PSY311 Final Exam Study Guide.pdf
PSY311 Final Exam Study Guide.pdf PSY311
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Holly Houser on Sunday May 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY311 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Winters in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 436 views. For similar materials see Emotion in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Chapter 9 Final Exam Study Guide Chapters 9 10 PSY 31 l 1 What does it mean to say that love is an attitude or that love is a script or a prototype a Love can be an emotional experience without being quotanquot emotion Many psychologists consider it an attitude a combination of beliefs feelings amp behaviors directed toward a person object or category Attitude resemble emotions in that they include cognition feeling amp behavior aspects but with attitudes we tend to emphasize the cognitive aspect amp with emotions the feelings aspect Attitudes are longlasting whereas emotions may be brief states Script culturally learned sets of expectations about events thoughts feelings amp behaviors You might experience a script set of assumptions about what happens when people are in love This script likely includes the experience of certain emotions but also goes beyond emotions to aspects of the situation amp appropriate behaviors Fehr amp Russell proposed that love is best thought of as a prototype a set of characteristics that describes the ideal example of some category but that may not be held by every member of that category People may talk casually about loving material things but prototypical love is mainly experienced in the context of close relationships it involves commitment to someone else a willingness to give even under difficult circumstances Love also includes knowing someone else for who they really are accepting their faults as well as their strengths 2 Describe the differences among Bowlby s three behavioral programs relevant to love attachment system caregivng system and the sex system Where does amae fit into this classification system a b Amae Japanese word describing the feeling of pleasurable dependence on another person like the feeling an infant has toward its mother Attachment a longlasting emotional bond between the individual amp a few regular caregivers producing a desire to be near that person amp distress when separated a tendency to turn to that person when threatened amp a sense of being supported in exploring new things Amae is similar to the feeling an infant has towards its mother and is experienced around the same time frame as attachment at 6 months old Recreates a sense of oneness with Mom Caregiving Motivates parents to nurture amp protect their offspring especially while they are young amp almost helpless i Sympathy concerned attention toward someone who is suffering ii Compassion emphasizes that the recipient is in distress iii Nurturant love an emotion elicited by cues of youth amp vulnerability which motivates caregiving intended to enhance the other39s overall wellbeing iv Sympathy amp compassion are always responses to a distressed person d V Nurturant love can be evoked by something helpless or cute amp doesn39t need the component of sadness Sexual Desire Sexual interest in people who are likely to be good reproductive partners 3 Indicate the in uence of the following characteristics upon attractiveness waisttohip ratio for women body weight for women health for men and women long hair and ushed skin in women softer more rounded features with large eyes and small nose in both men and women intelligence and humor for both men and women and personality a Women39s waist to hip ratio a waisttohip ratio around 7 in which the waist is somewhat smaller than the hips is considered most attractive for women in many cultures These proportions are ideal for conception amp childbearing suggesting both a healthy level of nutrition amp hips wide enough to bear children without extreme risk Women39s body weight Preference for overall body weight doesn39t seem to be as universal as preferences for certain proportionssome cultures consider very thin women to be the most attractive whereas others prefer rather heavy women Health for men amp women some studies nd a statistically significant relationship between attractiveness amp various measures of health fertility amp longevity but some don39t In Western cultures only waisttohip ratio was significantly associated with actual physical health amp fertility Women39s long healthy hair amp clear ushed skin are considered attractive perhaps because hair 7 skin are quick to show signs of malnutrition or illness Softer more rounded features with large eyes and small nose in both men and women quotfemininityquot in both men amp women39s faces are attractive Women prefer men with average levels of testosterone in their face The ideal man39s face seems to combine childlike features of softness amp eye amp nose size with a few features linked to sexual maturity Intelligence and humor for both men and women Personality people seek a happy disposition kindness toward others intelligence amp a sense of humor When you come to like amp respect someone you find them to be better looking 4 What is the name of the hormone neural transmitter that is most closely associated with maternal bonding and the mediation of the infant s attachment to the mother a Oxytocin 5 A study of married couples found that men with more vasopressin receptors have closer relationships with their wives and are less likely to have considered divorce 6 In general species forming pair bonds show more oxytocin and vasopressin in certain brain areas during sex than species that do not show pair bonding 7 Couples who received an oxytocin nasal spray before they had a conversation about a con ict in their relationship showed a signi cantly higher ratio of positive e g eye contact emotional disclosure caring validating the partners perspective etc behavior to negative behavior criticism contempt defensiveness during the conversation than couples who had received a placebo 8 Psychological stress interferes with the healing of physical wounds In study of hamsters both injection of oxytocin and the presence of other hamsters were found to block the effects of stress on wound healing 9 Distress as measured by distress cries associated with separation separation anxiety of young rhesus monkeys from their mothers lead to a sudden drop in endorphins in the brain A small amount of morphine reduces the distress as measured by distress cries and naloxone increases the level distress as measured by distress cries 10 What is the difference between empathic accuracy and emotional empathy Empathic accuracy the ability to figure out what another person is thinking amp feeling rather than being a distinct emotion Emotional empathy actually feeling what another person is feeling usually including similar physiology amp expression as well as subjective experience 11 Opiate systemresponses is involved in both the pleasurable aspects of attachment and attachment related distress separation distress 12 What is the difference between passionate love and companionate love Passionate love the early stages of a romantic relationship marked by frequent thoughts about the other person intense desire to be together amp excitement from the partner39s attention Each person is likely to idealize the otherto be well aware of the other39s positive qualities but less aware of aws amp limitations Related to strong overall emotional feelings Companionate love emphasis on security amp mutual care amp protection Happens as the relationship gets more serious Each wishes the best for the other person amp is confident that the other person wishes the best in return A strong companionate love is usually related to high satisfaction w life much more so than passionate love is 13 M Parent arranged marriages in India on average are happier than lovedbased marriages in the United States 14 M People in happy relationships seldom express displeasure toward one another and when they do the other person doesn t notice 15 What are the four emotional patterns called the four horseman of the apocalypse that predict serious problems for a marital relationship Criticism Suggesting changes in behavior can be constructive but complaining about personal aws is destructive At its most destructive includes attacking the spouse listing their aws amp blaming the spouse for problems in the relationship Defensiveness Response to criticism in which one defends oneself by denying that the complaint is valid giving an excuse for the behavior or countercriticizig the spouse Contempt Rolling eyes being sarcastic insulting the spouseany message suggesting that the spouse is incompetent or beneath the speaker Stonewalling Ignoring or shutting out the other person who is trying to communicate something either sitting stone faced amp not saying anything or actually looking away or closing his or her eyes Chapter 10 lWhat is the difference between happiness and joy Are happiness and joy considered to be emotions or traits a Happiness emotionally stable conscientious trusting amp in control of the situation or trying to be in control They have autonomy mastery of their situation personal growth positive relations with others purpose in life amp selfacceptance Snap back quickly from bad moods i Happiness is not an emotion in the usual sense it39s more of a trait b Joy intense pleasant emotional experience in response to a particular event Evoked temporarily by a wide variety of events such as doing well on a test Longterm happiness or life satisfaction is not just the sum of many events producing shortterm joy 2What does the Positive Affect scale of the PANAS Positive and Negative Affect Schedule measure a Overall happiness b It doesn39t necessarily assess emotion It measures high energy amp overall positive mood which is ideal for measuring trait happiness 3What is the difference between a top down and bottom up view of happiness a Top down your personality determines your happiness b Bottom up life events determine your happiness 4Does research on happiness support the idea that people mellow with age a Yes b The amygdala of young adults responds more strongly to unpleasant photos in older adults it responds more strongly to pleasant photos 5Describe the broadenand build theory of positive and negative emotions a Positive emotions promote broadened attention so that we are more likely to notice opportunities in the environment as well as greater exibility in the actions we might take to maximize those opportunities b Negative emotions are thought to enhance tness by promoting immediate actions that de ect threats in the environment 6ln what way do positive emotions in uence an individual s attention to details versus global features big picture thinking and openmindedness a Positive emotion biases attentions to global features rather than details People who report positive emotions are more open minded and have greater increases in trait life satisfaction accounted for by increased resilience or ability to handle stress Positive emotions help us take advantage of opportunities presented by the environment 7What is the contrast e ect a The emotional in uence of whether an outcome was better or worse than some other likely outcome Ex how would you feel about getting a B in a course If you were expecting a C you would be happy If you were expecting an A you would be sad 8What is a Duchenne smile Use the study of Harker amp Keltner 2001 involving photographs in college yearbooks to indicate its usefulness in studying emotions a Raised cheeks amp crow39s feet at the comers of the eyes plus a smiling mouth Usually communicates real positive emotion c Because the eye muscles that contract in the Duchenne smile are dif cult to control voluntarily few people can fake a Duchenne smile convincingly d A Duchenne smile almost always indicates genuine happiness but a non Duchenne smile can also indicate happiness e It39s very useful in studying emotion One study looked at the ways young women smiled in their college yearbook photos amp then asked whether the smiles predicted how women39s lives played out throughout adulthood i Women who showed stronger Duchenne smiles i this single photograph were happier in their marriages amp less likely to divorce amp they described themselves as more competent amp more socially active that women with a quotpolitequot smile or no smile ii Our smiles convey the way we approach the world 9What is the relationship between activation of the frontal cortex and tendencies to approach or withdraw Indicate the hemisphere left or right that is active during happiness joy sadness anger and fear a There39s a link between activation of the frontal cortex of the left hemisphere to approach tendencies including both happiness amp anger b There39s a link between activation of the frontal cortex in the right hemisphere to withdrawal tendencies including sadness amp fear c This difference takes place in 2 ways i Predisposition People who usually have greater left than right activity tend to respond more strongly than others to pleasant events of life whereas people who usually have greater activity on the right side tend to respond more strongly to events provoking fear or sadness ii Outcome Events that elicit happiness tend to activate the left hemisphere more than the right whereas events that elicit fear amp sadness tend to activate the right hemisphere more strongly 10 Which areas of the brain are linked to anticipatory enthusiasm a Anticipatory enthusiasm pleasure from expecting a reward b This is associated with a brain pathway called the quotreward circuitquot including the ventral segmental area VTA amp the nucleus accumbens as well as parts of the frontal lobes i They showed an enhanced release of dopamine 11 What are the characteristics of rewards that lead to larger releases of dopamine in the reward system BAS a An unpredicted reward or one larger than predicted releases dopamine b Reward exactly as predicted does not c Reward that is omitted or less than predicted inhibits dopamine release to less than its baseline level 12 Describe events in the reward system BAS when a reward is just within your reach compared to when the person is consuming the reward a BAS becomes highly active if you seen something you want just within your reach b As soon as you consume the reward however the reward circuit quiets down again iClicker Questions Part 4 Bold Correct answer lWhich is false Talking to a friend about your anger a Usually reduces your anger 2Which is a social vitamin a Being with friends amp family when emotionally distressed 3Anger can be intensif1ed by others because they are trying to be on your side This is referred to as a Anger rehearsal 4Family systems theory the term refers to accepting another a Active listening 5According to family systems theory you should not say a Don t feel that way b You shouldn t feel that way c Just study more amp you won t keep getting poor grades 6According to family systems theory which would be helpful to a friend in emotional distress a Your goal is to be a facilitator in that you should help your friend solve his problem not solve it for him 7What s the most important thing to do to help a friend who is experiencing emotional distress a Make sure you communicate empathy b Make sure you solve her problem 8What s a bene t of not forgiving a The person gets attention amp sympathy because they were victimized b Righteous anger can be rewarding amp make someone feel superior c Righteous angers is rewarding enough for some people that it becomes a substitute for happiness 9What happens when someone forgives He eliminates a Resentment toward the person b Personal indignation c Anger toward the person 1 The motivation for retaliation amp revenge 10 It helps you make peace with your past There is a tremendous freedom in letting go If you don t you become a prisoner of the past What topic was being discussed a Forgiveness 11 Execution parties What topic was being discussed a Justice by retaliation 12 Since WW2 the income of Americans has tripled The level of happiness a Has not changed significantly 13 Which is false b People making 50 mill each year are about 10 times happier than people making 50000 each year 14 Happiness is de ned as a sense of contentment that comes from doing your duty toward your family amp community 0 Asian countries 15 Which agrees with Lyken s Set Point Theory 1 Positive amp negative life experiences change an individual s subject sense of wellbeing but the change is temporary e Good things don t last f This too will pass 16 Which is true g A reward is appraised as less rewarding after experiencing it a number of times h The magnitude of an emotional response diminished after repeatedly experiencing the emotion i Even though a person may win more than 150 million dollars the increased happiness that results from winning the lottery is only temporary 17 Most important Ife factor in determining the appraised value of a positive experience j Recent experiences with similar rewards 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Picture on phone k All the above Study of identical amp fraternal twins 1 50 percent of happiness is genetics Most salient characteristic shared by top 10 of individuals with most happiness amp fewest signs of depression m Their strong ties to family amp commitment to them The joy is in the journey not reaching the destination Which is most relevant n Flow A man from Indi shown in Happy a earned a living by pulling a rickshaw with passengers Which is true a He was as happy as the average American Karoshi is a disease frequently found in Japanese Which is true b It results from excessive work without proper rest amp sleep c It occurs primarily in men d People die from the diseases Which is associated with Caregiving system e Sympathy f Compassion g Nuturant love What s false of oxytocin h It s a neurotransmitter in an emotional system in the brain that produces a desire to be near a person amp emotional distress when separated from that person SAS Social attachment system What s false of oxytocin i Oxytocin is neurotransmitter that s part of a system that provides the motivational impetus to form attachments Which is most imp To understanding why individuals in the experimental group improved their ability to resolve con ict j Couples in the experimental group had received an oxytocin nasal spray prior to being observed Increase in oxytocin release increases k During the time people fall I love Which is false 1 Giving an oxytocin nasal spray to football player before hey play another team will make him less aggressive toward his opponent The activation of oxytocin receptors in this regions of the brain decreases fear amp anxiety m Amygdala Which is false a Oxytocin is released when an individual is separated from a loved one Which is false b Oxytocin levels increase when someone experiences separation anxiety c Oxytocin can increase defensive aggression which is aggression oriented towards neutralizing a threatening outgroup d Endogenous opiates are released when separated individuals reunite 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Which is false e Activation of BIS leads to the secretion of oxytocin by the pituitary gland Administration of opiates in animals leads to a decrease in prosocial behaviors because the opiates f Decrease activity in SAS amp thus social motivation Which is false g Separation or being alone leads to an increase in oxytocin release by the Caregiving System When an individual uses to resolve a con ict he tries to determine who is right amp who s wrong Typically he believes that his sigother is wrong amp that the con ict will be resolved if his sigother can be persuaded of the Wrongness of their point h Linear thinking Which is true of the circular dance i It s an example of linear thinking j Each person provokes the other k It increases the level of anger Father nags son amp son is mad about being nagged What topic was being discussed 1 Circular dances According to the Law of Control m You only have control over your own behavior It s important to give up the fantasy that you can change or control another s thoughts feelings amp behaviors Which of the following is most relevant to this assertion n Law of Control I understand that you are concerned about my wellbeing amp that s why you want me to do what you think is best for me a Empathic statement I feel that nagging is disrespectful I do respect your judgment b Assertive claiming What s true of the nagging father amp procrastinating son c The father s nagging is an example of verbal aggression d The son s increase in procrastination is an ex Of passive aggression e Both the father amp son contributed to the circular dance results when there s too much We in the lWe issue This refers to sacri cing personal autonomy for the sake of harmony in the relationship f Deselfing John is when he tries to convince Joan of the rewards of playing poker amp suggests it would be goof for her to spend time with her friends g Showing misdirected emotional energy The term refers to attempts to change the feelings thoughts or behaviors or you partner Try to get your partner to see things your way h Misdirected emotional energy 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 You can be certain that will occur when an individual wants a rule change that is there will be attempts to prevent changes in the rules Ex would be threats appeals to guilt or shame insults amp accusations i Countermoves We always d things together don t you love me anymore You are sel sh for wanting to spend time with your friends without me What am I supposed to do on Wednesday night j Countermoves In the poker example John states I understand how you feel You are concerned that my feelings may have changed about you This is an example of k Empathetic statement How was Rich sustaining the circle dance that emerged Couple late for social functions a By nagging The case of the late couple Rich asks himself How important is it to me to arrive on time amp how important is it for Maria to have the freedom to not be rushed What s he doing b Showing cognitive clarification It is very imp to me to arrive on time for social events I feel embarrassed when we arrive late Rich s statements are an example of c Assertive claiming Maria says You are selfish amp selfcentered What is wrong with you Couples should arrive together Don t you care about my feelings Maria s statements are examples of d Countermoves Rich asks how imp is it to me to arrive on time Maria asks How imp is arriving on time to Rich amp how imp is it to me to not be rushed They are engaged in e Cognitive clarification Sandra states He s a workaholic He neglects the kids amp me He s a stranger to his own family Larry states Sandra is overreactive She s overemotional Their statements are examples of f The blame game Sandra amp Larry seek marriage counseling because they are fighting a lot amp generally unhappy with their marriage What s true g Sandra shows overfunctioning in that she s doing the feeling for him h Sandra tried to get him to experience the same feelings she did when someone at work unfairly received credit for his work i Sandra is NOT validating his feeling when she criticized him for not becoming angry when someone at work unfairly took credit for his work Sandra amp Larry seek marriage counseling because they are fighting a lot amp generally unhappy with their marriage What s true j In terms of emotions she overfunctions amp he underfunctions k They had a narcissisticdependent relationship 58 59 60 61 1 When they went to a marriage counselor neither Larry nor Sandra had any idea of how to resolve a con ict Joan stated It may be 99 my problem Other women in my shoes might not be upset about the situation I know you are angry because we had agreed to have friends of the opposite sex amp I am not complying I understand how you feel This is an example of m An empathic statement Joan states I cannot continue to live with you if you continue the relationship with your research assistant This is an example of n A bottom line statement What s true of the case of brothers George amp Bill 0 They have an enmeshed relationship p There was too much We in regards to the IW e issue q Bill the older brother tried to rescue his younger brother from George s girlfriend In order for George amp Bill s relationship to improve it s important that both brothers need to r Embrace the principle of multiple realities
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