Final Study Guide (Post-midterm material)
Final Study Guide (Post-midterm material) ANTH 1002
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Final Study Guide PostMidterm Parts Three and Four of Course Beliefs Systems and Knowledge Practices Durkheim and Religion March 18 2015 1 Introductions to part IV of the Syllabus a How do we account for the unknown i There are belief systems that account for gaps in our knowledge b Fundamentally then there are no religions that are false All are true after their own fashion all fulfilled given conditions of human existence thought in different waysquot Pg 2 i Durkheim is a positivist Yet here he is making a blanket bold statement ii He is interested in how do religions function What needs to religions fulfill What needs of human existence iii Pushing against human tradition of seeing other religious as false irrationalquot c Reminder i Cultural relativism the position that the values and standards of cultures differ and deserve respect ii But this position is not one of moral relativism iii In trying to understand a culture fully anthropologist seek to understand its member beliefs and motivations iv Contrast to ethnocentrism which is the tendency to view one s own culture as the best and to judge the behavior and beliefs of culturally different people by one s own standards v Essentially Not need to remove morality but to understand the internal logic of other culture 2 Why study the religion of primitive cultures a Durkheim and Mary Douglas 9 both turn to primitive culturequot to understands that social characteristics of religion Why i Durkheim is following the French positivist tradition He is using the scientific to understand the social Why doesn t he try to understand his own culture 1 Founding father of sociology wants to emulate the natural sciences a He wants to use primitive societies because he can take out some variables present in more complex societiesquot and focus on religion b Nitthose primitive societies have less complex religious systems Belief systems are complex but the overall societies are more straightforward 2 His theoretical actions help build an argument 3 To him religion is the ultimate social fact a He believes religion is the social glue that allows people to come together b He needs to study it in focus 4 Figure out how to isolate examples so he figures out the main variables a He wants to example the constant causes b Example with least variables and constant cause 5 Pg 8 the physicist seeks to simplijj the phenomenon Durkheim is applying concepts from the natural sciences to the social sciences 3 The Sacred and the Profane Pg 238 a What are two basic categories that religious phenomenon fall into according to Durkheim Pg 34 i Beliefs Thoughts 1 Religious beliefs are those representations that express the nature of sacred things and the relations they have with other sacred things or with profane thingsquot Pg 38 a Sacred Profane ii Sacred and Profane 1 The sacred thing is par excellence that which the profane must not and cannot touch with impunityquot Pg 38 2 Sacred things are things protected and isolated by prohibitions profane things are these things to which the prohibitions are applied and that must keep a distance from what is sacred Pg 38 3 Sacred and Profane and their opposition is essential to aw n a Sacred is elevated Profane is the everyday Scared is transcendent and special b Profane is defined against the sacred i These two cannot touch without some negative consequence iii What do you 9 These two can t touch but you can move closer How Via rites 1 Example Baptism a Getting closer to being a true believer by submersion iv Rites Actions 1 Finally ms are rules of conduct that prescribe how man must conduct himself with sacred things Pg 38 2 Example I I Immersion Piss Christ Andres Serrano w a It depicts a plastic cross submerged in the artist s urine b Putting an image of an icon that is sacred inside bodily waste You don t get more profane than that c The profane and sacred in contact without ritual 9 not okay as re ected by the controversy 3 Example 11 Tomb of the unknowns Arlington National My a Nation states is making and demarcating a space of sacred b The profane the everyday is not allowed c Women takes picture mocking the sign asking for respect and silence 9 gets fired from her job V What is religion and magic 1 There is no church ofmagic Pg 42 2 Religion a Unites a group of people 9 Social and built on communities b Built on altruism c Works in the real i Meaning the moral shared in the real of a moral world collective ideas 3 Magic a A relationship about the individual i The magician and the person seeking out services b Built on Individual utility c Works in the material i Not in the external but in the material 4 Definition of Religion Pg 44 a quotA religion is a unified systems of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things that is to say things set apart and forbidden beliefs and practices which unite one single moral community called a Church all those who adhere to them Pg 44 5 Glossary a Cultural Relativism the position that the values and standards of cultures differ and deserve respect b Sacred Profane i Sacred things are things protected and isolated by prohibitions profane things are these things to which the prohibitions are applied and that must keep a distance from what is sacred Pg 38 Dirt or Matter Out Of Place March 20 2015 I Recap the definition of religion a quotA religion is a unified systems of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things that is to say things set apart and forbidden beliefs sacredprofane and practices rituals which unite one single moral community called a Church all those who adhere to them Pg 44 i Different from Magic which is about the individual 1 Religion is a unifying force in a society 2 Moral community shared representation and collective way of understanding the world b Durkheim makes religion his primary vehicle for answering 9 how societies stick togetherquot i Mary Douglas resembles this discussion about sacred profane 11 Dirt offends a Mary Douglas 19212007 i Purity and Danger was published 1966 and established her career ii quotDanger lies in transitional states simply because transition is neither one state nor the next it is indefinable The person who must pass from one to another is himself in danger and emanates danger to others 119 1 Examples a Adolescence not an adult and not a child b Pregnancy essentially being one or two people b InClass Question What space or object do you take pains to keep free of dirt Why i What underlying system of order category are you safeguarding ii How we deal with things that threatened our society How do societies deal with dirt c On the impulse to cleantidy order 9 i In chasing dirt in paper decorating tidying we are not governed by anxiety to escape disease but are positively re ordering our environment making it conform to an idea It is a creative movement an attempt to release form to function to make unity of experience If this is so with our separating tidying and purifying we should interpret primitive purification and prophylaxis in the same light P 3 d Dirt as matter out of place 9 i quotDirt o ends against order P 2 1 That said Douglas is not really concerned with dirt per se but with widespread but not universal cultural beliefs and practices relating to purity and contagion ii So thinking about dirt is really a way to think about how societies are organized around notions of 9 1 orderdisorder 2 beingnonbeing 3 form formlessness 4 life to death e Dirt out of place tells you something 9 i Douglas argues 1 On Pg 44 that where there is dirt there is a system 2 Yet she goes on to say on Pg45 that dirt is a residual category rejected from our normal scheme of classifications ii How can we explain these two statements in relations to one another 9 5 ways of responding III AnomalousAmbiguous 5 ways of responding 4850 a Cultures Douglas argues have provisions to deal with quotmatter out of place that is ambiguous or ambivalent events i By interpreting and labeling the anomaly so categories can be restored eg monstrous birth likened to baby hippo ii By physical controlling the anomaly eg nightcrowing cock iii By avoiding thereby strengthening the patterns approved Leviticus crawling things iv By attributing danger thereby putting it above dispute v By using the anomaly s symbol in ritual to enrich meaning and create unifying b All of these are about ensuring cohesion 9 You deal with the dirty so that the danger doesn t transform the system as it stands Witchcraft Oracles and Magic among the Azande Uzbekis US teens March 25 2015 Guest Lecturer I EvansPritchard and the Azande Background a Anthropology Why are we different How are we different i Linguistic anthropology What is the role of language in making us different b EvansPritchard looks at how witchcraft serves as an explanation for unfortunate even ts i Significance It was an important account because of the way he described them 1 In the 19020s and 1930s most of the work in describing and analyzing ways human find explanations saw quotprimitivequot cultures as backward and superstitious 2 He studied spoke to them and try to understand them c EvansPritchard develops a functionalist explanation i Institutions like witchcraft that fit into logic system It is there because it helps them do stuff ii Not only do magical practices help the society stick together but also help it make sense of the unknown 1 Durkheim 9 stick together 2 EvansPritchard 9takes it further saying that it makes sense d EvansPritchard 19021973 i His first field work begun in 1926 resulted in the books Witchcraft Oracles and Magic Among The Azande 1937 1 quotThe anthropologist must follow what he nds in the society he has selected for study social organization of its people their values and sentiments and so forth I had no interest in witchcraft when I went to Zandeland but the Zande had so I had to let myself be guided by them Appendix IV Pg 242 2 Anthropologists guide their questions by what the people being studied find salient in their existence II Accounting for misfortune rationality irrationality a Re ection 9 Is Azande thought so different from ours Or it explained in an idiom that we are simply unaccustomed to b Question How do we explain misfortune i Azande like you and me perfectly aware that there are natural cases to many occasions of misfortune 1 Note that they explain of misfortune is NOT done inexplicably or in a chaotic manner ii Clear distinctions between natural and supernatural 1 Supernatural only applied in cases where the natural cannot be used to explain a Explain particularities of events that cannot be accounted by natural explanations b Evans resounds with respect 2 Witchcraft fulfills the function that science fulfills in our modern society a We use science to explain unusual events They do the same with witchcraft b Like science witchcraft doesn t try to explain what ought to happen Instead it explains what happened 3 Pg 18 9 there is no niche or corner of the Zande culture into whichquot Any failure of misfortune is accounted by magic c In essence rationality and irrationality are III Witchcraft examples from the Azande Pg 2023 a Example one the injured toe i Why did the boys who knock his foot against the stump of a tree Was that witchcraft at work 1 If its just his foot 9 its natural to stump your feet 2 If its get infected and he almost dies Why did it get do bad 9 It starts to get to magic for explanation b Example 2 the collapse granary pg 2223 i Now why should these particular people have been sitting under this particular moment when it collapse That it should collapse is easily intelligible but why should it have collapse at the particular moment when these particular people were sitting beneath it Pg 22 ii EvansPritchard saw the Azande as similar to those in any modern societyquot 1 Societies organize their world in a meaningful way 2 All social communities come with explanatory patterns IV Example from Luria in Uzbekistan a Alexander Luria looked as the Soviet Union expanded he was interested in finding out the obstacles of true union i The backward regions were seen as irrational and holding back that union b Luria s experiments in Uzbekistan in the 1930s 9 i Question quotIn the Far North all bears are white Novaya Zemyla is the far North What color are bears there ii Reponses you should ask the people who have been there and seen them quotHere we only speak of what we see We don t talk about what we haven t seen 1 Why this response To them it was illogical to ask them that They haven t seen it why would they know Their epistemology was different from ours iii Context Stalin s collectivization programs iv Historical figure of literacy 9 in uences their logical reasoning 1 Finding cues that those with literacy responded by making a logical inference 2 Questions asked in Syllogism 9 usually occurs in very specific historical settings where people are literate V US Science classroom a Situation 9 4 kids in a science class have weighed closed and opened bottle with baking soda and vinegar b Question 9 Is the weight the same or different i One of the kids figures out the kind of answer the teacher would be looking for ii Another kid seeks to truly find out the answer iii Dynamics of social context some are quotgiftedquot ESOL or normal 9 it plays into the other believing their answer is correct VI In summary a Evans Pritchard 9 Rationality is a social constructions b Luria9 it is an historical constructions c Science Education example 9 reasoning occurs in a social context VII Glossary a Mangu witchcraft b Benge oracle c F urther explained in next week s lm Note on Class Film The Azande March 27 2015 For Azande Magical practices to explain the unexplainable 0 Walking along is really hot you go under granary and it collapse What is the reason 0 To them it s because someone was pissed and sent magic to hurt you Magical systems tend to work because they are coherent about how the world work while counting for times when it doesn t work normally and how to resolves 0 Complex system of practices to solve problem of the every day life Christianity has come in to the tribe 0 However in their eyes it doesn t do it It doesn t account for all of their problems in farming rain and other particularities of Azande life Oracles articles that can reveal a truth in the community I Soro 9 Chief of Police and Judge I Local Chief 9 dispenses justice via the use of Mangu Azande word for Magic I Benge oracle sorcerer ask in order to reveal truth 0 Administers poison to chicken 9 weather they lived or died will dictate I No such thing as bad luck or accident it is due to magic or witchcraft 0 Notes You can be a witch without knowing it I Glossary 0 Mangu Azande word for Magic or witchcraft o Benge oracle sorcerer ask in order to reveal truth I Oracle articles that can reveal a truth in the community I Example 9 Administers poison to chicken weather they lived or died will dictate truth Faith Belief Science April 1 2015 1 Hook Culturalscientificeconomic crisis in New England a Listened to NPR quotApril s Fool New England Su ers Maple Woes i NPR April joke story 9 The myth of the maple trees 11 Boggles lines and faith Tanya Luhrmann s NYT Oped a Boggle threshold quotthe level above which the minds boggles when faced with some new fact or report or idea b quotWe all have these boggle lines Praying in an ancient language you don t understand isfine praying in tongues not a human language but thought to be a spiritual one anathema A god who has a human son whom he allows to be killed is natural a god with eight arms and a lusty sexual appetite is weir Tanya Luhrmann i She is writing for the secular liberalism ii In our own we have lines on what is acceptable and what is not iii But I think the boggle line also tells us something about belief 9 What does Luhrmann argue that the boggle threshold can tell us 1 The more we agree and embrace those things we have faith in the more that things opposite to that boggle us 2 Essentially 9The things that boggle us help us understand what we have faith it 3 quotWhen we draw a line between the plausible and the ridiculous our boggle line I think we become more confident about the beliefs on the plausible side of the line c Faith asks people to consider that the evidence of their sense is wrong In various way and in varying degrees faith asks that people believe that their minds are not always private that person are not always Visible that unseen presences should alter your emotions and direct your behavior That reality is good and justice is triumphant These are fantastic claims and the fact of their improbability is not lost on those who accept themquot Luhrmann i Think about the assumptions that you make 1 Faith 9 Comes because your mind and senses can get it wrong ii Systems of knowledgemaking requires faith III Malinowski on science and belief an example of clashing epistemologies creationism vs evolution a Note 9 Special attention to the reading First 10 pages and the science section b In every primitive community studied by observed there are two clearly distinguishable domains the sacred and the profane in other words the domain of magic and religion and that of science i Magic religion Approach and deal with things that an emotional import Those events alarm and scare We want explore them ii Science Every day mundane world of explaining c Vietnam i Good death 9 with your social world in your soil with your people ii Death on the streetquot 9 you do not die with your social world your people your soil 1 Require additional rites especially frequent during times of war d Pg 1 people couldn t come up with every practices of hunting and agriculture without agriculture observation of natural process and a firm belief in its regularity without the power of reasoning and without con dence in the power of reason that is without the rudiments of science e Pg 10 quotcan this primitive knowledge be regarded as a rudimentary form of science or is it on the contrary radically di erent a crude empiric a body of practical and technical abilities rule of thumb and rules of art having no theoretical value f Pg 67 i Science even as representedfixed by reasonquot Magic is based on specific experience of emotional states ii Science is founded on the conviction that experience e ort and reason are valid magic on the belief that hope cannot fail nor desire deceive The theories of knowledge are g Malinowski set up an argument of epistemology i Two aspects of epistemology 9 1 Authority what constitutes legitimate knowledge What is truth 2 Process how do we gain knowledge ii The debate between creationism and evolution 9 represents a clash of epistemological understanding about the earth its origin and life forms 1 The Scopes Trial a Formally known as the State of Tennessee vs John Thomas Scopesquot or the Scopes quotmonkeyquot Trial in July 1925 b William Jennings Bryan on evolution 9 quotMillion of guesses strong together c Clarence Darrow on the genesis story 9 Fools ideas that no intelligent Christian on earth believes d quotIt was the rst time the Bible was ridiculed by the media in America and that was a downward turning point for Christendom Ham says quotWe are going to undo all ofthat here at the Creation Museum We are going to answer the questions Bryan wasn t prepared to and show that belief in every word of the Bible can be defended by modern science i Ken Ham CEO of Answers in Genesis which built KY museum saloncom IV InClass example of scientific leaps of faith Higgs Boson experiment V Terms a Boggle threshold quotthe level above which the minds boggles when faced with some new fact or report or idea Fernea s Guest of the Shiek Part I I Background on our author Elizabeth Warnock Fernea 0 Nickname B o Lived 19272008 0 She authored several book among them Guests of the Shiek 1965 A View of the Nile A Street of the Nile A Street in Marrakech Middle Eastern Women Speak Women and Family in the Middle East I Entering the filed the choice necessity of the Abayah o Positionality Ethnographer aware of her positionality and her transition as she emerges into the field Her positionality as a western woman 0 Abayah the long black cloak worn traditionally by Iraqi women quotSince we were guests of the Sheik he added it would make everything easier if I wore the abayah the sheik wouldn t have to punish people for insulting me Insulting me I had been indignant quotThey say an uncovered women is an immoral women Bob has explained quotand the tribesmen ask why a woman should want to show herselfto anyone but her husband Pg 6 o Entering the field She begins with indignation At first she refuses to wear She has a stake in maintain her identity However she realizes that there is a worth of the Abayah She gets social pressure stares from people She finally decides to wear in order to avoid the scrutiny and gain a more anonymous role Her hostess realizes that by not wearing the abayah she is not going to make it Can you make it So she accepts the Abayah o Abayah as a Material Cultural Artifact Artifact an object that has meaning within a culture and history Material physical thing Culture meaning within the culture and by its history Historical particularity You can t understand an object without understand the historical process from which it came to be Essentially 9 Abayah has a history in how it came to be It has a history and meaning in its context 0 Purdah an Indian term generally meaning the seclusion of women in separate quarters Abayah is the portable version of purdah It achieves purdah when the women can t be physically secluded It insures the same kind of protection of a social being Purdah enacted in public spaces I El Nahra s social and spatial organization o The Village Across the canal from the tribal settlement of mudbrick houses shops a small covered bazaar and a mosque distinguishedby only a small mosaic There is no God but Allah and Mohammed is His Prophetquot Pg 49 Review map found on pg 2021 New Bridge Good for transportation of goods and other things However since it was centrally locally It was hard for women to move about Belief system created social order and interacted space To think about How are belief system and social order tied to space Belief system created a specific social order and in interacted with space 0 Urban order secular market place education 0 Religious side of the village 0 Logics of religious systems are more importanct the urban To think about How do belief systems shape understanding of social organization belonging Social and special organization 0 Sex Gender What is the difference Sexual dimorphisms marked differences in male and female biology besides the contrast in breast and genitalsquot Differences in form Sex di erences are biological but gender encompasses all the traits that a culture assigns to and inculcates in males and females 39Gender in other words refers to the cultural construction of male and female characteristics In this sense gender and is constructed and malleable 0 To think about Examples of Purdah and the challenge that it presents to B I Pilgrimage to Karbala film I Glossary o Abaya the long black cloak worn traditionally by Iraqi women 0 Purdah an Indian term generally meaning the seclusion of women in separate quarters 0 Sex versus Gender I Sex di erences are biological but gender encompasses all the traits that a culture assigns to and inculcates in males and females 39Gender in other words refers to the cultural construction of male and female characteristics Fernea s Guest of the Shiek Part 11 April 8 2015 I Contextualizing the abayah Guest lecturer Ferhan Guloglu o Veil 9 Burka headscarf abayah I At the heart of academic accounts of the Middle East 0 Orientalist Tradition 9 see the east as the western least If it s not familiar it is exotic and lesser Edward Sayid 0 Historical background I Fatima Mernissi Beyond the Veilquot women and sexuality in the Islamic word Ulema male theologians who manipulate religious text to suppress women Lila AbuLughod Veil sentimentsquot goes against Fatima Women can enact their sexuality and emotion via songs Modest women do have agency They have voice Of course there is a social frame that determines the appropriateness of it I Wait a second what is agency Agency resistance freedom 0 She criticizes freedom as a social idea 0 She interprets the veil as an empowering mechanism They don t care about being quotfreequot they care more their values and beliefs 0 Different subjectivity Lila AbuLughod Do Muslim Women really need savingquot Humanitarianism rhetorical of saving Islamic women However they don t need feel like they need to be saved They are content with their lives and practices Saving itself is very problematic It puts the western men in a place of higher ground to go save the hopeless Muslim women Cultural relativism in this eld For Islamic women Drones are more oppressive than the burka I Understanding SunniShia 0 Basic demographics facts about Sunni and Shia Muslims o Hadith Shia 1015 of Muslims population 16 million numbering 200 million 90 Iranians 70 of people in Persian gulf and 50 in area from Lebanon to Pakistan 95 Iraqi population is Muslim 51 Shia and 42 Sunni Around 62 of the world Muslim live in Asia Indonesia has largest Muslim population in the world From 2009 Pew center report quotThe hadith of the prophet Muhammad exemplify how both reverent emulation and contention attach to tradition in Islamic discourses A number of transitions hold that just before the prophet died he asked his community to hold fast onto two things the book of god and the family of the Prophet Other transitions maintain that the two things were the book of God and the prophetic examples Sunni as found in the hadithquot The different implications of these two sets of transitions constitute a long running argument between Sunnis and Shia Muslims Source Graves of Tarim Engseng Ho 2006 23 o Chronology of the Prophet s life and the ensuing divisions 9 The Note taker s Source http wwwnprorg 2007 021 2 72 80905 chronologyahistoryoftheshiasunnisplit 570 The Prophet Muhammad is born 598 Ali who will become the fourth caliph and the first Shiite Imam is born 610 The year Muslims cite as the beginning of Muhammad39s mission and revelation of the Quran 613 The public preaching of Islam begins 630 The Muslims led by Muhammad conquer Mecca 632 Muhammad dies Abu Bakr is chosen as caliph his successor A minority favors Ali They become known as ShiatAli or the partisans of Ali 656 Ali becomes the fourth caliph after his predecessor is assassinated Some among the Muslims rebel against him 661 Violence and turmoil spread among the Muslims Ali is assassinated 680 Hussein son of Ali marches against the superior army of the caliph at Karbala in Iraq He is defeated his army massacred and he is beheaded The split between Shiites and Sunnis deepens Shiites consider Ali their first imam Hussein the third 873 The I I th Shiite Imam dies No one succeeds him 8 73940 In the period known as the Lesser Occultation the son of the I I th Imam disappears leaving his representatives to head the Shiite faith 940 The Greater Occultation of the 12th or Hidden Imam begins No imam or representative presides over the Shiite faithful 1258 The Mongols led by Hulagu destroy Baghdad ending the Sunni Arab caliphate I501 Ismail I establishes the Safavid dynasty in Persia and declares Shiism the state religion 1900 Ruhollah Khomeini is born in Persia 19201922 Arabs both Shiite and Sunni revolt against British control of Iraq 19221924 Kemal Ataturk abolishes the Ottoman sultanate and the Turkish Sunni caliphate I925 Reza Khan seizes power in Persia declares himself shah establishing the Pahlavi dynasty 1932 Iraq becomes an independent nation under King Faisal a Sunni Arab 1 93 5 Persia is renamed Iran I941 Reza Shah abdicates throne in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Shah British and Soviet military forces occupy Iran 1953 A joint CIABritish intelligence operation in Iran keeps the shah on the throne and ousts nationalist Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh I963 Amid widespread protests in Iran against the shah Ayatollah Khomeini is arrested then exiled to Najaf in Iraq I 96 7 Israel defeats Egypt Syria and Jordan in the SixDay War 1968 The Baath Party seizes power in Iraq 1973 Israel defeats Egypt and Syria in the Y om Kippur War 197879 Widespread protests force the shah to abdicate and ee Iran Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran to lead the revolution I979 Saddam Hussein seizes power becomes president of Iraq Iranian revolutionary students seize the US Embassy in Tehran and take diplomats hostage They are released in January 1981 I980 Saddam orders the Iraqi army to attack Iran 19801988 IranIraq War Hundreds of thousands die on each side and the war ends in a stalemate 1982 Israel invades Lebanon seizes Beirut Hezbollah is formed in Lebanon 1983 Suicide truck bombers believed to be Hezbollah kill 24 American servicemen in Beirut I989 Ayatollah Khomeini dies in Iran I990 Saddam orders his army to seize Kuwait 1991 The US military ousts the Iraqi army from Kuwait Shiites of southern Iraq rebel against Saddam who puts down the rebellion brutally Thousands of Shiites are killed 19912003 Iraq is placed under economic sanctions UN weapons inspectors destroy most of Iraq s nuclear biological and chemical weapons programs 2001 AlQaida led by Sunni Muslim fundamentalists mounts attacks in the United States killing 3000 people The United States invades Afghanistan and ousts the Sunni Taliban government 2003 The US military invades Iraq topples Saddam An Iraqi insurgency erupts led by Sunni Baathists and alQaida 20052006 Iraqi elections bring Shiite political parties to power in Baghdad backed by Iran SunniShiite sectarian violence intensifies 2005 Hardline fundamentalist Mahmoud Ahmadinejad is elected president in Iran Iran pursues acquisition of nuclear technology 2006 War breaks out between Israel and Hezbollah in Lebanon The UN Security Council imposes economic sanctions on Iran in response to nuclear activities 2007 The United States sends additional troops to Iraq 0 Caliph Caliphate and Hajj Caliph chief Muslim civil and religious leader regarded as the successor of Muhammad Caliphate the politicalreligious state comprising the Muslim community and the lands and peoples under its dominion in the centuries following the death of the Prophet Muhammad Mecca is considered the holiest city in the Islamic faith and the destination of hajj the annual pilgrimage a religious duty to be carried out at least once in their lifetime by every able bodied Muslim who can afford to do so Karbala is the holy site of the pilgrimage for Shia Muslims because its significance as the place where Hussein and his army were slaughtered Hajj 9 pilgrimage showed social standing in the community The tenth day of the Islamic month of Muharram Ashura is the day of morning marking the martyrdom of Hussein at the battle of Karbala Fernea writes It was during Muharram in the seventh century that Hussein grandson of the prophet Mohammad and the iman or religious leader at that time went to Kufa to press his claim to the caliphate and was slain in the plains of Karbalaquot Pg 194 Each year during Muharram the pious Shiite communities in Iraq and Iran and in India commemorate Imam Hussein s martyrdom through daily Krayas and through mourning processions and passion plays which dramatize each important occasion in the last days of the martyrquot Pg 194 I Film Pilgrimage to Karbala InClass viewing I Glossary o SunniShia Muslims I See Chronology to understand Especially underlined sections 0 Caliph and Caliphate I Caliph Chief Muslim civil and religious leader regarded as the successor of Muhammad I Caliphate the politicalreligious state comprising the Muslim community and the lands and peoples under its dominion in the centuries following the death of the Prophet Muhammad o Hajj The annual pilgrimage a religious duty to be carried out at least once in their lifetime by every ablebodied Muslim who can afford to doso o Krayas a religious reading common in Shiite communities Fernea s Guest of the Shiek Part III April 10 2015 I Final Scene of Pilgrimage to Karbala 0 Parallel Film s scenes in Karbala and those described by Fernea I Multitude of people coming from different countries I Chaotic Effervesce 9 they are getting there in bus donkey foot It s crowded it They will do all it takes I Piety Man walking in his arms across the square 0 Taaziya mourning ceremony including of young men who ritually agellate themselves during the Shiite commemoration of Ashur the tenth of Muharram the day when Hussein and Ali were slain I A Durkheimian analysis the taaziya procession in Karbala P 241245 0 According to Durkeim what are the two basic categories that religious phenomena fall into I Beliefs SacredProfane amp Rites o Analyze the following passages according to Durkheim s definition of religion and the notion of a social fact I 242 The torches and weirdly lit banner the bunch ofblack chains in the right hand of every man the black garments the glazed and exhausted eyes of the eyes of the performers and their drenched sweating bodies signified a religious experience with which was totally unfamiliar You are swept into an emotion that is not yours It s a collective feeling 9 Social Fact External and Coercive I 243 quotTears streamed down the faces of sobbing men standing near me and the piercing wailing cries of the women spoke of loss and pain and grief and lamentationquot B is a liminal figure There is danger in her If she is seen as not being a believer there is danger Rites You can t have the beliefs without the rite If you are not praying and lamenting there is no your true belief Belief has to be enacted I An excursion into the country Douglas matter out of place 0 Pg 257 Strange as it seem to me now I realized as we got out ofthe car and breathed deeply the country air how it had been since I had a change to walk aimlessly for pleasure It was not the sort of thing that ladies in El Nahra did they were busy most of the day and in their leisure hours they hardly felt the need of more exercise Even ifthey had they wee expected to stay indoors with their families and not wander about in public view What happened on the excursion How did different people of El Narah react O They have chance to escape the constraining social pressure of the Village Problem They are exposed in the countryside They meet some children and are exposed to a family Women have different sensibilities and social pressures upon them They go back to Village and face consequences of that exposure Pg 119 of Mary Douglas Danger lies in transitional states simply because transition is not a one state or the next it is indefinable The person who must ass from one to another is himself in danger and emanates dangers to others Great danger for Leila 9 in stake is not only her honor It s about the honor of other women of her family Matter out of place Important because it remind us what it tells us what it is out of place from quotBut I began to realized that Bob and I would never be other than foreigners even thought our e orts to conform to local customs might prove ingratiating No one would seriously blame us for our lapses but we had to recognize our responsibility when on our account other people were exposed to blame or shame or worse How little I really knew about the society in which I was living During the year I had made friends I had listened and talked and learned I thought a great deal but the pattern of custom and tradition which governed the lives of my friends was far more subtle and complex than I imagine Pg 266 o What are some of those patterns and traditions B failed to realize that her honor and her family s honors are essential and can be scrutinized In village there is a revolutionary Irrigation Engineer s Fianc He holds a hold a position of power and educated outside Fianc trying to persuade the women to stop wearing the abayah Politics Fernea doesn t get much of it because she is not a man and cannot hear it first hand In the ethnography politics are mediated via other people speaking about the issues It is not central to the ethnography Film the rhetoric ties together the ideas of religion with the geopolitical climate The religious is very tied to political Genealogy Leila is the Shiek s nice 9 her reputation directly in uences her family s reputation I Back to Baghdadquot recalling EvansPritchard on ethnographic research 0 Bob and B join the Shiek as his guest at a nightclub in Baghdad o What happens there and what conclusions does Fernea draw Her identity has changed She sees the exposed women and understands why he sees them like that She is attered that she is not labeled as them Feel more part of the culture yet she will never feel the shame of tarnished honor 0 Evans Pritchard Appendix 4 I Glossary 243 quotBut clearly one has to recognize that there is a certain pretense in such a attempts at participation and people do not always appreciate them 9 They are still apart in essentials How does Guest of the Sheik represent ethnography as both a research methods and form of writing methods Research methods 0 Direct Observation Participant Observation 0 Entrance into the community 9 putting on a abayah o Positionality as a western woman affect her research You can account for it but you can t get rid of it Writing methods 0 Examines closely how people live their lives and the internal logic 0 Taaziya mourning ceremony including of young men who ritually agellate themselves during the Shiite commemoration of Ashur the tenth of Muharram the day when Hussein and Ali were slain A Case Study in Culture Con ict And Repair April 12 2015 Background of the Bosnian War o 1 million people were forcibly displaced and 100000 killed in the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina 19921995 0 Some 30000 ofthe 10000 were missing and whose remains were not recovered identified and returned to their surviving kin 0 These people s faith has not been determined The society needs closure and desires to quotknow where he liesquot 0 Three peoples 9 I Bosniacs Bosnian Muslims in their ethno religious identity They don t necessarily practice the religious but they identify socially Bosnia ad Herzegovina I Bosnia Serbs Republika Srpsk I Bosnian Croats Croatian states 0 Post Con ict 9 I Displacement disorder lost I quotClosurequot problematic term 9 Simply getting remains of a lost one does not close that grieve 0 Ethnic con ict and forced migration I Ethnic group people who share certain belief values habits and norms because of their common background Distinctions may arise from language religion historical experience geography placement kinship etc Ethnic groups often have a collective name belief in common descent a sense of solidarity and an association with a specific territory which they may or may not hold I Ethnicity identification with and feeling part of ethnic group and exclusion from certain other groups because of this affiliation I Two distinctions Ethnonational has to do with nationality Bosniac Ethnoreligious has to do with religion Bosnian Muslim 0 Pre war ethnic composition I Pre war9 heterogeneous 1991 I Post war 9 homogeneous 2006 I Change in composition tells you how held power In this case it was Bosnian Serbs This power meant that it cleaned territory in order to control territory Cleanse nonSerb population I Ethnic Cleansing term often applied in Bosnia to describe the forcible removal of an ethnic population I Bosnian Serb forces attempted to expel all nonSerb populations from eastern Bosnia in the spring 1992 I International media labeled it a campaign of quotethnic cleansingquot referring to wisedspread killing rape and forced expulsion as the destruction of property including homes schools businesses and religious sites I Our focus Drina River and Srebrenica o The UN safe area of Srebrenica Bosnia and Herzegovina I Set up in Srebrenica One of five enclaves of refuges Controlled by friendly forces UN in trying to make peacekeeping happen Bosnia and Herzegovina is part of larger context 0 Intervention tried and failed 0 After end of Cold War no longer a political refugee but rather a rhetoric of containment 1993 Set up International Tribunal and Safe Areas Ethnic cleansing 9 not only about the people being exterminated and removed but also their cultural heritage I Srebrenica execution rates At least 1000 were killed in the Kravica agricultural warehouse Between 800 and 2500 were killed in Orahovac after detention in the nearby Grvaci school Over 100 were killed at Petkovci Dam Over 1000 were killed at Kozluk Between 1000 and 2000 were killed at the Brankevo Military Farm and the Pilica Cultural Center I Primary mass graves 9 perpetrators went back dug up and scattered mass graves to hide the evidence I Srebrenica is one event that has been determined to be genocide I Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction in whole or in part of an ethnic racial religious or national group I Genocide even if done in part In the con ict only men were targeted However it was the most powerful part of the society In a patrilineal society it was destroying the order of an entire society I Raphael Lemkin coined the term genocide in 1944 and drafted the Convention on the Prevention and punishment of the Crime of Genocide I Among the Srebrenica missing were men in their eighties and boys as young as twelve years old 0 A day in the Life of Frazen Erdemobic 0 They Would Never Hurt a Fly Slavenka I Over 1900 individuals directly or indirectly took part of it How do you hold it accountable You can t but you start at the stop I General Ratko Mladic 9 leader in charge of creating systematic killing 0 Commemoration dates 9 I July 13 the women Visit the Srebrenica detention and execution sites I July 11 commemoration of Bosniac genocide I July 12 commemoration of Bosnian Serbs o Pilicia Cultural Center I Execute another 500 people 9 The building is a existing remainder I Sitting in this company so indi erent or maybe scarred or whatever and asking myself what it is that prevents normal human beings from doing their moral duty and testijjing about a crime was the most horrijjing experience of my life I was greatly Srebrenica but it was the visit to Pilica that upset me in particular since I saw that a monument to dead Serb soldiers has been erected in from of the Culture Center These men had died for their cause believing in what they were doing but it was highly arrogant to erect a monument to them in front of the site f one of the most shameful crimes in the whole war in Bosnia Herzegovina I tell you it was the most shocking thin Glossary 0 Ethnic group and ethnicity I Ethnic group people who share certain belief values habits and norms because of their common background Distinctions may arise from language religion historical experience geography placement kinship etc Ethnic groups often have a collective name belief in common descent a sense of solidarity and an association with a specific territory which they may or may not hold I Ethnicity identification with and feeling part of ethnic group and exclusion from certain other groups because of this 0 Ethnic cleansing term often applied in Bosnia to describe the forcible removal of an ethnic population Bosnian Serb forces attempted to expelled all nonSerb populations from eastern Bosnia in the spring 1992 o Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction in whole or in part of an ethnic racial religious or national group A Case Study in Culture Con ict and Repair Part 11 April 17 2015 Ethnic con ict and forced migration 0 Refugee A person who owing to a wellfounded dear of being persecuted for reasons of race religion nationality membership of a particular social group or political opinion is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or owing to such fear is unwilling owing to such fear is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country or who not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events is unable or owing to such fear is unwilling to return to it 0 Article 1 of the UN Convention Relating to the Status Of Refuges I The protection of the country doesn t exist Person fears that going to the state will be part of hurt State complicity or failure The person cannot be protected by country I The state might be the one to blame or simply unable to protect citizens 9 Person is eeing across national boundaries I Remember Nation states don t always match with nationality o Internally displaced person IDP someone who is forced to ee his or her home but who remains within his or her country s borders I Forced migrants that haven t cross an actual border I In the post cold war era there was an effort to contain refugees within national border I Invested in keeping people close to home Dual agenda 0 People shouldn t have to live their country in the first place 0 The burden to the state where the refugees are migrating Result 9 increase in IDPs We are all neighborsquot Film Glossary 0 Refugees A person who owing to a wellfounded dear of being persecuted for reasons of race religion nationality membership of a particular social group or political opinion is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or owing to such fear is unwilling owing to such fear is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country or who not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events is unable or owing to such fear is unwilling to return to it o Internally displaced person IDP someone who is forced to ee his or her home but who remains within his or her country s borders A Case Study in Culture Con ict And Repair Part III April 22 2015 Final Scenes from Film We are all neighbors 9 o qutaposition of elder woman s words I At first she said that they would always live together I At the ends she called it impossible 0 Final scenes one house to the next shown Only Muslim house burnt down 0 The church becomes a source of ethno religious identity in a time when all seem to be disintegrating 0 Two older women and their friendship 40 years of friendship ended because of the con ict I Final scene woman crying as a shock that her friend would not call her to warn her of the coming threat I The social fabric is tore 0 Drinking coffee social act that made and remade cohesion The right of return and minority return in postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina 0 Postcon ict can people return to at the very least coexistence Go back to prewar homes Is not about forgiveness or forgetting but about how do you go back to a place with the presence of the perpetrators How do you make a safe community for your children 0 The right of return refugee return or voluntary repatriation was written into the Dayton Peace Agreement At this time in the human rights and refugee rights discourse the failure of the UN to intervene in the genocide and post cold war there was rhetoric of maintain refugees in national borders 0 Minority return is the return of prewar residents to territory inhabited and controlled predominantly by the opposing ethnic group Process of social reconstruction and reconciliation o What does reconstruction look like I quotSocial reconstruction and intercommunal reconciliation have emerged as a key priorities in international intervention in to wartorn societies mast I has become increasingly clear that sustainable peace and democracy are not secured nearly by building destroyed house and infrastructure and supporting economic development Stefanson 64 Truth and Reconciliation Commission South African Nelson Mandela Dealing with the atrocities that characterized the apartheid I Reconciliation as an international template comes from South Africa In Bosnia and Herzegovina the victims said no thanks They wanted truth the remains of the lost accountability for perpetrators and then they would be willing to speak of reconciliation Often to ask some victims to reconcile it would be too much You can t just ask them to forget their pain and loss I Besides the material you need social relations be repaired enough to enable people to live Not harmoniously but to live together Signage postwar attempt at ethnic tolerance with name of Srebrenica written in Cyrillic and Roman alphabet Graffiti went over it the sign saying serb Graffiti Knife wire Srebrenicaquot o The chant celebrating slaughter of the bosniacs 0 History to the region with visible scars and message that signal to returnees that they were not welcomed Graffiti For Kravica you got Srebrenica We played by your rulesquot People from a village coming to slaughter Bosniacs as pay back for previous transgressions o Reconciliation is a process through which a society moves from a divided past to a shred futurequot I Thin reconciliation Coexistence I am not living with them but I have to live besides them I Thick reconciliation A more complete reconciliation I National reconciliation Build a cohesive nation that is functioning and often democratic that will join the international family of nations 0 Social reconstruction the repair of a postcon ict society through a range of programmatic interventions from security to justice economic development education and the rule of law 0 For Stefansson social reconstruction or repair attempted through refugee or IDP return seeks to foster a culture of coexistence Drinking coffee social acts of everyday coexistence A comprehensive Review of the course Why the focus on coffee Which authors might help us understand the cultural practice and social meaning of co ee after war 0 Geertz I Symbolic anthropology Coffee as symbolic of social relationships Coffee bring people together The elder ladies that stopped drinking coffee social cohesion falling apart I Thick description Not just a coffee cup that is laden with social meaning Man is tangled in Web of significance that he himself hasspun I Reading social event like a text social matrix 0 Sacred and Profane I Coffee shifted from a mundane profane act into a more ritualistic sacred act Durkheim not so much in the religion but as a whole 0 Marcel Mauss I Coffee drinking preparing and the social act of sharing coffee is a social act To give To receive To reciprocate I The gift is never pure They always demand return to some degree 0 Malinowski I What is means to study it The role of the anthropologist Imponderabilia of actual life the esh and bone of the people 0 Evans Prichard I Appendix Four 9 you are not the you always the anthropologist and someone who is not of that experience 0 Coffee making parallels with Angela Garcia s ethnography I History of dispossession Loss tied to territory I Loss tied to a social experience of coffee drinking without those who have left I Dispossession memory of land is part of drinking coffee 0 Durkheim I Coffee making and drinking as a Social fact 0 Kondo I Re exivity of the people and their change before during and after con ict Review for Final 9 Recall the structure of the syllabus W Nacirema Zora Neale Hurston Shakespeare in the bush 0 Ethnocentrisms vs cultural relativism o Ethnology comparing vs ethnography understand 0 Etic Outside vs emic inside Philosophical origins Victorian anthropology colonialism and cultural evolution The Noble Savage holding up as a subject of study Culture ethnography and meaning Geertz Kondo and out first ethnography Social facts and social ties Durkheim s social fact Mauss reciprocity Belief systems and knowledge practices more Durkheim Douglas s dirt Evans Pritchard and witchcraft our second ethnography Guest of the Sheik Glossary Minority return is the return of prewar residents to territory inhabited and controlled predominantly by the opposing ethnic group Social reconstruction the repair of a postcon ict society through a range of programmatic interventions from security to justice economic development education and the rule of law Reconciliation thinthicknational o Reconciliation is a process through which a society moves from a divided past to a shred futurequot 0 Thin reconciliation Coexistence I am not living with them but I have to live besides them 0 Thick reconciliation A more complete reconciliation and social cohesion 0 National reconciliation Build a cohesive nation that is functioning and often democratic that will join the international family of nations
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