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study guide (1) PSYC_3150_10
Popular in Psychology of Sex Differences
Popular in Psychlogy
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabriela Saint-Louis on Saturday May 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC_3150_10 at George Washington University taught by Forssell in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 236 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Sex Differences in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 05/02/15
Study Guide 1 SEX FOR SALE 17 Pornography gt De ne pornography and consider its prevalence o quotpornographyquot is derived from the Greek word quotpornographiaquot which means quot to write about prostitutesquot 0 De ning pornography very dif cult to classify what is porn and what isn39t even Supreme court is con icted Justice Steward admitted to not being able to de ne hardcore pornography be quothe knew it when he saw itquot con ict of differentiation between pornography and erotica porn is about violence domination and conquest and erotica is about mutually pleasurable activities bw consenting adults amp Goal of pornography is solely for sexual arousal but erotica has artistic or historical merit 0 Today pornography considered to be quotany sexually explicit materialbe it written spoken or visual that is designed for elicit sexual arousal or interest 0 Men consume more pornography than women exposed to porn at a younger age and more likely to watch porn while masturbating psychologically both men and women are sexually aroused by pornographic images women are less likely to admit to it o as many as 40 million Americans regularly visit porn website up to 14 billion a year is spent on pornographic material including 24 billion sexOoriented magazine US produces much of the worlds pornography 72 believe it degrades women by portraying them as sex objects and 77 say laws against pornography in books and movies should be more severe gt catalogue the different genres and media forms of pornography o Hardcore pornooraphv vs softcore pornooraphv hardcore includes graphic and actual images of genitalia or sexual acts including penetration softcore depicts nudity but not always genitalia it shows limited sexual activity that does not include penetration Study Guide 1 SEX FOR SALE 17 o Genres of pornography many genres in pornography based on sexual orientation explicitness physical characteristics or number of participants or thee speci c acts performed Voyeur pornography sexual images taken of people who are unaware that they are being lmed 0 Media forms of pornooraphv Magazines some intended for general audience others like quotpenthousequot and quothustlerquot more hard core Most pornographic magazines are aimed at men as is most pornography in general Playboy largest selling men39s magazine founded by Hugh Hefner one of the nation39s largest producers of porn through videos and the internet Manga Japanese word for comics popular with children adult manga quothentaiquot sexually explicit video Introduction of videotape greatly increased the availability of porn Pornographic movies are available on cabe or payper view in hotel rooms where about half of all lms rented are pornographic or on video to rent or buy Americans send more than 4 billion on video porn rentals more than the annual revenue of the NFL the NBA and MLB internet one third of all internet use is related to some form of sexual activity that involves sexuality such as information entertainment arousal or the search for sexual partners OSA online sexual activity use of internet for any activity 0 Cybersex subcategory of OSA that involves use of computerized content for sexual stimulation and grati cation usually involving two or more persons Women more interested in educational sites and interactive OSA like chat rooms whereas men are more drawn to visually oriented online sexual activity Reasons why porn is so popular on internet 0 Internet is convenient and easily available Study Guide 1 SEX FOR SALE 17 o anonymity everyone is free to change his or h9r gender appearance and identity 0 Internet sex is physically safer Congress passed the CDA communications Decency Act in 1996 but Supreme court ruled it unconstitutional and gave internet the same fee speech protection as print Videogames according to International Game Developers Association there are more than 300 sexthemed video games few games have sexual conquests as main purpose but many include sexual content in storyline grand theft auto sims etc gt consider the role of changing attitudes on the acceptance of pornography O Kama Sutra ancient Indian text about love and sex dates back as early as the 2nCI Century AD Pornography ourished in the outwardly sexually repressed Victorian era No obscenity Iaws existed int eh USgt until the middle of the 19th century when Anthony Comstock led America39s rst antipornography crusade 1968 ruling of Stanley v Georgia US Supreme court allowed for the private possession of obscene material PresidentJohnson appointed a presidential commission to investigate the harm of pornography they found that exposure to porn did not lead to rape or sexual assault and there were insufficient evidence that exposure to it plays role in the causation of delinquent or criminal behavior 1985 President Reagan appointed Attorney general Edwin Meese to head a committee to overturn the 1970 ndings and nd more effective ways in which the spread of porn could be containedquot The Meese commission asserted that exposure to violent porn increases sexual violence some researchers argue that it is images of violence rather than pornography that lead to sexual violence Attitudes about Pornography Study Guide 1 SEX FOR SALE 17 Antipornography viewpoint both religious and feminist foundations view that pornography is immoral or demeaning to women Anticensorship may not like pornography but have the view that repressing pornography is rst step on a slippery slope to censorship everyone has right to free speech Prosexuality defend the right of all adults to participate in and consume pornography believe that pornography has potential bene ts for both men and women making porn illegal will further alienate sex workers and reduce their protection and rights gt Assess the legal status of pornography in the US today and compare it to toehr countriesquot pornography Ia ws 0 Denmark in 1967 legal restrictions on porn were lifted making porn much more accessible to the general public 0 Japan sexually explicit material is typically even more violent than that seen in the US o Pornography and the law Most countries allow at least form of pornography Almost all countries have laws against child porn Until the mid19th century the USgt had no laws against producing or owning pornography in 1842 the US Congress passed the rst antiobscenity law where of cials could seize 39obscene or immoral prints and picturesquot First amendment of constitution does not apply to material considered obscene distribution of obscene material is considered a crime laws vary based on different aspects of porn different laws for adults and minors regarding possession of porn different laws related to production distribution or ownership of porn different laws related wo what sorts of sexual acts can be shows 0 Child Pornography illegal 2003 Protect Act it is illegal to even use technologies that make it appear as though children are engaged in sexually explicit acts gt list the possible bene ts and harmful aspects of pornography Study Guide 1 SEX FOR SALE 17 0 Possible bene ts enhancement of sexual pleasure and relaxation couples may use porn to energize their sexual ful llment either alone r with a partner sexual education and information show viewers the range of sexual possibilities that exist and open up their sexual world safety Porn allows viewers to satisfy their sexual curiosity in a safe way 0 Harmful aspects Degradation and objecti cation of women produces skewed views of reality promotes violence against women gt evaluate the role of pornography on sexual aggression toward women 0 some opponents of pornography promote the view that sexually explicit material especially violent sexually explicit material will increase violence toward women 0 some studies suggest that after viewing pornography viewers are less sympathetic to female rape victims show increased hostility and aggression toward women and are more inclined to agree with rape myths o for most men exposure to porn doesn39t lead t sexual aggression but sexually violent porn is one of many factors that could be involved in developing aggressive inclinations toward women which may have an effect on those who are already predisposed to act violently Prostitution gt De ne prostitution and recognize the dif culty in ascertaining the incidence and prevalence of prostitution o Prostitution the exchange of sexual access to one s body for something of value be it money drugs or other commodities Mostly women women more often socioeconomically dependent and more likely to be forced into prostitution for nancial reasons 0 Incidence and Prevalence hard to estimate number of people working as prostitutes mostly due to illegality of it Study Guide 1 SEX FOR SALE 17 0 some think men underestimate prostitution visits on national sex surveys and prostitutes are underrepresented in national sex surveys more common in countries characterized by quotpoverty gender inequality and cultural norms that limit women39s legitimate employment opportunitiesquot Strong religious prohibitions against prostitution may reduce its incidence as might a fear of AIDS or changing sexual mores reasons some traf cked into it against their will others willingly from lack of options economic reasons many sex workers have a history of childhood sexual abuse those who are physically or sexually abused are more likely to be runaways and may enter the life on the street gt compare and contrast the different types of prostitution 0 Outdoor sex workers 0 indoor streetwalkers street workers have lowest status of prostitutes and suffer eh greatest risk of physical abuse ad arrest lowest paid most dangerous most stigmatized level of prostitution most research on prostitution is done on street prostitutes even though they only represent 15 to 20 of prostitutes easy access anonymity and low cost sex workers Bgirls a prostitute who works in a bar or hotel usually with the approval of manager who take a cut of the pro ts massage parlors a place where illicit sex is available under the guise of the therapeutic massage brothel also called a whore house it is an establishment speci cally intended for prostitution Men can generally use from a lineup of women escort a prostitute who meets with clients by appointment May work independently or for an agency call girls A sex worker who can be hired over the phone or the internet to engage in intimate interactions tend to be the most Study Guide 1 SEX FOR SALE 17 0 Male D attractive and welleducated of the prostitutes and their services are the most expensive rostitutes male or female clients Gigolos escorts or call boys male prostitutes who service female clients may or may not provide sexual services client typically older wealthy women who need a companion Hustlers Male prostitutes who have sex with male clients often solicit clients n streets in bars or on internet not all are gay some identity as heterosexual typically service men who want to give or receive anal or oral sex 0 most common services are hand jobs and fellatio Like female streetwalkers usually enter quotthe lifequot at a young age and have little education or marketable skills compared to female prostitutes male prostitutes are slightly older less dependent on prostitution as source of income and more likely to move between indoor and outdoor prostitution less subject to client violence have pimps etc Transgendered prostitutes occupy the lowest rung on the hierarchy Maletofemale sex workers are most stigmatized and make the least money Tend to get least desirable locations higher HIV infection rates and get exposed to more violence than male prostitutes but less than women most common services oral sex hand jobs and receptive anal intercourse gt characteristics of prostitutes and pimps o Prostit ute Characteristics Demographics outdoor sex workersyounger got into prostitution at a younger age engage in more illegal drug use AA are disproportionately represented in streetwalking Victimization and violence 48 of indoor workers and 81 of streetwalkers experience client violence Streetwalkers are 3 times more likely than all girls to experience assault and 11 times more likely to have been raped though indoor sex workers are more likely to REPORT attempted rape Study Guide 1 SEX FOR SALE 17 o Pimps Sexually Transmitted lnfectionsStreetwalkers who inject drugs have the highest rates of STI infection rates are lower in indoor sex workers Control Over working conditionsBrothel works may be the most limited in their choice of clients and in their personal lives streetworkers and escorts may generally choose their clients and refuse those who are intoxicated or who appear violent Psychological adjustment streetwalkers have more psychological problems than indoor sex workers unclear whether it is the work that leads to such problems or if those with emotional problems are more likely to pursue outdoor sex work Emotion Work Clients expect and receive more emotional intimacy from call girls and escorts than from streetwalkers Escorts and call girls more likely to have quotgirlfriend experiencesquot to meet at personal locations or engage in conversation and to kiss caress and receive oral sex from customers Pimps are those who organize and bene t from prostitution and usually males 0 sometimes provide room and board bail money or other protection to women control their girls through violence and emotional manipulation often physically assault and take some or all of earnings 0 street prostitutes most likely to be controlled by pimp Madams are usually females who manage massage parlors or brothels may treat workers better in general gt physical and emotional health risks faced by prostitutes 0 physical exhaustion frequent viruses STls backaches headaches eating disorders heightened risk of cervical cancer power differential bw prostitute and client physical or nancial means customers can coerce women into unprotected sex Study Guide 1 SEX FOR SALE 17 O prostitutes have the highest risk of occupational mortality of any groups of women assaultrape m dif culty in maintaining relationships depression esp streetwalkers gt de ne sex traf cking 0 de nition the recruitment harboring transportation or obtaining of a person for the purpose of a commercial sex act sex traf cking is the fastestgrowing crime category today according to UN a traf cked person is quotsomeone who is transferred or transported across national or international borders by means of threat or coercion for the purposes of economic exploitation in prostitution forced labor slavery or the removal of organsquot gt History of Prostitution 0 quotoldest professionquotgt maybe not but has been around for thousands of years In the past women had 3 options marry join a convent or become a prostitute Ancient Greece and Rome prostitution ourished and men had their choice of different types of women Greece quothetaeraequot sophisticated courtesans sought after for conversation and companionship Rome quotdelicataequot well educated mistresses kept by wealthy men Courtesan a highstatus prostitute with wealthy and or powerful clients courtsans were often known for their beauty and sophistication In the middle Ages prostitution was common in part due to the teachings of St Augustine who felt prostitution was a necessary evil to prevent the greater sins of rape and masturbation Japanese quotgeishas39 traditional female entertainers not prostitutes As women39s independence increases prostitution is subject to more restriction Study Guide 1 SEX FOR SALE 17 o Prostitution was legal in US ujtil the early 20th Century when the Woman39s Christian Temperance Union fought against prostitution Congress passed the Mann Act of 1910 prohibiting the transport of women across state lines for immoral purposes gt issues regarding the abolition legalization and decriminalization of prostitution 0 about 90000 people are arrested each year in the USgt for violation of prostitution laws 90 prostitutes and 10 the customersvast majority are streetworkers 0 three main positions on prostitution abolition seeks to eliminate prostitution through legal penalties legalization in which the state controls prostitution through licenses registration and mandatory medical exams Decriminaization whereby all criminal penalties and regulation are removed from sex work 0 in US prostitution is legal only in some states brothels are legal and heavily regulated in most counties in Nevada Pimps and streetwalking are illegal In Rhode Island due to a legal loophole the exchange of sex for money is not illegal although it is illegal to solicit sex on the street or to operate a brothel 0 Some pros and cons of legalization of prostitution table 171 pg 454 gt de ne phone sex and sexting Phone Sex a sexually explicit conversation that occurs between two people over the telephone 0 Can take place between two people involved in a romantic relationship or it may involve a person calling a commercial phone sex business Sexting sending sexually explicit messages or images y cell phone or other electronic media 0 Aggravated involve criminal or abusive elements beyond the creation sending r possession of youthproduced sexual images such as adult involvement and criminal or abusive behavior such as adult involvement and criminal or abusive behaviors like extortion threats or malicious conduct Study Guide 1 SEX FOR SALE 17 0 Experimental teens take and send pictures of themselves sin order to seek attention irt or create romantic interest no criminal behave beyond the creating or sending of the images 0 even if intention is not malicious or criminal teens who send or receive nude pictures of themselves or others risk felony child pornography charges and being listed on a sex offender registry gt explain the popularity of strip clubs 0 Strip Clubs bars or clubs that feature erotic dancing and entertainment striptease and possibly other related services such as lap dances o a century before modernday strippers the striptease gained popularity at the Moulin Rouge and Flies Bergere in Paris and in burlesque shows in the US Entertainer and Civil rights activist Josephine baker gained fame in the 19205 and19305 by dancing in the folies bergere wearing only high heels and a skrit made of bananas the pussycat dolls got their start as new burlesque dancers o more than 2300 strip clubs in the US are a 5 billion industry more money than Americans spend at Broadway theaters regional and nonpro t theaters and symphony performances combined most of goes to club owners exotic dancers are often considered independent contractors and receive no wags only tipssome even have to pay a stag fee
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