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study guide (2) PSYC_3150_10
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabriela Saint-Louis on Saturday May 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC_3150_10 at George Washington University taught by Forssell in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 206 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Sex Differences in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 05/02/15
Study Guide 2 Sexual Coercion amp Violence 16 Intro sexual coercion occurs when power whether physical emotional or occupational is used against another to force her or him into unwanted sexual activity abuse of sexual power can include sexual harassment or sexual assault and rape against adult r children most sexually coercive behaviors are done by men and by people we know RAPE gt De ne Sexual assault rape and age of consent 0 Sexual Assault encompasses a number of crimes from unwanted sexual contact to forced intercourse can include unwanted touch of sexual body parts or the penetration of the vagina mouth or anus may take place with the use of threats or fore or if the victim is unable to give consent due to intoxication mental impairment or being below the age of consent 0 Rape de nition has been expanded and refers to nonconsensual sexual penetration fo a man or woman39s body by physical force or the threat of harm Can include forced penetration y objects other than the penis and penetration of the mouth or anus as well as the vagina exact legal de nition varies from country to country and from state to state gt Report the incidence and prevalence of rape and understand the dif culties in getting an accurate assessment of its scope 0 actual number of women who are raped each year in the US is estimated to be between 300000 and 683000 which would mean a woman is raped every 6 minutes of women 0 as many as 27 of women in the US experience a completed or attempted rape making rape more common than lefthandedness and alcoholism 0 frequency of rape appears to be declining and has decreased by more than 85 since the 19705 decline may be due to greater education and awareness as well as increased punishments for rapists Study Guide 2 Sexual Coercion amp Violence 16 may be simply due to a change in the way the justice department gathers statistics about rape o Difficulties in getting an accurate assessment of its scope Most rapes are never reported hard to accurately assess occurrence of rape because of under reporting and because of variations in the way relevant data are gathered o Experts believe 6195 of rapes are never reported to police and are thus not part of the government39s estimates of the crime Rape estimates also vary due to differences in data gathering such as the operational de nition the sample used and the wording of the survey 0 ex FBI s description of rape is forced vaginal intercourse with a woman implying that only women can be raped FBI also does not consider forced oral or anal sex statutory rape or the use of drugs to subdue a victim to be rape incidence and prevalence incidence may better re ect the scope of rape because 39 of women who have been raped have been raped more than once gt understand some theories as to why rape occurs 0 Feminist Theory According to this theory rape is a tool used by men in our society to keep women submissive and powerless Rapists are primarily motivated not by a desire for sex but by the eed to dominate and control women in an attempt to preserve a system of male supremacy goal of rape is power dominance and control over women violence and sex are the means and tactics used to assert that power 0 Evolutionarv Theorv rape is an evolutionary strategy to increase the reproductive success of lowstatus men who would otherwise have little chance of mating aka some men are drawn to rape in order to spread their genes Study Guide 2 Sexual Coercion amp Violence 16 theory based on the reproductive differences between men and women women have only one egg men have many sperm and need to spread their offspring blabla suggests that rape is inherent in men s nature and not simply a consequence of patriarchal society structures Motivation behind rape is primarily sexual rather than a means of establishing and maintaining power over women gt list some popular myths about rape o Rape myths deny the existence or gravity of rape blame the victim assume that rapists are overwhelmed by sexual desires and give a false impression of the typical perpetrator women reallv want to be raped women bring rape Upon themselves Men who rape do so because they can39t control their sexual desues rape is committed by psychopathic strangers Onlv women can be raped gt characterize and de ne stranger rape acquaintance and date rape partner rape gang rape statutory rape and prison rapte O stranger rape the assailant is unknown to the victim as few as 17 of rapes against women and 23 of rape against men are committed by strangers most likely to be tried and convicted reoffend and general receive harsher punishments than acquaintance rapists o acquaintance and date rape acquaintance rape when the victim knows the rapist date rape when the sexual assault happens on a date up to 86 of rape is by someone you know vast majority of date and acquaintance rape is not reported seen as a quotlesserquot crime than stranger rape some even deny it is wrong and some don39t really acknowledge it as a rape o partner rape or marital Study Guide 2 Sexual Coercion amp Violence 16 0 an nonconsensual sexual activity in which the assailant is the victim39s spouse or partner until 1993 it was legal in some US states for a man to demand that his wife have sex with him whenever he wanted it regardless of their wishes parner rape spousal or marital rape accounts for 25 of all rapes in the US about 8 15 of women are raped by their husbands or exhusbands man s motive for marital rape include domination and degredation of all rapes spousal rape is least likely to be reported and draws the least response from law enforcement and support groups while many people deny problem of partner rape the victims actually suffer longerlasting trauma than those raped by strangers rae rape of a single victim by a group of assailants tend to be more violent than sexual assaults committed by one attackerusually share a group identity 55 of gang rapes of college students are committed by fraternity members and 40 by members of a college athletic team more than 20 of women who are raped and more than 16 of men who are raped have more than one assailant O statutorv ra 6 de ned as sexual intercourse that occurs with someone who is not a child but who is below the age of consent even if the sex as not physically forced age at which someone is not considered a child differs from state to state though usually around 14 age of consent also differs but typically ranges from 1418 0 prison rape Refers to the rape of inmates by other prisoners or by penitentiary staff Study Guide 2 Sexual Coercion amp Violence 16 male prisoners are most likely to be sexually assaulted by other male convicts amp female inmates are most often raped by prison employees Underreported because of the victims shame and fear of retaliation from assailants as well as prison of cials because sexual activity between prisoners is prohibited and those who repot may receive punitive sanction prison rape is about power not sex gt consider the issue of rape on campus and the role of alcohol in these sexual assaults o Rape on Campus a woman runs the greatest risk of rape during her rst semester in college 50 of assaults are associated with alcohol Between 725 of college men admit to forcing sexual intercourse on a woman Many of these rapes are committed by fraternity members or athletes o Druos amp Alcohol amp Rape Alcohol is one of the strongest predictors of acquaintance rfape and sexual aggression alcohol sexualizes an environment men expect to feel more powerful sexual and aggressive after drinking and more likely to interpret a woman39s irtation or even normal conversation in a sexual way increases rislq behavior Date rape drugs a drug such as rohypol and GHB that can be used to assist int eh commission of a sexual assault 0 usually contain amnesiac causing memory impairment disinhibiting leads to a loss of inhibition and dissociative hallucinations and feelings of unreality factors gt describe some typical characteristics of rapists o majority are men under the age of 30 0 hard to generalize because most data is about those convicted 0 most have raped more than one victim many want t gain power and control and use sex as their weapon to do so some use sexual violence Study Guide 2 Sexual Coercion amp Violence 16 as an expression of their anger toward women others are socially inadequate and have low self0esteem and rape is an expression of those fantasies may believe victims will enoy the experiencef 0 Characteristics feel less empathy towards others more likely to hold a sense of entitlement and exploit others for their personal gain more likely to accept traditional gender roles mbelieve masculinity means power and aggression and feel dominoent over or anger toward women more likely to accept rape myths and more accepting of violence towards women more likely to be sexually aroused by images of rape more likely to be pslitically conservative and treat outsiders gays phsyciallyd isabled and refugees aggressively use of alcohol or drugs family history of phsycial violence and sexually aggressive peers gt explain the effect of rape of survivors 0 physical emotional and psychological effects 0 bruises and contusions gastrointestinal irritability cystitis headaches and sleep disturbances STI infection pregnancy 32000 rape pregnanciesyear 3 times more likely to suffer from depression 6 times likely to develop PTSD and 13 times more likely to have ever attempted suicide or have alcohol or drug dependency problems gt understand ways to protect yourself from rape O O O O O O void dangerous situations trust your insticns and don39t be nice maintain control avoid people who treat you badly be con dent in vourself and recoonize vour value attend a rape awareness seminar or selfdefense gt consider the role of rape through history and the effect of societal forces on rape Study Guide 2 Sexual Coercion amp Violence 16 o Rape throughout history rape was not always considered a serious crime rst rape laws were not seen as criminal acts against women but as if a man39s property had been damaged rape is seen as both a spoil of war and as an act of aggression designed to dominate and humiliate the enemy in Old Testament women of conquered tribes were kidnapped and raped and forced to marry their captors even today women re seen as prizes to be taken from the enemy just as land or property 0 Rape and Societv rape is also an expression of cultural forces rapefree societies 0 in cultures where rape is rare women are treated with respect and there is little interpersonal violence women39s contributions in society are admired and valued Ra peProne societies 0 women are afforded a lower status and may be treated as property 0 natural environment is more likely to be exploied rather than treated with reverence its as though if one is willing to rape the land they are more willing to rape women US is a rapeprone society Genderroles in America matc those of rapeprone cultures one of dominant and assertive man attaining his dreams at any cost5 0 also a violent society and has weak sanctions against sexually violent women 0 Africa Women in South Africa have a greater chance of being raped than of learning to read 1 in 4 will be raped before the age of 16 SEXUAL ABUSE OF CHILDREN gt De ne childhood sexual abuse and incest 0 Child sexual abuse CSA inappropriate sexual behavior between a child and an adult Study Guide 2 Sexual Coercion amp Violence 16 may include exhibitionism sexual touching and oral anal and vaginal intercourse usually by someone familiar because of the power disparity between adults and children adultchild se is seen as coercive even if the child does not resist 0 Incest sexual contact between people who are related by blood or adoption or stepparents and stepchildren gt consider the prevalence of CSA and understand the dif culties in getting an accurate assessment of its scope o CSA range from 736 of girls and329 of boys most likely that approximately 20 to 25 of women and one of every six men were sexually abused as a child 0 exact prevalence of CSA hard to determine the most underreported form of child abuse with as many as 88 going underreported 0 children taught to respect elders CSA offenders usually trusted adults who usually tell them not to tell 0 fear possible punishment or consequences to loved ones 0 sexual abuse of abuse is most underreported perceived homosexuality gt describe some typical characteristics of child sex abusers o trusted relatives friends or neighbors 0 some are pedophiles and are predominantly sexually attracted to children not all child molesters are pedophiles and nt all pedophiles have committed sexual offenses against children 0 Lower le poorer social skills and lower selfesteem than normal 0 more religious and conservative than average and less knowledgeable about sexuality 96 are male and 98 heterosexual gt describe the effects of sexual abuse on children and on adult survivors o no speci c symptoms associated with CSA some children suffer psychological emotional social and sexual problems that persist into adu hood 0 others seem to experience little to no harm Study Guide 2 Sexual Coercion amp Violence 16 0 some adult victims of CSA have emotional psychological and relationship problems In general the consequences of CSA tend to be more serious the abuse goes on for a long period if it involve a close relation such as a fatherstepfather if there was violence and if it involved penetration CSA does not need to be violent or painful to be traumatic when there is less physical trauma childhood victims are more likely to see the abuse as their quotfaultquot and that they quotlet it happenquot gt Critically evaluate studies on the effects of CSA on psychological health 0 In general the lifetime prevalence of psychiatric problems is higher in those with a history of CSA than in those without CSA survivors are more likely to suffer from PTSD depression and drug or alcohol problems than nonvictims more aggressive or self destructive behaviors low selfesteem anxiety fear and a need to please others Boys who have been sexually abused are more likely to externalize their suffering y acting aggressively with others whereas girls internalize and become depressed some become more preoccupied with sex others experience sexual aversion or ambivalence girls who were sexually abused have greater risk of same happening as adults no evidence that CSA causes homosexuality gt List the types of treatment for child molesters and ways to prevent CSA 0 O molesters seen as having psychological problems that must be treated more for the good of society than due to any concern for the individual support groups psychotherapy offenders may be trained for social skills and get aversion or cognitivebehavioral therapy pharmaceutical treatments including antidepressants and anti androgen treatments to reversibly reduce testosterone treatments don39t necessarily cure but they help 60 do not reoffend INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE gt De ne physical psychological and economic abuse Study Guide 2 Sexual Coercion amp Violence 16 0 Physical abuse includes slapping beating kicking threats with an object or weapon and murder stcholodical abuse includes behaviors that is intended to humiliate or intimidate one39s partner and may take the form of verbal aggression or humiliation threats of abandonment or abuse isolation or con nement to the home and destruction of objects Economic abuse includes such acts as denial of funds food or basic needs or controlling access to health care or employment gt understand that men and women of all ages races socioeconomic statuses and sexual orientations experience intimate partner violence 0 Native Americans and AA suffer IPV at higher rates than whites and Asians though it is thought to be the low rate of in Asians is due to underOreportingO incidence f domestic violence in higher income families is under reported lowincome women who are victims of domestic abuse are more likely than ther more well off counterparts to ender domestic violence shelters are apply for social survices more economically privileged women have the option of staying in a hotel or traveling to be with distant family 1824 year olds comprise only about 12 of population they represent the majority of victims of violence committed by a bf or gf same sex domestic abuse may be particularly underreported police of crs taking reports might not know that two men or two women are a couple or couples may be reluctant to expose the nature of their relationship so somesex domestic abuse may be reported as assault or battery than domestic violence gt Compare the incidence of Intimate partner violence around the world and consider the factors that increase the likelihood of its occurrence 0 most societies forbid violence against womenmany socities believe tht men are inherently superior to women and therefore in many developing nations both men and women agree with the idea that a man has the right to physciallyd iscipline is wife In Egypt more than 80 of rural women share the view that men are sometime justi ed in beating their wives Study Guide 2 Sexual Coercion amp Violence 16 can be dif cult to determine the prevalence of domestic violence in other nations because cultural mores may limit a woman39s ability to report the abuse In Egypt jordan Lebanon Pakistan Turkey Bangladesh and other countries women may be killed in order to uphold the quothonor of the family honor killings S EXUAL HARASS M E NT gt De ne sexual harassment and differentiate between auid pro quo and hostile environment harassment 0 Sexual Harassment the most widespread of all sexually coercive behavior Unwanted attention of a sexual nature that interferes with an individual39s basic right to employment or education may include unwanted and unsolicited comments inappropriate jokes undesired touch of sexual nature sexual pressure and sexual force 0 Two main types of sexual harassment Quid pro quo 0 when compliance with unwanted sexual advances is required as a condition of employment or advancement 0 involves individuals with differences in power or authority hostile environment harassment occurs when persistent and inappropriate behaviors make the workplace offensive or unbearable may occur between individuals of equal power or authority 0 Women in hostile environments are more likely to be treated as sexual objects and be subject to harassment gt describe the incidence of sexual harassment and explain why most incidents are not reported 0 Between 40 and 60 of women have been affected 0 more likely to occur against those in a job that is nontraditional for their gender like female re ghters or male nursesusually when men holds most of the positions of power over the other gender 0 occurs in workplace armed forces and in schools Study Guide 2 Sexual Coercion amp Violence 16 o in a survey of 24000 federal employees 44 of women and 19 of men reported sexual harassment 0 at least half of the women in armed forces have experienced sexual harassment o 81 of students in 811 grade experienced some form of sexual harassment in school 0 vast majority of cases are not reported fewer than 10 le reports many don39t recognize experience as sexual harassment Men and women resolve con icts differently women socialized to put needs of others before them want to maintain relationships and keep peace Men more likely to force a confrontation and seekjustice women just want behaviors to stop fear of reprisal gt list the three main types of harassment in education 0 gender harassment includes sexually degrading hostile and sexist remarks and behaviors o unwanted sexual attention inappropriate and offensive sexual comments behaviors and advances 0 Sexual bribery and imposition including the promise of reward in return for sex or the threat of punishment for withholding sex and forceful physical attempts gt describe the effects of sexual harassment on victims 0 can adversely affect one39s health relationships nances and education or career 0 victims may experience both physical and psychological symptoms similar to the other coercive behaviors 0 some nd it hard to keep mind on job or studies may try to avoid areas Where the harasser is likely to be found can negatively affect performance at work or school pts at sexual contact
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