Study Guide – Quiz 2 The 27 questions included in the quiz will be chosen from this list (the wording in the quiz might be slightly different) Donation of Constantine: 1) To whom does “Constantine” address the Donation? (I write “Constantine” because, as we all knWe also discuss several other topics like art appreciation ttu
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ow by now, the Emperor Constantine the Great had nothing to do with the Donation. The Donation is a forged document probably written in the 8th century, more than four centuries after Constantine died). o He addresses it to Pope Sylvester 2) What was “Constantine’s illness? And how was he supposed to treat this illness according to his pagan priests/physicians? How is “Constantine” cured? o His illness was leprosy o Priests told him to cure with the blood of innocent children o He is cured by baptism from the Pope (put in holy water) 3) In addition to Constantine, who else is involved in the decision to bestow “princely power” on the pontiff? o Satraps, Senate, Roman people, and successors 4) What kinds of gifts accompany the pope’s newly acquired “princely power”? o Power of the empire, and the four chief seats (Antioch, Alexandria, Constantinople, Jerusalem) 5) How does “Constantine” describe the relationship between pope and emperor? o The emperor is the Pope’s squire. (So the pope is higher than emperor) Oration on the Donation of Constantine: 1) What makes the power of the “supreme pontiff” so impressive according to the beginning of Valla’s Oration? o Wields two swords – temporal power and ecclesial power Means wields both secular and religious power 2) What does Valla seek to achieve in writing the Oration (pages 34)?o Argue against the Roman pontiffs – that the Donation wasn’t known to Sylvester and Constantine alike! That Donation was false 3) What is the “common sense” argument that Valla deploys (pages 67) to suggest that it would have been unreasonable for Constantine to relinquish half of the Roman Empire? o No ruler would give away land that he had conquered + Constantine was lustful for power and land 4) What are the risks of dividing the Empire (pages 1112)? o People and Senate would have been against it for one, his children also o Cutting one body into two parts – divide minds of people > lead to war between the two of them (like the sibling rivalry) o Will be viewed as a weak emperor 5) What does Valla imagine that Sylvester would say to Constantine in response to Constantine’s gift (pages 1521)? o Would view it as act of simony, using power of God to make money (selling sacred commodities) 6) What is the Biblical precedent of a Syrian general who suffered from leprosy that Valla suggests is behind the legend of the Donation? (See the slides and pages 8 and 16 of the Oration). o Naaman the Syrian (cured in the River Jordan) 7) True or False: Valla does not use irony in his Oration. o False > he does use irony o Roman empire acquired with bloodshed > but clergy gets it peacefully 8) What are the most evident historical (and geographic) inaccuracies in the Donation to which Valla draws our attention? o Satraps would not have been used in the time of writing – emperor would not say that o The fact that writer does not know about qualities of diadem o Scepter – there should be only one, but writer mentions severalo Called it Constantinople when it would still have been Byzantium 9) What is the discipline that Valla mastered and that allowed him to dissect the linguistic flaws of the Donation? o philogy 10) What are the dangers in the pope’s exercise of temporal power to which Valla draws the reader’s attention (see for instance pages 4245)? o Power to wage war – a warrior pope 11) Why is “Constantine”’s use of scriptural passages like the one from the Book of Revelation (see Valla’s critique at pages 5455) inconsistent with historical reality? o Constantine just converted and had no time to read Book of Revelation 12) Where had the Donation allegedly been hidden? o In the tomb of Christ or with body of Peter 13) True or False: Valla thinks that the growth of the Roman Empire was legitimate and resulted from Divine Providence. o False 14) What are, according to Valla, the “reasons for making war”? Which one of these reasons is “just”? o Avenge a wrong and defend friends (just) o Fear of letting others getting stronger and losing to them (just) o Loot and glory 15) How does he describe the popes’ rule over the city of Rome (see pages 7280)? o He describes it as a tyrannical rule 16) What happened to Valla after he wrote the Oration? o No real consequence, after Nicholas V becomes pope, he becomes secretary History of Italy: 1) When did Lorenzo de’ Medici (the Magnificent) die? When did Innocent VIII die? a. Both died on 14922) Who became pope after the death of Innocent VIII? a. Alexander VI 3) How did Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia become pope according to Guicciardini? a. Through bribery 4) How does Guicciardini describe Alexander VI? What qualities, positive and negative, does Guicciardini highlight? a. Cunning, sagacity, excellent judgement, marvelous efficacy in persuading, and incredible dexterity and attentiveness in dealing with weighty matters b. Insincerity, shamelessness, lying, faithlessness, impiety, insatiable avarice, ambitious, cruel, ardent cupidity 5) True or False: Guicciardini does not think that Fortune always favors good people. a. True – views fortune as random 6) Who is Lucrezia Borgia’s third husband? a. Alfonso de Este 7) When did Alexander VI die? According to Guicciardini, how did he die? What happened to Cesare Borgia when his father (Alexander VI) died? a. Died in 1503 b. Died from poison from his son c. Became ill as well > plans to make kingdom for himself failed i. Lost power over the Papal territories 8) How did Rome react to the news of Alexander’s death according to Guicciardini? a. Extreme joy 9) Who succeeded Alexander VI? How long was he [the successor] in power? a. Pius III – 26 days 10) Who succeeded Pius III? a. Julius II 11) The man who became pope as Julius II had been made a cardinal by a previous pope who was also his uncle: who was this earlier pope? a. Sixtus IV 12) Which town did Julius II besiege in 1511 successfully leading his artillery troops from the frontline? a. Mirandola 13) Which city rose up against Julius II in 1511? What did the mob destroy during the uprising? a. Bologna – they destroyed the bronze statue of Pope by Michaelangelo 14) True or False: Guicciardini describes Julius II as a peaceloving pope. a. False (war loving pope) 15) Who succeeded Julius II in 1513? Who is the father of this new pope? a. Leo X, father was Lorenzo de Medici 16) How did the new pope celebrate his election as pope? a. Magnificient and grandiose celebrationSavonarola’s and Alexander’s Letters: 1) To which religious order did Savonarola belong? a. He was part of the Dominican order 2) Why did Alexander VI order that Savonarola go to Rome? What did Savonarola answer to Alexander’s order? a. He wanted to talk to him (to kill him in reality) about his preaching b. Savonarola said he couldn’t go because of illness and had many enemies 3) To which convent did Alexander write in order to make his grievances against Savonarola public? a. He wrote to Santa Croce (Franciscan convent) 4) How did Savonarola die? a. He was hanged and burned Julius Excluded: 1) Who accompanies Julius II in the dialogue? a. Genius – guardian angel 2) What is Julius wearing? a. Wears a triple crown with cloak adorned with riches 3) How does Julius explain why he waged his military campaigns? How does Saint Peter respond to Julius’s explanation? a. Did it for victories, riches, and structures 4) What does Julius promise at the end of the dialogue? a. He promises to besiege gate to Heaven after gathering forces Machiavelli’s The Prince: Dedicatory Letter: 1) To whom does Machiavelli (henceforth abbreviated as “M.”) address The Prince? What makes M.’s gift precious? a. Lorenzo de Medici – how to rule and take over Florence again 2) How does M. describe his condition? (And what had happened to M. after the Medici regained power in 151213?) a. Describes it as miserable bad fortune > exiled when Medici returned to power Chapter 1:3) What are the various kinds of states that M. identifies in this chapter? a. Republics and principalities 4) By what means can a prince gain power? a. New and hereditary (gain new by force/luck and get hereditary passed down) b. Gain through others or through own (fortune / virtu) – own is through self power, others is hereditary? Chapter 3: 5) Why do men “gladly change their masters” according to M.? What is a new prince (inevitably) forced to do when he gains power? a. They gladly change thinking that it would make them better (make situation better maybe) b. They must injure those that they conquer and wipe out the old ruling class 6) What does M. describe as “a very natural and normal thing” (page 86)? a. The desire to acquire Chapter 4: 7) What is the main difference between the King of France and the King of the Turks? a. King of Turk has kingdom divided into districts managed by administrators – they are dependent on him for power b. French king needs to deal with lords with privileges – ready to turn on you Chapter 5: 8) By what means should a prince secure his new dominion over a people used to living in freedom? a. Destroy it, live in it, Chapter 6: 9) What are the ancient examples that M. mentions? What does M. say about Moses? a. Moses, Cyprus, Romulus, Theseus b. Moses is respectable as he was able to become a messenger for God Chapter 7: 10) How did Cesare Borgia acquire his state? a. Through his father’s influence (fortune) 11) What leads M. to praise Cesare Borgia’s efforts to consolidate his power? a. He killed the Orsini family (leader of the Roman army) after inviting them to dinner b. Liked his ruthlessness c. Executed Remirro de Orco as he was cruel (even though he put him in power) 12) How does Cesare deal with his lieutenant Remirro de Orco? What is the reaction of the people of Romagna to Cesare’s conduct and what does M. think about it? a. He orders him to be killed (people are prob happy since he was cruel) and M seems to praise it also – killed him and left him on display in public piazza 13) How did Cesare lose his power? a. Didn’t stop election of opposition Pope i. This was only mistake he made (other plans foiled due to fortune > his father died) Chapter 9: 14) What are the two humors that, according to M., are found in every body politic?a. Reach princedom from favor of commoners or favor of nobles (nobles want to oppress, commoners want to be free) 15) Is it better for a prince to rely on the support of the nobility or on that of the people? Why? a. People, since there are much more of them 16) What does M. write about the desire of the people and that of the nobles? a. Can never satisfy nobles by acting honorably, but can satisfy the people Chapter 11: 17) What does M. say about Alexander VI and Julius II? What is the main difference between these two popes, according to M.? Does M. criticize their undertakings? a. Alex – show what Pope can accomplish with money and weapons > made Church more powerful – applied military power also b. Praise that they raised the power of the church Chapters 1214: 18) What is the relationship between arms and laws? a. Where there are good laws, there are good arms (good laws are always followed by good armies) 19) Does M. write that mercenary and auxiliary arms are good for a prince who aims to strengthen his power? Yes/No, why? What is the best kind of troops in M.’s view? a. No – mercs aspire for their greatness and aux you can’t rely on b. Need his own army Chapter 15:20) To what kind of works does M. juxtapose The Prince? What is M’s goal in writing The Prince? a. The genre of Mirror for Princes b. To show that princes should not aim to be good all the time 21) Should a prince be good at all times? a. No, he must know when to act immorally Chapter 17: 22) What does M. write about Cesare’s alleged cruelty and Florence’s supposed mercy? a. Cesare’s cruelty restored peace to Romagna b. Florence failed to deal with civil war in Pistoia > led to many citizens dying 23) Does M. believe that it is best for a prince to be feared or to be loved? Why? a. If needs to choose one, choose fear > people won’t forget fear, though they will forget good deeds for their benefit 24) Is there something that a prince must avoid at all costs? Why? a. Don’t be hated? – people more likely to forget close one’s death than stolen property/women – showcase people’s greed (don’t take people’s property/women) Chapter 18: 25) Why does M. assume that a prince cannot always be good and keep his word? a. Because those that are deceptive get more things done 26) Why does M. refer to the myth of the centaur Chiron? a. To show that a prince must fight like a man and a beast – know both ways (nature of beast and man)27) The images of the fox and the lion should remind you of a text that we have studied earlier in this course. What is this text? a. Dante’s Inferno! 28) How does M. describe the conduct of Alexander VI? a. Show the importance of acting earnest Chapter 25: 29) What similes does M. use to illustrate his idea of Fortune? a. Like a river that floods or a woman that likes young and aggressive men 30) Is it possible for a prince to adjust his “method” to the shifting circumstances that Fortune offers to him? Why? a. Yes, otherwise he will fail and be overcome by the random sequence of events 31) How does M. describe the conduct of Julius II? Why was Julius successful? a. Always acted impetuously, but so lucky always Chapter 26: 32) What should the Medici family try to achieve in M.’s view? a. Lead Italy out of foreign domination under strong centralized leadership 33) Who is the Biblical character that M. evokes in this chapter? a. Moses 34) How does The Prince end? a. Poem My Italy by Francesco Petrarch