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WSU GEO 101 Final Exam Wilkie 3 major provinces of the ocean oor continental margins deep ocean basins oceanic ridges accretionary wedge a large wedge shaped mass of sediment that accumulates in subduction zones Here sediment is scraped from the subducting oceanic plate and accreted to the over riding crustal block Active continental margins occurs when the subducting plate scrapes the bottom of the overriding plate active margin A continental margin that is colliding with another plate and as a result is geologically active Are ice shelves thicker on the landward or the seaward side thicker landward bathymetry Mapping the topography of the ocean oor Calving Icebergs break from glaciers in this process Can computer models of climate accurately predict all climate change issues Yes compressional mountains Mountains that display faulted and folded rocks continental shelf Portions of the continental margin Cordillerantype mountain building The collision and accretion of slivers of islands or other continents onto another form this crustal fragments of exoticmixed material Crustal subsidence forms from slabs of oceanic lithosphere detaching from their subducting plate creating a downward ow Describe the mechanism for mantle plumehot spot formation and how is this related to a triple junction a Regions of hotter than normal mantle rise experience decompression melting create basalts that triggers hotspot volcanism on the surface b Doming of the crust can produce three rifts that join in the area above the rising mantle plume called a triple junction Differentiate between the 4 types of moraines Lateral Medial End Ground Do rift valleys always open into an ocean or can they stall out Where can you find an example of quotinterrupted riftingquot a they can stall out b Extends from Lake Superior into Kansas dwarf planet orbits the Sun sphere shape has not cleared the region of its orbit not a moon Ephemeral Stream Practically all desert streams are this This are streams that only form when there has been precipitation fjords deep steepsided inlets Glacial Drift refers to all sediments of glacial origin The height that wind carries bedload rarely exceeds one meter above the surface Hotter objects emit moreless energy than colder objects and this energy is at shorterlonger wavelengths more shorter How are deserts and steppes de ned in terms of precipitationevaporation Desert arid regions are more dry than steppe semiarid regions How are meteorites classified amp what types exist Classified by composition Irons Aggregates of iron with 5 20 percent nickel Stony chondrites Silicate minerals with inclusions of other minerals Carbonaceous chondrite contains organic compounds Stonyirons gtgt A mixture of stony and iron How are oceanic plateaus formed What is their land equivalent called a Vast outpourings of basaltic lavas on the ocean oor b ood basalts How can mountainous regions contribute to deserti cation What is a rainshadow a They create a barrier as air rises over a mountain clouds form releasing precipitation on the windward side of the mountain b Air owing over the leeward side of the mountain is dry How did the moon form Result of a collision with a Marssized asteroid How do Cordilleran and Alpine mountain building events differ Alpine mountain building continental collisions How does glaciation in uence sea level How does it impact river ow During the last glacial maximum sea level was 100 meters lower than present level The advance and retreat of the North American ice sheets changed the routes of rivers and modified the size and shape of many valleys How does oceanic crust form What are pillow basalts and sheeted dikes a Basaltic magma originates from partially melted mantle peridotite The magma rises through the upper mantle in tiny cracks until it reaches a lensshaped magma chamber beneath the ridge crest As the pressure in the chamber increases the rock about the chamber periodically fractures b 1020 percent of the magma reaches the sea oor where it quickly solidifies forming large tubeshaped protuberances How does pressure change with height in the atmosphere Pressure is the weight of the air above how does the continental rise form thick accumulation of sediment from the continental slope carried by turbidity currents down submarine canyons How does the rate of sea oor spreading affect topography Oceanic ridges with slow spreading rates have welldeveloped rift valleys and rugged topography Oceanic ridges with intermediate spreading rates have subdued rift valleys and topography Oceanic ridges with fast spreading rates generally do not have a rift valley and have a shallow profile How does the type of lithosphere age thickness density impact the angle in which the plate subducts Spontaneous subduction Very old thick dense lithosphere sinks to the mantle by its own weight Forced subduction Younger less dense lithosphere is forced beneath the overlying plate by compressional forces How do ocean basins close If a plate subducts faster than it is produced at a spreading center the plate will get smaller until it completely subducts How have humans impacted climate change fire and overgrazing rising C02 levels How is wind transport similar to and different from water transport river transport Wind is less capable of picking up and transporting coarse materials Wind is not confined to channels and can spread sediment over large areas How long does it take for a glacier to form many years How many years of climate data can we get from ice cores What about tree rings 200000 How much of the sun39s energy is absorbed on Earth39s surface 50 How often on average do glacialinterglacial cycles occur amp which are we in right now Every 100000 years Holocene Interglacial Isostasy The balancing of the downward force of the crust and the upward force of the mantle Is the average continental slope steep or shallow in angle steep loess silt sized sediment formed by accumulation of wind blown dust Methods used to determine bathymetry Sonar and with satellite radar Name some features of subduction zones Volcanic arc Deepocean trench Forearc region Backarc region Name the four stages volcanic structures undergo in the ocean Seamount volcanic island erosion guyot Oceanic Ridge are the longest topographic features on Earth Orgenesis the processes of mountain formation passive margin Edge of a continent along which there is no tectonic activity Perennial Stream a stream that ows for most or all of the year stratified drift Sediment that is sorted by size and weight of the particles is called stratified drift The sun emits energy and the key difference between segments in this type of energy is the wavelength electromagnetic radiation in the form of rays or waves supercontinent cycle The formation and dispersal of supercontinents Surges Periods of rapid movement in glacial ow of some glaciers TF Accretion forms mountains true TF All objects emit radiant energy True TF Earth is the only planet with active geological processes False TF Ephemeral streams usually reach the ocean or a major sea False TF Glacial ice takes more 016 out of the oceans True TF Glaciation is a good example of isostasy in that when the glacier is present amp large the crust subsides and when it melts the crust rebounds True TF Glaciers create two basic types of features those that erode and those that deposit True TF Global temperature is expected to fall as a result of human induced climate activity False TF Ice sheets sharpen and raise the topography False TF Mantle plumes can raise whole sections of continents True TF Perennial streams do not exist in desert regions True TF Seawater can permeate fractured crustal material to a depth of 23 km True TF Snowice crystals become more dense amp compact the deeper you go within a glacier What gets quotsqueezedquot out in this process What are the denser grains called a True b air 0 firn TF Suspended loads from wind transport can move across oceans to other continents true TF The moon has experienced ood basalt activity True TF There are tectonic forces on the moon False TF Transform faulting and earthquakes are associated with midocean ridges True TF Valley glaciers create subtle and rounded topography false TF Wind erodes as much if not more than glaciers and water false Till is deposited as glacial ice melts and drops its load of rocks Tillites lithified till deposits that provide evidence of very old periods of glaciation True or false Abyssal plains are most extensive in the Paci c Ocean False more extensive in the Atlantic type of bedding associated with turbidity currents mixtures of sediment and water What 2 cycles are glaciers part of Rock Cycle hydrologic cycle What about the difference between aretes horns rouches moutonnees eskers drumlins amp kames An ar te is a sharpedged ridge A horn is a pyramidlike peak An asymmetrical knob of bedrock produced by continued glacial erosion is called a roches moutonn es Drumlins are smooth elongate parallel hills composed of till and formed from ice sheets A kame is steepsided mound formed from icecontact stratified drift What are comets and where do they originate What are they composed of and what is their quotanatomyquot Comets are also leftover material from the formation of the solar system 0 Loose collection of rocky material dust water ice and frozen gases What are faultblock mountains and where can you nd them today aContinental rifting can produce uplift and the formation of mountains b The tetons of Wyoming What are ice caps outlet glaciers amp piedmont glaciers Ice caps cover some uplands and plateaus Ice caps and ice sheets feed quotoutlet glaciersquot which are tongues of ice extending outward from the large masses Piedmont glaciers form when one or more alpine glaciers emerges from the valley and spreads out in a broad lobe What are maria and what rock are they primarily composed of Smooth plains of basaltic lava What are outwash plains amp valley trains associated with 0 Outwash plains are associated with ice sheets 0 Valley trains are associated with mountain valleys What are rock our glacial striations and polishing Rock ours pulverized rock Glacial striations grooves in the bedrock Polishing when a rock is smoothed by a glacier what are some features of the deep ocean basin In which of these features would you find the deepest parts of the ocean Where is the deepest part of Earth39s sea oor a deep ocean trenches abyssal plains seamounts and guyots oceanic plateaus b deepocean trenches c Challenger Deep in Mariana trench is the deepest spot in the ocean What are some natural causes of climate change Plate movements and orbital variations volcanic activity and climate change solar variability and climate What are some theoretical causes of ice ages Causes of the onset of glacial conditions Causes of alteration between glacial and interglacial stages Plate Tectonics Variations in Earth39s Orbit Changes in Earth39s atmosphere Changes in ocean circulation Changes in the re ectivity of Earth39s surface What are some types of paleoclimatology used to discern past climate environments Proxy data indirect evidence of climate change What are sutures and foldandthrust belts Sutures The zone where two continents collide Foldandthrust belt most compressional mountains exhibit the deformation of a thick sequence of sedimentary rocks What are terraelunar highlands amp what rock type are they primarily composed of Breccias elevated several kilometers above the maria What are the 4 distinct layers of an ophiolite complex amp what doe they consist of 0 Layer 1 consists of deep sea sediments and sedimentary rocks 0 Layer 2 consists of pillow basalts 0 Layer 3 consists of numerous interconnected dikes called sheet dikes 0 Layer 4 consists of gabbro What are the 4 layers of our atmosphere amp how are they classified 0 Thermosphere 0 Mesosphere Temperatures decrease with height to the mesopause Coldest temperatures in the atmosphere are found in the mesosphere 0 Stratosphere Temperature remains constant until 20 kilometers then it increases Ozone is concentrated in the stratosphere Bounded on the top by the stratopause 0 Troposphere The bottom layer of the atmosphere We live in the troposphere Temperature decreases with an increase in altitude Most Weather occurs in the troposphere Bounded on the top by the tropopause What are the 6 types of sand dunes and how do they vary based on quantities of sand wind amp vegetation Barchan Tranverse barchamoid longitudinal parabolic star What are the differences between a pater noster lakeand a cirque A pater noster lake forms after parts of the bedrock lifted and plucked by the glacier fill with water A cirque a bowlshaped depression is typically found at the head of a glacial valley What are the names of the previous 2 supercontinents Pangaea and Rodinia What are the zones in a glacial budget Zone of accumulation Sone of wastage What can aerosols do to our atmosphere 0 Can attract moisture for cloud formation 0 Can block sunlight from reaching Earth What conditions are necessary for formation of a glacier accumulation compaction and recrystallization of snow What creates a proglacial lake amp what type of damage can this feature do Ice sheets and alpine glaciers can act as dams to create proglacial lakes The failure of ice dams can release large volumes of water very quickly What does an alluvial fan have in common with a delta How are they different What is a bajada a has the same shape b the alluvial fan is a deposit of sediment c forms from the coalescing of multiple fans What do glaciers do to a valley amp what shape does the valley take on as a result What features are associated with this process Glaciers widen and deepen valleys creating Ushaped glacial troughs Glaciers tend to straighten valleys removing sharp curves and creating truncated spurs Glaciers in a main trunk valley typically erode more than tributary glaciers creating hanging valleys What drives atmospheric circulation on Jupiter Contraction What factors control glacial erosion Rate of movement Thickness of the ice Types of rock fragments trapped in the ice The erodibility of the surface below the glacier What feature distinguishes where snow won39t melt in the summer Snowline What feature does de ation produce blowouts What gases make up most of our air What other constituents are found in air Nitrogen oxygen carbon dioxide argon What geologic activity occurs on Mercury On Venus On Mars Mercury Greatest temperature extremes in the solar system absorbs solar radiation it receives has a magnetic field Venus Second to the Moon in brilliance Rotates in the opposite direction as other planets Similar to Earth in size Densest atmosphere of terrestrial planets Mars Atmosphere 0 1 percent as dense as Earth39s 0 Primarily carbon dioxide What geologic principles can you use to relatively date impact craters on planetsmoons Superposition What happens to most meteors as they pass through Earth39s atmosphere What about the moon or Mars39 don39t survive to reach the ground What happens to the sea level as a result of rising global temperature What about permafrost39s impact What about ocean acidity a Will affect lowlying countries and regions with a gently sloping shoreline 0 Atlantic coast of the US Sea level rise driven by 0 Melting glaciers 0 Thermal expansion b 0 Thawing permafrost is a positive feedback mechanism Organic material stored in the permafrost will start to decay and release carbon dioxide and methane c Will increase What is desert pavement Many deserts have a veneer of pebbles and cobble What is different regarding core material in terrestrial plants vs Jovian planets What about atmospheric differences Core Jovian solid made up of rock and ice Terrestrial solid inner core liquid outer core Atmospheric Jovian planets have a very thick hydrogen and heliumrich atmosphere Terrestrial planets have a thin atmosphere composed of carbon dioxide nitrogen and oxygen What is quotfunkyquot about Uranus39 orbit Rotates on its side What is geologically special about Jupiter39s Galilean moons Ganymede gtgtHas a dynamic core and magnetic field Callisto 10 gtgt Most volcanically active body in the solar system Europa Covered with ice possibly liquid water under the ice What is geologically special about Neptune39s moon Triton Has cryovolcanism eruptions of water ice methane ice and ammonia ice What is hydrothermal metamorphism and what type of feature is produced by hot groundwater dissolving ions of metals from rocks that results in particle lled precipitates on the sea oor a Seawater is heated as it circulates through the crust altering the basalt b black smokers What is lunar regolith amp what is it composed of soillike composed of igneous rocks breccia glass beads and lunar dust What is sea ice a Frozen Sea water What is the difference between a continental volcanic arc and a volcanic island arc Volcanic arcThe subducting slab partially melts the overlying mantle wedge Volcanic Island arc Melt migrates upward through the overlying oceanic lithosphere and forms a growth What is the difference between a meteoroid a meteor and a meteorite A meteoroid is a small solid particle 0 Called meteors when they enter Earth39s atmosphere 0 Called meteorite when they hit ground What is the difference between valleyalpine glaciers and ice sheets Valley glaciers Glaciers that eXist in valleys of mountainous areas are called valley or alpine glaciers Ice Sheets eXist on a larger scale than valley glaciers What is the greenhouse effect Is it good or bad for us Which wavelengths are absorbed by gases in the atmosphere a This selective absorption and reheating of Earth is called the greenhouse effect and results in warming of the atmosphere b infrared radiation What is the primary effect of chemical weathering in desert environments on rocks rich in iron Fe Gives the rocks their orange color What is the upper 50m of a glacier called amp what type of cracks does it feature The upper 50 meters of a glacier is brittle and called the zone of fracture What marks the beginning of ocean basin formation and where can you nd a current example of this occurring a continental rift b where the lithosphere is stretched and thinned What mechanisms do glaciers use to erode the landscape Plucking as a glacier ows over a bedrock it loosens and lifts blocks Abrasion Rocks in the glacier also act like sandpaper to smooth and polish a rock surface What model provides the framework for orogenesis Is orogenesis something that falls under the principle of uniformitarianism did it happen in the past as it happens today How does this relate to where we nd mountain belts today a Plate tectonics b yes c Earth39s major mountains have formed along convergent plate boundaries What rock types are found in compressional mountains Folded sedimentary slate phylites schists gniess What series of events produced the Appalachian Mountains Formed from three main orogenic events that cumulated with the formation of Pangaea What shape are impact craters result of planetary collisions with massive bodies What39s the difference between basal slip amp plastic ow 0 Plastic ow involves movement Within the ice Under pressure ice behaves as a plastic material 0 Along the ground the entire ice mass slides along the ground as basal slip What39s the difference between positive amp negative feedback mechanisms Positive Changes that reinforce the initial change Negative produce results that are the opposite of the initial change and tend to offset it What substances are incorporated in to the magma in subduction zones that create more explosive magmas silicates What surface features exist on Mars that cause scientists to believe water wasis present on the surface permanent ice caps stream valleys and related features What theory explains the formation of the solar system Solar Nebula What type of stress and faulting is associated with convergent boundaries Does this thicken or thin the crust a Compressive b Thicken What type of stress is associated with divergent plate boundaries think back to what type of faulting this is too Tensional stress What type of volcano is Olympus Mons How did it get to be so large Shield because plate tectonics are absent on Mars What types of features does wind deposition produce Is the profile of a sand dune usually symmetrical or asymmetrical What do dunes form around What is the typical slip face angle of sand Dunes and Loesses sand deposits What types of features does wind erosion produce Ventifacts and Yardangs What types of minerals form from playa lakes What is the bed called that is left over after the water evaporates If erosion continues what feature is left overwhat is the name of the bedrock knob feature a salts b playa c Inselbergs Where did asteroids come from Where are most found 0 Left over from the formation of the solar system 0 Most orbit in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter Where does most weather occur Which layer contains ozone Where are the coldest temperatures found Which one has no de ned upper limit a troposphere b stratosphere c mesosphere d thermosphere Where does sea oor spreading occur Who formulated this concept a Along the crests of oceanic ridges b Harry Hess Where do you predominantly nd deserts amp steppes on Earth What type of cells isare associated with these latitudes a On the tropic of cancer and the tropic of capricorn b Hadley Cells Regions of high pressure sinking air that is compressed and warm Where do you see higher and lower gravity anomalies Higher paci c ocean and near greenland Lower canada atlantic and indian ocean Where is ow fastest in a glacier Center of the glacier Where would I nd a rift valley in a midoceanic ridge Is this where the asthenosphere rises up to its highest point in relation to Earth39s crust a exists on the axis of most ridges b Yes