Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide PSYC2014
Popular in Cognitive Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Grassie on Sunday May 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC2014 at George Washington University taught by Myeong-Ho Sohn in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 183 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
Reviews for Final Exam Study Guide
I love that I can count on (Hannah for top notch notes! Especially around test time...
-Mrs. Nyah Gulgowski
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 05/03/15
Long Term Memory 5315 345 PM LTM 0 Contains all our experiences and knowledge that we acquire over our lifetime 0 Creates a scaffold that supports who we are and everything we do Explicit declarative memory 0 Memories we consciously seek to store and retrieve can be described or declared to others Semantic n Conceptual knowledge stored as independent I Facts n dogs barkquot Episodic n Stores and connects specific times places and events in a person s life autobiographical n Gives rise to experience of recollection allows us to time travel mentally or relive the experience Retrospective 0 Memory for the past Prospective 0 Remember things to do in the future 0 Implicit memory 0 To learn without being aware of it 0 Mental functions are performed automatically in the background 0 Can retrieve info wo being aware we have it stored o Processdissociated When learning conditions affect one type of memory but not another the memories are processdissociated suggests independence of processes required for memory a Procedural Knowledge that allows us to behave in a certain usually skilled way but we don t remember learning the skills 0 Ex riding a bike a Perceptual Perceptually based patterns that are hard to describe but we can recall effortlessly Gollin Test 0 Incomplete sketches of images or objects participants are progressively shown images that are more complete then an hour later asked to do the same thing Usually after an hour they can guess the object with fewer presentations Capacty o No apparent limits learning new facts doesn t replace old ones Duration and forgetting 0 Knowledge in LTM is endured for nearly a lifetime 0 Harry Bick research Evaluated student s recollections of academic knowledge from Spanish classes a Participants who hadn t taken Spanish in 1 year 49 years generally showed the same result their memory is fairly stable across their lifetime Codes 0 Semantic Word meanings are stored as packages of meaning elements called semantic features Memory for languagebased events relies on this coding Semantic coding used when sentences are in paragraphs a Students not very capable of detecting changes in sentences they read in a paragraph 2 mins before Metamemory 0 Awareness of memory system and what is stored Feeling of knowing 0 Having a sense you know something but you re unable to recall it relies on metamemory O O O Motivates the search for a memory Amnesics still use metamemory and feeling of knowing Both feeling of knowing and metamemory decline with age 0 Tip of the tongue phenomenon O O 0 Temporary inaccessibility of a word More common in older adults Shows soundbased codes play a role in world retrieval Encoding specificity O Retrieval cue is most useful if it helps recreate the way an experience was encoded The way you think about it when you store it effects what kind of retrieval cue is most helpful Subjective organization Each person has their own unique way to encode events Tulving and Osler 1968 study on importance of subjective organization Your mental state can lead to other experiences being retrieved Ex those who witnessed 911 relived other traumatic expe ences Mood at time of retrieval being same as mood at time of encoding allows for better recall Also applies to bodily states such as being drunk or sober Statedependent learning a Memory performance is better when recalling info under the same bodystate condition as the original learning condition 0 Autobiographical memory 0 Memory of your personal past experiences Retrospective memory of events that have happened to you in your life You are central element 0 3 essential elements capacity for selfreflection sense of personal ownership ability to think about time as the unfolding of events centered about yourself 0 AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL INTERVIEW Assesses recollection of info from childhood early adulthood and past few years 2 categories of facts required a semantic facts 0 names of friends teachers addresses a personal episodes 0 describe an incident Retrograde amnesia 0 Can t remember things prior to the event that effected their brain Anterograde amnesia 0 Failure to add memory after a critical event Infantile amnesia 0 Difficulty retrieving autobiographical memories of childhood expe ences o Steep drop in recall before age 3 o Explained by 3 cognitive factors Brain mechanisms needed to maintain info aren t mature enough Children don t pay enough attention to the when and where of events Difference between person s current worldview and their encoding of the original event Reminiscence bump 0 Distribution of memories over decades has inverted Ushape o Largest memory of events between age 1025 Typically associated with firsts o Flashbulb memories Memories experienced as if someone took a photograph of the event Detailed perfect memories of a distinctive event Neuropsychology of memory 0 Findings from amnesic patients suggest semantic and episodic info are maintained in separate systems involving different areas of the brain Damage to one system doesn t need to damage the other 0 Neuropsych of episodic memory summarized in hemispheric encoding retrieval asymmetry HERA model Frontal lobes play important role Encoding info into episodic memory activates left hemisphere more than right Retrieval of episodic memory activates right hemisphere more than left Damage to temporal lobes has devastating effects on semantic and episodic memory When the hippocampus in both temporal lobes is not functioning properly people experience amnesia 0 CASE OF HM 0 At 27 he underwent surgery to remove part of temporal lobe that was where seizures were occurring right and left hippocampal structures removed 0 Surgery reduced his seizures but he became amnesic Couldn t remember events that happened after his surgery anterograde a People w amnesia can demonstrate implicit learning in the mirror tracing task I Also able to do Gollin test bc implicit pattern recognition is intact 0 Shows hippocampus plays important role in storing new info and may play important role in linking elements of memory together Knowledge 5315 345 PM LTM allows us to use facts to deduce and create more knowledge wo deliberately memorizing new facts 0 Semantic memory allows for this 0 Contains schemas Theories of knowledge 0 Network 0 Every category in semantic memory is connected to other categories like a net 0 Things you know as represented as nodes specific locations in memory 0 Connections between the things you know are links 0 Quillian s teachable language comprehender TLC Semantic network has 2 main concepts In Nodelink structure a Question interface 0 Sensibility test we use to determine whether we should pursue answering a ques on Prevents you wasting your attention on info you won t be able to find 0 Serves a gatekeeping function Can also be thought about like a hierarchy a To determine connection between nodes you must search up and down the hierarchy 3 key assumptions about mechanisms underlyng decisions when asked questions a the links in the hierarchy are of equal length 0 questions that require the same number of links will take the same amount of effort and time to answer bc the links are the same length n there s an efficient filing system 0 objects info are stored at highest possible level of hierarchy that s appropriate 0 minimizes demand on LTM and WM a spreading activation o the question causes energy to spread from the node at one level or node at a time o activates unnecessary nodes too why irrelevant things come to mind 0 the greater the distance between the subject and predicate the longer it takes to answer semantic distance effect a time to answer questions increases with distance between categories repeated path hypothesis a repeating a path speeds processing rethinking it u not all answers are provided at the same speed a semantic relatedness effect existence of inequalities across categories 0 people take longer to decide if canary is an animal than if chicken is an animal 0 relatedness of items is important for the judgments Featurebased o Portrays knowledge as big semantic space clusters of hills and valleys representing our knowledge 0 Clusters and hills of our knowledge The tighter the cluster the more similar the items are and easier to decide on the relationship 0 Some features of a category are more central than others Deciding how central an item is depends on the features the item possesses Defining features Features that are necessary and jointly sufficient to specify the requirements for a category I ie potential to lay eggs for a bird 0 characterizing features 0 O commonly occurring characteristics of many members of a category that we are most familiar with n ie being able to fly for birds not all birds can 3 KEY ASPECTS when people think about categories they have an overall sense of defining and characterizing features people compare sets of features to establish if one category is a part of another to see if they overlap people use own personal standards to see if features overlap sufficiently Perceptual Connectionist 0 Schema 0 000000 Piece of knowledge that can apply to many situations for many purposes Represent knowledge in a flexible way that reflects human tolerance for vagueness imprecision and quasi inconsistencies Based on experience contains knowledge of world and understanding of relationships Change over time and evolve as our experiences increase Organized hierarchically Generally interact w other schemas Can be modified depending on conditions called variables Fill in missing info make inferences from what we hear or see If you have a schema that is relevant to a situation it ll speed up ability to comprehend Schank and Abelson 1977 Script Applier Mechanism SAM Computer program that can analyze printed stories create paraphrases of them answer simple questions about the stories Doesn t interpret them literally but in reference to a script for how people and their environments interact Can mislead or misinterpret Hard to distinguish between knowledge from schema and from experience 0 Can distort our recollection of personally experienced events 0 Student Office in Brewer and Treyens Study Students waited in an office then once they left they were asked to recall or recognize items in the room a Memory was good for items that were consistent with schema but not for inconsistent items 0 Cueing schema Memory for a schema can be activated by mention of key terms in narrative Carol Harris passage n Participants read passage about fictional character Carol Harris or a real person Helen Keller a week after reading the passage they were tested on memory of sentences that never appeared in the passage but were true of Helen keller 0 Script 0 Type of schema o Tells us what behavior to expect of ourselves and others in different situations 0 Person schema 0 Connect common personality traits with behavior 0 When applied to an entire group is a stereotype Oversimplified understanding of the qualities of groups of people Imagery 5315 345 PM Imagery Images 0 Perceptual experiences we have that occur without external stimuli the images come from within us Motoric o Mentally rehearse movements like dancing or making a good goal Haptic o Imagining touch 0 Benefits 0 We can manipulate images to achieve a goal Way finding route learning a Navigatingfinding our way back by recalling images of current location and landmarks n Cognitive processes people use in spatial environment to achieve goal 0 Images can help us remember They can provide a link between items that are trying to be remembered Solomon V Shereshevskii aka S I Could recall memorized lists of numbers decades later a Unable to forget what he had remembered due a remarkable use of visual imagery Representation of images 0 Analog code Like maps or moving pictures preserve the relationship among the elements of the image as if you re experiencing them directly If images contain analog info then people should be able to scan their images like a photograph a Takes longer to scan across larger distances 0 Assessed by the dots and arrow test 0 Assessed by spontaneous imagery scanning with a fictional map memorize a map then taken away then asked to imagine how long a dot would take to travel to a certain point 0 Distance and reaction time directly related 0 Propositional code More like a series of words or a sentence Propositions smallest unit of knowledge couldn t be true or false 0 Limitations 0 Harder to find hidden figures in mental images as opposed to when the original image is in front of you Dualtask method 0 2 tasks at the same time affects their ability to perform the task then there s grounds for suggesting they 2 tasks require the same or overlapping resources 0 F mental image Mental picture an outline of F then say yes or no if the point of intersecting lines is topmost or uppermost level of the letter they responded verbally or visually by pointing When scanning and response condition were the same the response time was slower Indicates scanning an image uses same resources as scanning a photograph a Coding of images more similar to pictures than coding of a string of words suggests certain images have an analog code 0 Mental rotation 0 Mental images can be rotated like a real object 0 Study that looked at a flashed letter that was then rotated 360 degrees and they had to decide if it would be pointing in the correct direction when in an upright position 0 Reaction time increased as the letter was rotated sharp inverted u like a triangle shape of graph 0 Isomorphic rotation We mentally rotate 2d figures continuously in a similar manner 0 People need 60 degrees per second to mentally rotate an image of a 3D object Neuropsych of imagery 0 Right hemisphere important in perception of spatial relations and in rotation of mental images 0 Suggests similar processes involved in perception and imagining 0 Mental rotation easier when you use the right hemisphere Shown by how a person with split brain performs mental rotation a Hard time processing left side of mental images 0 Imagery in the blind 0 Kerr 1983 Congenital blindness patients I Asked to imagine two objects next to each other both sighted and blind had similar effects 0 Semantic satiation o Repeating a word 5x each second causes the word to lose its meaning 0 Dual codes 0 Abstract words have a single code Verbal representation 0 Concrete words have dual codes associated w them Image and verbal semantic code 0 Dual code hypothesis Words can have multiple codes Some concepts abstract ones are primarily represented verbally Other concrete concepts can be represented by both visual and verbal strategies 0 Imagery value I Stuents rate 925 words based on their imagery value how vivid the image is Concrete nouns have higher imagery Best indicator of how memorable a word is greater imagery more easily the world will be remembered 0 PICTURE SUPERIORITY EFFECT Pictures are better remembered than words because of greater imagery value Pix are represented imaginally in an analog code and a propositional code Studying pictures activates both hemispheres 0 Limits of visual memory 0 Picture memory guy with little girl Participants were no better at recognizing photographs than line drawings 0 Lack of compelling interpretation in drawings leads to only a pictorial code and lesser ability to recall the drawing later 0 Pig in a fogquot students better able at recalling pictures that had meaningful labels attached to them than ones that didn t imagery to increase physical and cognitive functioning o imagery skills can increase development of skill increase motivation and reduce stress 0 imagery also used to develop better memory and study skills 0 motoric imagery related to similar activity in the motor cortex imagery and mental maps 0 people s mental maps ie of the US are not true pictures but configurations in which the states and countries line up as if they are rectangles employ heuristic techniques to keep info as straight as possible but it leads to loss of detailed info mnemonics o involve the use of imagery to store and later retrieve info in ltm 0 method of loci 4 steps I commit the basic structural knowledge to memory I identify each item to be remembered and imagine it as an object a combine imaged items with schema already in ltm a retrieval older adults show big benefits from this method method of story putting concepts into a story to link them together effective for improving retention of info w older adults pegword method connect items to be memorized to images that can immediately be thought of pegs keyword method used in learning a new language or for namefaces memory form a bridge between foreign word and a word in your own language songs and rhymes wordplay can be a kind of auditory imagery
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'