet and the Chilean dictatorship b Iran i Overthrow of Mohammad Mosaddegh and the establishment of prowestern Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi c China i Support of government of Chiang Kaisheck and trying to overthrow the popular s movement of China led by Mao Zedong Part II SUMMARY OF THE READINGS Session 14 Origins of the Cold War The long telegram 0 February 1946 at the time where suspicion of Soviet behavior started to grow 0 Shaped the new cold war mindset 0 Different con ict between USA and USSR 0 Practical deductions from USA policy 0 O USSR won t stop until Americans are completely destroyed They are fanatics The American system and soviet system cannot coexist until the traditional way of life is destroyed Powerful force with extensive apparatus 9 no way capitalism and communism coexist Soviet power is anarchic like Hitler s Soviets are very well calculated work very logical and respect force and do not take risks USA has to approach them by showing extensive power broad strategy is to contain it and prevent it form expanding Handle specific situations with the right amount of force USA needs to strengthen itself as a society A lot of nationalistic sentiment USA has to stand by its alley Economic rehabilitate Europe with the Marshal plan USA should lead the free world Russians have always been paranoid and it is not particular to the USA Russia government is archaic fragile and their lack of compromise in international affairs worries USA the system will eventually collapse Soviet will back down when confronted with superior force Challenge the Soviet at Key Points Strengthen Western Institutions and Lead the Free World Russians are very calculated do not take undetermined risks Russians are intimidated by the size of their opponent s army USA should build up their army to avoid con ict USSR condemns socialists you can t be in the middle Two worlds capitalism and communism cannot exists together Truman s doctrine o Aid Greece and Turkey in order to prevent their government to converting to communism Marshal Plan 0 USA should keep their capitalist in uence in the west and anywhere they can Iron Curtain speech Churchill o Divides the World between East and West The world is divided into two spheres 0 Calls for firmer AngloAmerican Alliance NSC 68 Conclusions and Recommendations 0 Encourages the addition of more nuclear weapons 0 Massive build up of USA nuclear capabilities 0 Course of actions I Rejected the return to isolationism I War I Continued diplomatic efforts to negotiate with the Soviets 0 rapid building up of the political economic and military strength of the free world 0 accelerate scientific development as well as conventional and non conventional military 0 Truman administration almost tripled defense spending as a percentage of the gross domestic product Session 15 The Cold War in Asia Knowland argument Against recognition 0 Every communist country is a threat China should not be an exception and USA should take a stand towards their communist ideologies o Argues that the spread of communism could take over Asia and that it threatened the peace of the world 0 Urged USA not to appease and not recognize the communist regime in China it would be anti democratic in his views and a threat to the American international stance as much as a hypocrite one Report s on Mao s Overture o Stated his symbolic purpose of staying in China even though the USA clearly did not support the communist regime in China but did not want to cause international turmoil in removing American embassy in the region 0 Ambassador did not support Chinese military scale and worried about American safety in the region and cooperation is only possible if certain treaties were followed Also worried about their alliance with USSR and the possible negative effects that could lead relations with the USA 0 Talks about Hua Chinese foreign minister from CCP of China who invited USA ambassador to participate in a university ceremony in Peiping through Mao s orders 0 USA ambassador claims that will be consulting with the American government and worries that his appearance in the ceremony will signify communist acceptance in the American perspective yet he leaves it for the USA government to decide George C Marshall on China 0 Solution to communist rule in China is to aid with money the minority parties who have liberal ideas China in order for them to establish a more democratic government like his plan in Greece Turkey and the rest of Europe I This plan will unify China in the right liberal direction 0 Mentions that Chinese people distrust the nationalistic leader and that if they aid the proper sort of leadership China will not fall to communism He blamed their internal con ict in the lack of leadership of the country Chenian the Myth of America s Lost Chance in China 0 Historians who argue that Chinese and USA could maintain relations believed in 2 things I China and USSR relation were not strong or friendly so they were not allies per say I And that the Chinese government sought USA recognition they also argue that USAChina hostile relationship is because of American lack of recognition but there is evidence to support otherwise BUT this view is proved disproved given specific documents since they proved that Mao was squeezing outquot capitalists from Chinese liberal zone To recognize the communist regime would mean to be hypocrite towards American goals in China for a century and advise that Mao had resentment towards western unequal treatment of China and by making them equal will give out the wrong message of acceptance to a type of government USA did not agree USA relations with China worsened once China relations to the USSR intensified in 1949 since it was a constant threat to democracy Stalin advised Mao to accept American relations so they would stop aiding the nationalistic party in Taiwan and that they could benefit from capitalist economy at certain circumstances but MAO disagreed and wanted to end any relationship with democrats Overall Mao sought to regain Chinese honor and dominant status that was taken by the western powers during the 18 and 19 centuries It was more historically and culturally related rather than an economic sense China condemned USA imperialistic behavior Session 16 The Korean War Dean Acheson Defense Perimeter Speech O O 0 Have to deal with Asia according to each country it is a vast region Threat of foreign domination in Asia The symbol of the concept of belonging has become nationalism I Understands their minds Nationalism have the power of the people power of their military example of the failure of Chiang Kai Shek who had all the economic and political support from USA and its allies and still failed to overthrow the communist party Communist in China did not create revolution but chose to ride on itquot Americans are interested in the people of Africa Americans also do not want the foreign control of China favored their independence Communism is a method of Russian imperialism Interest is in the interest of the people Worried about the attitude of Soviet towards Asia and the spread of communism I They are detaching the northern region of China from China and attaching them to the Soviet Union Areas such as Manchuria Mongolia and Sinkiang USA should defend the interests of China Defense in Japan must be maintained they have direct responsibility there America stand behind the governments who have the support from their people Three problems in Japan Security political and economic It is the USA duty to aid those and reestablish economic dominance Korea they have established democracy in South Korea and should continue to support it and not stop in between Provide economic aid to the Philippines Helped form stable government in Indonesia India and Pakistan are particularly hard given their precarious economic situation It is the USA responsibility to help their friends but they would only serve as leaders not doers CIA analysis of the North Korean Invasion O O 0 Tested USA policy of containment of communism expansion Gain advantage in communism expansion in Asia USSR thought that they would succeed since they were not expecting USA direct military intervention Because of such actions USA would have to increase military spending significantly The more aggressive USSR s policies the more aggressively USA would respond USA possible responses I Begin partial military and industrial mobilization I Begin total mobilization to start direct con ict with USSR Yet the USSR is unlikely to be as aggressive to the point of war since their nuclear capability is smaller than American Conclusion I USA troops should remain in Korea to retorate their dominion of the region and strengthen their allies I If they retire their troops it would undermine the military capabilities I It would portray USA s commitment as unreliable and provide strength to the soviets to thrive Session 17 The Eisenhower s New Look John Foster on Massive Retaliation o Recognize that Aid to Greece and Turkey kept communism away form Mediterranean Marshall plan was very successful 0 emergencies does not make good public policiesquot I they are too costly 0 USA should cut military spending and respond to any attacks with a nuclear capability response 0 Need more alliances and collective security massive deterrence at a bearable costquot 0 basic decision was to depend primarily upon great capacity to retaliate instantly by means and at places of our choosingquot NSC 158 o Psychological strategic board 0 Eisenhower thinks that Kennan has first laid out that the communist regimes survives only by suppressing their people from gaining the access of the outside world use this evidence to strengthen the allies of western Europe 0 Eisenhower argues that the weakness of communism is becoming apparent to their own leaders and it should be exploit to end the regime o Resist communism oppression through satellite Europe 0 Course of action I Provoke open Soviet intervention in East Germany I Establish nuclear capabilities I Intensify defection programs aimed at satellite police leaders and military personnels I Stimulate free government behind the iron curtain I Free elections I Implement volunteer Freedom Corps completing discussions as soon as possible with Allied governments I Encourage elimination of key puppet officials I Consider covert operations Eisenhower s Military Industrial Complex Speech 0 Need to create balance between the old and the new 0 Calls for disarmament the avoid the concept of misplaced power 0 Intellectual technology has replaced the need for machinery other type of approach intellectual 0 Make agreements intellectually not with arms Session 18 Eisenhower Confronts Revolutionary Nationalism Indonesian President Sukarno at the Bandung Conference I note there are lots of questions in the document 0 Man s political skill marched hand in hand with his technical and scientific skill 9 results in fear as they grasp for safety and morality 0 world of fearquot 0 government should be on basis of morality and ethnics O Colonialism is not dead they are present in vast areas in Asia and Africa it is evil Believes that the nuclear bombs are diabolical scientific skillsquot Strive for peace I Mobilize the moral violence of Nations in favor of peacequot Praises five prime minister who helped end the fighting in Indochina I Praised the developing world and the feeling of nationalism which Americans feared as a threat of the spread of communism The Eisenhower Doctrine O O O 0 Middle east was on the road for selfgoverning and independence USA supports the full independence of every country in the Middle East But instabilities in the region might have been manipulated by international communism Soviet Union want to lure countries in believing that communism is good for economy government or social equality Solution the free nations of the middle east needed added strength to assure their continued independence USA would not seek violent means and they have to work together to assure goals of independence economic wellbeing and spiritual growth Seeks cooperation from congress Assist with development economic strength dedicated to the maintenance of national independence Include the employment of American armed forces Gives permission to use USA funds for military acts under Mutual security Act of 1954 words alone are not enoughquot emphasizes that if called for USA will use military interference in the Middle East recognizes burdens and risks for the USA serve the free world Secret history of the Coup in Iran O O O Mossadeq government in Iran considered communist I Incapable of reaching oil negotiations with the West Weaken the Shah and the Iranian army Iran was endangered of falling behind the iron curtain TRAIAX project would establish the prestige and power of the Shah and replace the government of Massadeq I reach equitable oil settlement in order to make them economically stablequot Resort to covert operations Use propaganda to weaken Massadeq government Zahedi was chosen by the CIA as Mossadeq s term O 0 Made it clear that increased aid would not be coming to Iran Granted aid to Zahedi as soon as he took power Memo on Guatemala O O 0000 Guatemala is receiving in uence from Moscow Is ruled by an anitUS president Arbenz leftist coalition serious threat for the western hemisphere Has a well equipped military CIA supports the overthrow of Arbenz government Aid RUFUS revolution Course of action I Military aid to other central americna states I Cease of military aid to Guatemala I Condem the Arbenz Government I Discredit Guatemala I Economic pressure to isolate Guatemala I Psychological Warfare I Control of power and communication centers I Strengthening the CIA station in Gautemala Session 19Modernization and Kennedy s Cold War Rostow and Millikan a proposal 0 America should participate in economic a airs I Establish democracies Opportunity cost of leaving certain countries adrift would be greater than the costs for redemocritization Fight against overt military aggression through solidifying alliances I Economic assistance through NATO Promote the evolution in the world I Promote values of democratic liberalism I Create social liberalism and collective aspirations which violence would lose its appeal World community is becoming more interdependent and more uid Revolutions are dangerous since communism is portrayed as equal economic and social opportunity selfrespect American should concentrate in economic development of underdeveloped regions Of course the collaboration of such countries are very important for the success of democratization but Americans are a good and wealthy example were others would want to follow IFK s Inaugural Address O O O O 0 Celebration of freedom and renewal Men hold the power to abolish poverty and hunger survival and success of libertyquot pledge loyalty to allies help misery because it is right for a free society convert good words into good deedsquot strengthen the shield of the United Nations never fear to negotiatequot proposals for the inspection and control of arms invoke the exploration of space wonders of sciencequot strive to fight tyranny poverty disease and war itself ask not what your country can do for you ask what you can do for your countryquot 0000000 0 JKF on the Establishment of the Peace Corps 0 March 1 1961 o Corps will be a poll of American men and women sent overseas to help foreign countries with their need for skilled manpower Sacrifice energies to world peace and human progress Foundation of freedom and a condition of peace Only send men to countries that are welcome Peace is a responsibility of an entire society Session 20 The Cuban Missile crisis and the Alliance for Progress The Cuban Problem 0 Discuss alternatives policy in Cuba 0 New directions I Either wait for events to change their policies or initiate actions right away 0 Possible New initiatives I Forces a non communist solution in Cuba by all necessary means Willingness to use military forces to invade Cuba I A decision to insist on major but limited ends Consider POL blockade Develop military combinations of political and military pressures I The US could move in the direction of gradual development of some form of accommodation with Castro Possibility that Castro might draw away form level dependence on Moscow In economic terms both USA and Cuba benefit from the establishment of their relations IFK s Speech on the Alliance for Progress 0 March 13 1961 0 out continents arc bound together by a common historythe endless exploration of new frontiersquot 0 Share the same common struggle from colonial rule and common heritage OOOO 0 000000 0 Common mission to help those from poverty especially in Latin America They lack foods education shelter and protection from disease Calls for Alliance of Progress to satisfy the basic needs of the American people for homes work and land health and schools I Take place in 10 years transform the 1960s into an historic decade of democratic progress I Raise living standard in all the continent self sustained growth the revolution of hope and progressquot Second request meeting of the InterAmerican Economic and Socal Council to plan the whole program I Must formulate longranfe plans for its won development plans which establish targets and priorities insure monetary stability establish the machinery for vital social change stimulate private activity and initiative and provide for a maximum national effort Third 500 million to fulfill the act of Bogota combat military illiteracy improve the productivity and the use of their land wipe out disease Fourth support all economic integration Fifth USA is ready to cooperate in serious casebycase examinations of commodity market problems 611 Establish food reserves 7W9 spread the knowledge of science in medicine and agriculture 8W9 rapidly expand the training programs assistance to universities 9W9 impose security system of OAS to secure democracy 10th9 share cultures fuller intellectual experience Express their condolences to Cuba and Dominican Republic for falling away from communism Progress without tyrannyquot Interview with Fidel Castro 1998 O 0000 In the beginning of the Cuban revolution there was not connection with the USSR Land reform act began antagonism between USA and Cuba Needed arms from USSR since USA restricted all other forms of trade Acknowledges the failure in the invasion of the bay of pigs Says that knew about American military attacks on Cuba compares them to Vietnam Soviets had a strategic interest in the implementation of missiles in Cuba but accepting their implementation was morally justified at the time It was a mistake to keep the alliance between Cuba and USSR in secrecy against international law Possibility of nuclear war frightened him Felt betrayed by USSR lack of disregard in American invasions of Cuba Aid Document on Nicaragua 0 Ensure allocation and effective use of limited resources 0 Government should be structured around increasing domestic revenue 0 Accepts AIDIRS assistance in improving tax administration 0 Session 21 Nation Building in Vietnam and the Vietnam War Eisenhower Domino Theory 0 Importance of Indochina to the free world I Production of materials the world needs tin and tungsten rubber plantation I Possibility of dictatorship o Communism is like a falling dominoquot principle once one country falls it takes very little for others to follow 0 Contaminate Asia with communism and takes away the economic aspect of free trade and forces countries to adhere to the communist regime Counterinsurgency Plan for VietnamMISSING Ho Chi Mihn Speech MISSINGl 0 Political conditions in north of Indochina were unstable opposing French control 0 politically they have deprived our people of every democratic libertyquot o The provisional governemtn represent the Vietnamese people 0 People sided with the allies fought against French enslavement these people deserve to be free The Gulf of Tokin Resolution 0 North Vietnam conducted further deliberate attacks against US naval vessels 0 Urge congress to send intervention forces 0 The treaty I Honor American commitment to contain communism I a threat to any nation in that region is a threat to all and a threat to usquot I purpose is peace I struggle for freedom every fron of human activity 0 USA seeks no wider war Support nations covered by the SEATO treaty o Urge congress to pass the resolution in the simplest terms the resolve and support the actions to deal with attacks against our armed forces and preserve the peace in southeast asis Session 22 Nixon Kissinger and D tente Kissinger on the National Interests 0 The world equilibrium is being disturbed by communism 0 China has no experience with foreign policy O we must resist aggression anywhere since peace is indivisiblequot USA acts in defense of peace and security against aggression but not a specific country States the USA is no longer in a position to operate programs globally it has to encourage them and evoke them due to the failure of Vietnam There could be no stability without equilibrium but the USA position should be more creative and adaptive to the time I Suggests regional groupings supported by the USA I generate coalitions with shared purposesquot I Keep the alliances in America and beware of risking overseas involvement Nixon s Speech O O O O O Withdrawing troops from Vietnam seeking reconciliation Ended American involvement in Vietnam Negotiating with the USSR instead of confrontation End the isolation of main china even though their economy is not doing so great I Open the door for trade I They could be a threat to the world s order USA should stand as economic power More employment less in ation on domestic affairs Private enterprise and capitalism is the means to a strong economy Japan Germany Predicts that the USA will stand as the richest country of the world economically and they had to word together to be continue being morally strength NSC Options Paper on Chile O O Allende will establish a communist government in Chile and deteriorate their economy I Control Media gain control of military change economic Allende will be a bad in uence and spread communism to South America he is also antiunited states given its trade with Cuba China USSR North Korea and East Germany they are a threat to the western hemisphere Courses of action I Option A maintain correct official relations with Chile impose sanctions if necessary maintain just the minimal course of relations to be maintain diplomacy but does not disclose any American public political reports I Option B act quietly to limit the Allende government s freedom Put economic and political in uences in Chile Encourage political groups who support the end of Allende s government discourage communist propaganda I Option C Do not accept nationalization of American companies and discourage private markets in the area no financial assistance Expose the evils of the communist regime Continue with the OAS I Option D Adopt political and economical policies to prevent Allende s government Deny exibility to Allende Provide no economic assistance Veto Chilean loans for communist purposes Maintain surveillance of their ships if they engage in trade with Cuba Publically support the groups opposed to Allende government Encourage Latina America to opposition of Communist Chile threat There is not Session 24 The End of D tente Brzezinski Memoir Power and Policy 0 Define goals abroad I Shape the moral decent world I Power had to come first because without it USA would not be able to protect others from moral goals I Trilateral Commission 9 engage Americans Western Europeans and Japanese to shape a more cooperative world I Nuclear nonproliferation SALT stabilize USASoviet relations 0 Priorities Middle East and Panama 0 Goal to achieve humanitarian aid and human rights contrasted with Nixon and Kissinger 0 Commitment to nuclear nonproliferation I His knowledge of the bombs re ected his moral convictions 0 Need for an affirmative and morally appealing American leadershipquot 0 Integrate congress in international decisions 0 Meeting with NSC I Conclusion of panama canal treaties 0 Policy defined as constructive global engagement I Through mutual cooperation and appropriate arrangements to reduce the chances of war and to codify more precise rules of reciprocal restraintquot I Engage Europe Japan and other democracies in political cooperation and stable and open monetary and trade system 0 Be open to all countries for international trade I Economic stability and growth in the third world 0 Change arms quotlimitationquot to arms quotreductionquot for a fairer d tente policy 0 Normalize USChinese relations I Facilitate their access to technology 0 Stabilize Israeli anArab relations 0 Give higher priority to human rights I Create a budget for it international Financial institution Carter portrayed USA as a country dedicated to global investment Persuade the USSR not to impose their economic system on others Advised Carter to emphasize on the successes of the foreign policy like the cooperation in Japan and Western Europe while no emphasizing the areas of most struggle like the middle east Africa and SaLT Carter Documents Regarding the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan O O O 0 Iran and Afghanistan are in turmoil If Soviets succeed they will have access to the Indian Ocean SALT will be damaged I Because of that the handling of the Soviets will be attacked both the right and the leftquot Project confidence in Pakistan Iran would be destabilize and will not be a barrier to the Indian Ocean anymore China will take advantage of USA weakness Accuse Soviets of political turmoil and infringement of Human Rights Afghanistan weaknesses I The guerrillas are badly organized they have no central government and no army Plan I Send money to Afghanistan resistance against Soviets arms and technical advice I Convince Pakistan to work with Soviets I Encourage Chinese to help the rebels also Carter defended the human rights policies in South America s military regimes I Refrained from selling high tech weapons to unstable countries On SALT II negotiations I Limits on nuclear arsenals agreeing to destroy certain weapons I Breznev made reference to God Iranian revolution I Sha was against communism but was overthrown by its own people was exiled to Panama I Invasion of the American Embassy Violation of their religious beliefs 0 Respond militarily o Interfere will all foreign trade 0 If soviets invaded Iran or Pakistan through Afghanistan nuclear reaction will be considered Letter to Brezhnev from Carter I Improve relations with the Soviet Union on the basis of reciprocity and mutual respect O I Elimination of the all nuclear weapon s was Carter s firm goal I Encourage peace in the African region Have to help the developing world Ensure that all of them are being in check with human rights I DO everything to promote SovietAmerican relations Brezhnev s letter to Carter I Establishing a trustworthy dialogue I Cooperation between out two countries with the goal of stopping the arms race and disarmament I Goal to stop arms race and disarmament I USSR does not strive for superiority in weapons I Total and universal ban on nuclear weapons tests and the prevention of nuclear proliferation I Warsaw treaty I Finding the necessary understanding between the USA and USSR will achieve political settlement in the Near East I USA does not look for benefits in south Africa but sought mutual benefits especially economically Session 25 Reagan and the End of the Cold War Star War s speech 0 O O the duty to protect and strengthen the peacequot Increase national defense Based on a simple premises the United States does not start fightsquot I Maintain our defense to defend against aggressors and maintain peace I Maintain the peace through strength weakness only invites aggression Deterrence means that the enemy outweighs his gains from losses when considering the attack to the USA security is based on being prepared to meet all the threatsquot defense must be on bases of the weaponry possessed by other nations in the nuclear age meaning the nuclear arsenal the Soviets built Soviets refined their missiles built submarines longrange bomber war heads this leads to an increase in in uence exporting these weapons to Cuba Together with NATO allies develop new weapons because the time USA superiority in arms outgrew their numbers but they changed since they became more sophisticated Soviets are building an airfield in Grenada in the Caribbeans and will disrupt American support towards the Nicaragua Honduras and El Salvador s democracies Says that Soviet Union is also supporting Cuban military forces in Angola and Ethiopia with basis in Ethiopia and south Yemen 0 No guarantee that the Soviets will not attack 0 It is honorable to wear the American suit build a new longrange bomber submarine tanks modernizing Air Force Navy and marines o Asks for a 5 increase in the Defense budget Regan in Nicaragua 0 Soviets are aiding the Nicaraguan rebels and they are a threat to their democratic neighbors I Threaten the passage between north and south America panama canal o Asks for reallocation of money to aid the liberalists in Nicaragua to stop the communist revolution 0 Not asking for American troop Asking only for American resources 0 Domino theory communism will spread to democratic American countries 0 Sandinista revolutionary motto the road to victory goes through Mexicoquot I They have revoked civil liberties of Nicaraguan people Depriving from right to 0 Speak publish assemble or worship freely Independent newspapers were shutdown No independence movement in Nicaragua or right to strike Assaults against ethnic and religious groups expelling priests I Involved with drug trafficking 0 Nicaragua is strategically located and USA should care for their merchants and trade for Nato Alliances 0 USA should aid the democratic resistance that is keeping the security of the American s in check Evil Empire Speech Emphasizes in religion USA was morally accounted because of their religion America is good and if it ever ceases to be good it will be greatquot The only Soviet morality is world revolutionquot we would never give away our freedomquot we must find peace through strengthquot because a freeze is too dangerous given the capabilities of the Soviets o The real crisis we face is spiritual one at root it is a test of moral will and faithquot 0 Basically said that communism was a threat to morality and should be destroyed at any cost Session 26 George H W Bush and the End of the Cold War Bush on South Africa OOOOOO Apartheid must be eliminated Praises Nelson Mandela for actions of restoring constitutional democracy Comprehensive Act of 1986 placed economic sanctions against South Africa with the new leadership these sanctions were eliminated Yet sanctions on arms restriction and IMF becomes unchanged USA will be actively involved in revitalization of their economy and to help meet the most pressing needs of education and housing Encourages congress to pass his civil rights bill Iraq s report that Saddah is holding nuclear weapons is concerning to all I Nuclear proliferation in the whole area of Iraq I There is no room to reason with Hussein as long as he is in power USA would not compromise to any violent attitude USA resentment is not with the people of Iraq Bush on Tiananmen O O O O Deplore the decision to use force from the Chinese government Teananmen Square were advocating basic human rights freedom of expression and associations USA has to condemn Chinese violent measures Suspends commercial exports of weapons and the encouragement of the Red Cross to join the ones assaulted by the turmoil Believes the economic side led to the quest for more freedom Deng Xiaping leadership moved China towards openness and democracy Reiterates that is important to keep the relationship with china IranAmerican relationship would improve only after the release of hostages They Iran are terrorist statequot President does not believe the division of PLA would necessarily bring to civil war Session 27 Bill Clinton and Globalization Clinton WTO Speech 0 Support unity in Europe and the expansion of the EU NATO integration of China Russia and the Indian subcontinent in particular with Mechanism for a shared prosperity through economic means aid Interdependency in global community to eradicate hunger poverty and illiteracy in underdeveloped countries Goal to create interconnected global economy Recognizes protests that claim that only developed countries grow developing of the economy is harming the environment and that protests represent forms of democracy Increasing economic trade and cooperation made the world a better place it would also be a safer place if these actions continue to take happen Ensure that least developed countries have more access to global markets They would also have to develop their domestic markets according to WTO obligations The spread of intellectual property protections should aid in eradicating hunger aids and poverty Importance of popular support in the matter WTO has to improve living standards ensuring labor rights and human rights Protect environment while expanding on trade integrate the environment more fully into trade policy A nation can develop a middle class without having to pollute the environment I Not fair to ask India China to give up their economic growth but it is reasonable to ask that they do it in an environmentally friendly way Bill Clinton Address to the Nation on Somalia O O O O Somali children suffered from starvation because of drought USA went into Somalia for humanitarian purposes to aid the tragic starvations I Saved close to 1 million lives USA cannot back away from the region because otherwise chaos would restore itself and to ensure the rescue of the captured American soldiers Increase military presence in Somalia to ensure the safety of the American citizens who are still there Secure roads ports and lines of communication to ensure that starvation do no return in order to live up to the American probability The solution in Somalia is not a military one and would send representatives to negotiate terms peacefully Take 6 months to conduct an orderly withdrawal Americans take over a challenge and they do it rightquot Clinton Speech on the Dayton Accords O O 0 Implementing the Bosnian peace agreement Stop killing of innocent civilians to bring stability to central Europe America is vulnerable to all terrorism intolerance ethnic rivalries religion disagreements outside their borders all of which threat the establishment of democracies America cannot and must not be the world s policemanquot O O 0 USA should do everything that they can Economic sanctions in Serbia major airlift in history help maintaining peace between Muslims and the Croats Muslims Croats and Serbs came to Dayton for peaceful negotiations Hesitant to send American troops in Serbia The only force capable of doing the job right is NATO since it is the biggest symbol of democracy that there is NATO is drafting an intervention goals have to be realistic goals these will lead to free elections and restore democracy in the region will take about one year American troops will take orders from general commander of NATO They would be authorized to use force on the contrary of the UN forces in the region Civil agencies would be aided by separate program of humanitarian relief and reconstruction Americans will succeed because the mission is clear strong and structured and achievable Asks that congress make the choice for peace American leadership is about preserving freedom and promoting People are looking for the American leadership Session 28 911 and the War against Terror Bush At the west Point O O 0000 O 0 Praise West Point They are part of the history from the transformation from communism to capitalist They had a great head start in Afghanistan defend peace from tyranny and terrorism preserve it through alliances and encourage through the building of democracies the threat lies in acquisition of nuclear powers by unstable nations increase homeland and missile defense as part of stronger security oppose proliferation and confront regimes that sponsor terror different circumstances require different methods but not different moralitiesquot competition is inevitable but armed con ict is not when great powers share common values we are better at solving con icts together pursue their aspirations without violencequot there is no distinction between men and women there is no clash of civilizations Bush Press Conference with Tony Blair 0 People of Afghanistan have chosen their President Karzar in a free election Iraqi would soon be holding new elections Palestinian would elect a new president I Together with the USA they can build a Palestinian security institutions to fight terror to help the Palestinian government fight corruption and to reform the Palestinian political system Peace and security can only be achieved by one path the path of democracy reform and the rule of law Strengthen NATO alliances stand by Europe allies Defeat terrorism State a clear vision support Palestinian elections Prime minister supports the transatlantic alliance Bush argues that in elections are conducted in the states of Palestine they will slowly resolve the issue with Israel and that both countries will be able to coexist Goal is to work together to ensure democracy in Palestine and it is possible according to both bush and Blair USA will not tolerate the acquisition of nuclear weapons by Iran Bush argues that if there is an election there is a democracy Democracies don t go to war with each other The solution to end terrorism is to build democratic states and there was no good knocking al Qaeda and the Taliban because the solution lies in establishing a new democratic regime Debate Excerpt BushGore 0 When is it acceptable to use national force I If the USA people are harmed I Alliances are threatened I Middle east is threatened 0 Be careful when you commit our troops o Rebuild military because military morale is too low 0 A billion dollar raise for the military BushKerry Debate Excerpt 0 Bush believes that he is going to keep the peace and he showed the American people how to lead 0 we have a duty to defeat this enemy and protect our childrenquot 0 the best way to defeat the enemy is to never waiver 00000 O O 0000
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'