studyguide (3) PSYC_3150_10
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabriela Saint-Louis on Sunday May 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC_3150_10 at George Washington University taught by Forssell in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 160 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Sex Differences in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 05/03/15
Study Guide 2 Sexually Transmitted Infections 14 INTRODUCTION gt classify the differences between some of the organisms that cause STls including bacteria viruses parasites and other organisms 0 Bacteria tiny singlecelled microorganisms that can cause infections in animals and humans ex chlamydia gonorrhea and syphilisO can be cured with antibiotics but can be reinfected once cured 0 Viruses submicroscopic infectious agents that need a host to grow and reproduce invade host cell and cause the cell to produce new vira particles that spread to other cells HPV herpes hepatitis and HIV 0 Parasitic insects parasites need a host to survive feed off the blood of their human host and can be spread by close contact with an infected individual ice or scabies 0 Protozoa single celled animals that are more complex than bacteria Trichomoniasis is a common sexually transmitted infection caused y protozoa gt Differentiate between the terms Incidence amp Prevalence 0 Incidence refers to the number of new cases that occur within a speci ed time usually within a year 0 Prevalence the percentage of people who currently have the condition 0 most cases of STIs are not reported because many STIs are Asymptomatic and undiagnosed o US has the highest rate of sexually transmitted infection in the industrialized world up to 19 million new STIs occur each year almost half in those aged 1524 0 Factors that affect spread of STIs some infections are more communicable than others ex more chance of contracting gonorrhea from a partner than HIV Study Guide 2 Sexually Transmitted Infections 14 The site of the infection health age genetics and sex practices of the individual and the prevalence of the STI in different groups also affect transmission rate gt Identify the groups who are most susceptible to infection with sexually transmitted diseases Minorities women men who have sex with men and young adults particularly affected by STI Minorities esp AA more likely to be infected with gonorrhea chlamydia HIV and other STI Women 2X likely as men to acquire an STI during unprotected sex also more often asymptomatic than men Men who have sex with men high risk of STI represent 53 of HIV infections and almost 23 of syphilis cases BACTERIAL INFECTIONS gt Listcommon bacterial infections 0 Chlamvdia o Gonorrhea o Syphilis 0 Bacterial Vaginosis gt Modes of transmission common symptoms health consequences and ways to treat chlamydia gonorrhea syphilis and bacterial vaginosis o Chlamydia Transmission 0 unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse childbirth common symptoms 0 75 of women and 50of men are asymptomatic symptoms occur 521 days after exposure to bacterium o Infected man swollen amp tender testicles tip of penis is red thin wateryclear white discharge from penis or pain and burning during urination o Infected Woman vaginal discharge and bleeding between periods or after sex pelvic pain abdominal or lower back Study Guide 2 Sexually Transmitted Infections 14 pain fever and nausea as infection spreads to fallopian tubes 0 Both men and women may experience trachoma health consequences 0 more severe for women than men 0 leading cause of preventable infertility and ectopic pregnancy 0 untreated develop pelvic in ammatory disease due to untreated chlamydia or gonorrhea ltreated with antibiotics 0 Longterm complications in men are uncommon though untreated chlamydia can lead to epididymitis which can cause pain fever and rarely sterility treatment 0 antibiotics such as doxycycline or azithromycin 0 important both partners get treatment and use a condom for at least 1 week once on antibiotics o Gonorrhea Transmission 0 caused by bacterium Meisseeria gonorrhoeae which grows and multiplies in warm moist areas such as the cervix uterus fallopian tubes urethra and anus as well as the eyes throat and mouth 0 almost always transmitted through unprotected vaginal oral or anal intercourse women more susceptible than men symptoms 0 Most women and some men have no symptoms 0 symptoms appear within a few days of infection but may not develop for 34 weeks 0 in women mild and nonspeci c usually similar but more severe than chlamydia pain or burning when urinating or bowel movement spotting between periods release of a yellowareen puslike discharge Study Guide 2 Sexually Transmitted Infections 14 o in Men more frequent urination and experience pain or burning with urination and bowel movement redness at tp of penis as well as penile discharge thick puslike discharge that is white or yellowgreen health consequences 0 symptoms usually subside within a few weeks without treatment the bacterium is still present in body and damages organs 0 untreated in males leads to epididymitis which can result in infertility 0 untreated women at risk for Pelvic in ammatory disease which can lead to chronic pain ectopic pregnancy and infertility 39 treatment 0 easily treated with an antibiotic such as cipro oxacin or ceftriaxone o Syphilis Transmission 0 most contagious during its early states and is passed by direct contact with a syphilis sore usually by oral anal or vaginal intercourse or by touching the infected area Symptom 0 symptoms may go unnoticed whle the bacteria wreak havoc on pody 0 Primary a painless ulcer or chancre appears at the poing of the infection usually small sores rm and round and typically appear on the penis scrotum vagina labia and anus but can also appear on the mouth breasts and ngers 0 Secondary ulike symptoms fever fatigue headache gastrointestinal upset loss of appetite and sore throat in ammation ofjoints or eye itchless painless copper colored rash Health consequences Study Guide 2 Sexually Transmitted Infections 14 o if left untreated it can lead to serious longterm problems including coordination problems blindness heart disease dementia insanity and death 0 increases a person39s susceptibility to HIV by 25times because sores disrupt the skin and allow easier access t HIV virus 0 pregnant women can transmit it to babies treatment 0 penicillin injection 0 those allergic to penicillin can be treated with doxycycline or tetracycline 0 Bacterial Vaoinosis transmission 0 technically not a sexually transmitted infection though women who are sexually active especially multiple partners are at higher risk 0 a number of things that destroy lactobacterial and disturb the normal vaginal ora douching poor hygiene the use of an IUD strong antibiotics and even wearing nylon underwear or pantyhose symptoms 0 pain itching and burning slightly grayish vaginal discharge that has a shy order and a loss of acidity in the vaginasome may incorrectly assume yeast infection because of similar discharge health consequences 0 can raise a woman39s risk of other gynecological problems including PID and increase susceptibility to chlamydia gonorrhea and HIV 0 Pregnant women with BIV have increased risk of miscarriage premature delivery and low birth weight babies 39 treatment Antibiotics such as clindamycin or metronidazole administered orally or vaginally Study Guide 2 Sexually Transmitted Infections 14 VIRAL INFECTIONS gt List the common viral ST Is 0 More than 66 million Americans are currently affected Human papillomavirus HPV herpes hepatitis B and HIV gt Describe the incidence modes of transmission common symptoms health consequences and ways to treat and prevent HPV herpes viral hepatitis and HIVAIDS 0 HPV world39s most common sexually transmitted virus transmission 0 oral anal and vaginal sex as well as skitoskin contact during sex with an infected partner 0 rare cases can be transmitted from mother to baby during childbirth common symptoms 0 genital warts most common visible manifestation very contagious and are spread by skintoskin contact during sexual activity 0 usually 3 weeks to 6 months after infections health consequences 0 High risk HPV can cause precancerous changes of cervix vagina penis anus mouth and throat o cervical cancer 0 those with HPV 32 times more likely to develop cancers of the mouth and throat I treatment 0 no cure but most people will clear the infection on their own within 2 years after exposure 0 Gardasil vaccine protects against eh HPV types that cause 70 of cervical cancer and 90 genital warts among those who haven39t gotten virus 0 Herpes transmission Study Guide 2 Sexually Transmitted Infections 14 o skintoskin contact with an infected person kissing and touching ra anal or vaginal sexual contact and childbirth common symptoms 0 rst outbreak can give uIike symptoms as well as reddish painful bumps or blisters around the genitals or anusturn into small ouid lled blisters lled with active virus health consequences 0 pregnant women have greater risk of miscarriage and premature labor 0 make people more susceptible for acquiring HIV infection and make HIVpositive individuals more infectious treatment 0 no cure once infected you have virus for live 0 to prevent never touch or come in contact with an open sorethough it can be transmitted whether a person is having symptoms or not 70 happen this way 0 Viral Hepatitis Transmission 0 transmitted by body uids including blood semen vaginal secretins and saliva 0 usually passed by sexual contact with an infected person by sharing needles during childbirth or in a health care setting common symptoms 0 early symptoms ulike including fever fatigue and achiness 0 later symptoms abdominal pain Jaundice yellowing of skin and whites of eyes Health consequences 0 about 95 have acute hepatitis clear infection on their own cant39s transmit the disease after it is cleared and can never get reinfected 6 months Study Guide 2 Sexually Transmitted Infections 14 Treatment 0 most people don39t have symptoms and don39t know they are infectedmost don39t get treated but should get rest healthy diet and avoid drugs and alcohol to reduce stress on liver 0 prevention safe sex aovid contact with blood and don39t share razors toothbrush with infected person hep V vaccine will prevent contracting virus 0 HIVZAIDS Transmission 0 contact with infected blood semen vaginal secretions or breast milk 0 sexual contact is the most common form of transmission common symptoms 0 Acute infection 24 weeks after exposure to virus ulike symptoms nausea and vomiting diarrhea weight loss skin rash and muscle pain 0 clinicaly asymptomatic stage lasts for an average of10 years no apparent signs of the disease but virus is multiplying infecting and killing cells of immune system still contagious o symptomatic stage Minor skin and constitutional symptoms like rash fatigue slight weight loss and sores in the mouth 0 AIDS Health Consequences Treatment 0 No cure for or vaccine against eh virus there are a number of antiretroviral drugs that have increased the life expectancy of a person with HIVAIDS gt Describe the way the HIV virus affects the immune system 0 HIV works by destroying cells39 helperT cells CD4cells these cells of the immune system coordinate the body s immune response to foreign invaders without these cells diseases that would normally be destroyed are able to run rampant in the body opportunistic infections Study Guide 2 Sexually Transmitted Infections 14 gt Identify ways to reduce the risk of HIV transmission 0 Practicing safer sex avoiding contact with body uids that may contain the virus and being educated about risk factors OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS gt List the common parasitic fungal and protozoan infections 0 Parasitic infections Pubic lice crabs Sabies o Funoal infections Candidiasis aka yeast infection 0 Protozoal infections trichomoniasis gt Describe modes of transmission common symptoms and ways to treat and prevent public lice scabies and trichomonasis 0 Public lice aka Crabs Transmission sexually through direct and prolonged skinto skin contact but can be acquired through nonsexual means as it can survive for up to a day in clothing towels or bedding of an infected person common symptoms tiny white specks at the base of his or her pubic hair these are the eggs of the lice itching Treatment easily selfOtreated with an over the counter anti parasitic tropical cream or shampoo o Scabies Transmission direct prolonged skintoskin contact or by sharing infected towels bedding or clothing common symptoms few weeks after infection body39s immune response will produce itching and a rash in the genital region around the waist on the hands and wrist and in the web between ngers itching worse at night and after a shower treatment coating body with a prescription insecticide cream a Tricomoniasis Study Guide 2 Sexually Transmitted Infections 14 Transmission most common curable STI in the world almost always transmitted through sexual contact women can get it with either men or women men usually get it from female partners can also be passed during childbirth symptoms 12 weeks after infection women may experience redness burning or itching of the vulva as well as yellowgreen frothy discharge that has a shy odorseling of lymph nodes in their groin mild pain with intercourse MEN rarely notice symptoms by my occasional notice discharge or burning during urination treatment easily treated with a single dose of oral metronizadole if untreated can led to in ammation and scar tissues in a man39s urethra and can increase a woman39s susceptibility to HIV and increase risk of passing HIV to partner gt understand the symptoms and causes of yeast infection 0 an overgrowth of the yeast organism quot Candida albicans that normally exists in body occur because the normal actobacteria of the vagina is disrupted allowing yeast to overgrow can occur as result of douching or the use of antibiotics or oral contraceptives wearing tight poorly ventilated nylon underpants men can also get fungal infections of the penis characterized by itchy red aky patches of skin on the penis or testicles jock itch gt Dealing with STI 0 during an STI examination will be asked about medical and sexual history given a physical exam Can prevent STI be knowledgeable about STls and aware of their modes of transmission and common symptoms be honest with partner and communicate about your past and present sexual life Don39t take risks that could increase your chance of being infected correct and consistent use of condoms and dental dams greatly lowers your chances of being infected with an STI
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