ZOL 313 Final Exam Study Guide
ZOL 313 Final Exam Study Guide ZOL 313
Blue Mountain State
Popular in Animal Behavior
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elaine Foster on Monday May 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ZOL 313 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Dyer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 378 views. For similar materials see Animal Behavior in Animal Science and Zoology at Michigan State University.
Reviews for ZOL 313 Final Exam Study Guide
I only wish she posted reading material from the book in the study guide. Those are the only things you have to study on your own. (included charts from the readings etc). BUT VERY GOOD NOTES EXCELLENT JOB!!
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Date Created: 05/04/15
ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Final Exam Study Guide Adaptive problems associated with sexual reproduction 0 Why reproduce sexually Sex is expensive 0 Twofold genetic cost 0 Other costs time feeding etc What benefits make up for costs 0 Commonly cited genetic variation among offspring 0 Why is sex ratio 1 1 odd given the disproportionate amount of sperm in the world There seem to be more males than necessary or at least more sperm than necessary 0 Why so many males 0 Human males 300 million sperm per ejaculation 200 ejaculationsyear 50 years 3x1012 spermlifetime 0 Human females 0 Maximum 20 pregnancieslifetime 0 Why are the sexes so different Males amp females often differ in size color weapons ornaments and behavior Drivers of the evolution of sex differences o Primary sex ratio 0 Males Females at birth 11 for many species o Operational sex ratios biased o Skewed toward an excess of males at time of mating After fertilization males can more readily mate again Also female spatial aggregation synchrony in estrus cycles 0 Consequence of OSR variation in male mating opportunities o Anisogamy the fundamental difference between the sexes o Anisogamy not same size gametes o What it is Female large costly rare gametes Male small cheap numerous gametes o What its consequence is different limits on reproductive success R8 of males and females Consequences produces different limits on reproductive success R8 of males amp females Females need more resources to produce gametes Males need mating opportunities ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Final Exam Study Guide Bateman s principle Male amp female RS optimized in different ways Females acquire resources Relevant traits foraging habitat selection migration etc Males increase mating opportunities Relevant traits outcompeting other males Sexual selection 0 What it is selection of mates driven by competition to drive away or kill rivals or to exciteattract mates Darwin discovered it 0 Sexual selection may target one sex but both sexes play a role 0 Secondary sexual characteristics ie not reproductive tracts o Commonly seen in species under intense sexual selection antlers plumes etc 0 Such traits are costly 0 Not essential for reproduction o Paradox two kinds of sexual selection Direct competition intrasexual selection Competition mediated by choices of opposite sex intersexua selection lntrasexual selection Competition for mating within one sex mediated by direct conflict among members of that sex typically males in most species o Traits that are favored o VVeapons o Aggressive behavior 0 Large body size 0 Sperm competition the battle is among the sperm within the reproductive tract of female 0 Males may deploy quotalternative mating strategiesquot 0 ln populations where males gain high RS by fighting for females some males don t fight but instead sneak or accept subordinate status 0 The puzzle if being subordinate or sneaking is a lowerpayoff strategy why isn t it eliminated by natural selection Hypothesis 0 Individual optimality no chance of winning take chances on low payoff strategy 0 Game theoretical subordinate strategy does just as well lower payoffs but lower cost o Female responses to male competition females are not passivell 0 Honey Bee Queen mating sign copulation plug Queens mate 1520 times in 10 min so it s not a good plug If she mates only one time she dumps sperm and mates again Plug is actually a bull seye to make next mate s job easier ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Final Exam Study Guide 0 Northern Elephant Seals Females resist attempts by sneaks to copulate Attracts attention of dominant male lntersexual selection Competition for mating within one sex mediated by the choosiness of the opposite sex o Why are females choosier 0 Less benefit of mating multiple times 0 Bigger cost of making bad mating decisions o What are costs of choosiness Criteria of female choice Direct benefits Indirect benefits good genes Fisher s runaway Sensory drive Adaptive function Phylogenetic history o Criteria of female choice influences traits favored in male 0 Direct benefits provided by male resources in form of nuptial gifts or territory Choice of male provides resources Food territory paternal care lower disease risk more sperm protection Nest building Sticklebacks Zigzag dance Nest physical protection male s investment cleaning fighting predators aerating eggs Similar in weaver birds fresh green nests are preferred 0 Indirect benefits good genes as indicated by male traits that predict high offspring fitness Traits that don t provide material gain Ex bower birds males build nests for attracting mate but no eggs are laid there Good genes Hypothesis Male provides only sperm Benefit accrues to offspring Better genes better offspring quality Traits that predict good genes should be chosen Evidence from guppies see graphs Females prefer larger body size amp brighter color Daughters of large males are larger and more fecund Another factor predation risks ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Final Exam Study Guide Parasite resistance Hypothesis Males vary in parasite resistance Males traits correlate with parasite resistance Historical perspectives 0 History preexisting sensory bias 0 Swordtails Females prefer male w long sword When did male trait amp female preference originate 0 Experiment 0 Glue fake sword on platyfish males 0 Platyfish females prefer sworded males Indicates that the female preference was there before male trait evolved o Fisher s Runaway Process RA Fisher 0 Hypothesis Male trait has no inherent benefit to male Preferences and trait became associated because of accidental genetic correlation between two heritable traits Offspring receive genes for preference and genes for male trait Reading suggestions Here are sections of Chapter 14 that you do NOT need to worry about o p 311 Table 141 o pp 318320 on interference by males with RS of other males o pp 329331 on Cryptic Female Choice and Sexual Conflict ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Final Exam Study Guide Mating Systems o Definition pattern of association between males and females relative to mating amp offspring care Name Malefemale Sex providing care Examples association Monogamy 1 female 1 male Both Many birds Polygyny gt1 female 1 male Females Many mammals some birds Polyandry 1 female gt1 male Males sometimes Some birds many both insects Polygynandry gt1 female gt1 male Both or only males Some birds some fish Promiscuity gt1 female gt1 male Neither or only Many fish females chimpanzees Mating systems and the conflict of interest between the sexes o Conflict of interest between males amp females in what maximizes RS o Calls for Game Theory o What determines the outcome that evolves Monogamy in birds Female Cares Deserts Cares Monogomy amp Polyandry polygynandry Deserts Polygyny Promiscuity o More than 90 of bird species are socially monogamous o Males amp females form stable pair for duration of breeding season sometimes longen Both parents can help rear offspring But DNA fingerprinting studies find high levels of ExtraPair Copulation O EPC Both sexes stray and both do it secretly ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Final Exam Study Guide 0 Questions 0 Why stray 0 Why do it secretly o Advantages of genetic diversity among offspring o Advantage of heterozygosity at the Major Histocompatibility Complex 0 For female ideal mate is different from you at the MHC locus o Case study Mate choice based on MHC genotype 0 Evidence from mice estrous vs lactating females 0 Evidence from humans women who are cycling vs taking contraceptives Measuring preference the tshirt experiment Males wore tee shirts around for a week then pieces of the t shirts were given to women to smell and judge on how good they smelled Polygyny birds and mammals o Resource defense polygyny o Males defend resources needed by females 0 Males that offer better resources attract several mates 0 Redwing blackbirds as example 0 Costs to secondary female on territory There are costs 2nd female gets no help from male have to share territory 0 What are the benefits Polygyny threshold Hypothesis if territory is good enough share Primary 2 Additional 2 Female fitness Territory quality 0 Female defense polygyny o Males defend aggregated females 0 Why should females gather together rather than dispersing so as to secure attention of single male Costs Predation o Lek polygyny origin Afrikaans o Polygyny based on female choice males gather to display Defend territory w no resource Little aggression ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Final Exam Study Guide 0 What favors evolution of leks H1 Hot Shot hypothesis good male attracts other males who seek to intercept females H2 Hot Spot hypothesis both males and females aggregate in certain parts of environment H3 female discrimination against solitary males benefit of comparison lt most likely hard to test When do polyandry and polygynandry evolve o Polyandry 0 One female multiple males Females receive benefits from multiple matings Males what is benefit for caring for young or for tolerating other males 0 Short breeding season 0 Males hard to find second mate 0 Polygynandry 0 Multiple females multiple males 0 Stable groups hedge sparrows communal care of young 0 Sequential visitation of male nest by multiple females who visit multiple males bluegills Parental care o Why provide care 0 When would it improve survival of offspring Costs of providing care Energy Exposure to predators Opportunity cost not able to remate o Birds biparental care polygyny is common 0 Male female care increases hatching success Increases egg temp Shortens incubation period Lowers egg mass loss Increases hatchling mass Increases hatchling number Increases fledgling successcondition Increases overall breeding success o Mammals females are quotforcedquot to provide uniparental care during gestation and lactation periods high energy investment 0 Common marmosets as case study illustrating costs to females Prolonged gestation lactation high energy investment Weight change in common marmosets measure of female s investment ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Final Exam Study Guide 0 What are circumstances under which males should care Incentives to stay when males can help When feeding helps female and her offspring eg carnivores When offspring need to be regularly transported eg tamarins Cooperative breeding systems o Fish if there is care it is by males 0 79 of fish have no parental care but in those that do only one parent cares usually male Build nest aerate eggs defend eggs amp fry 0 Which parent provides care Female care most common with internal fertilization 86 Male care most common with external fertilization 70 Reading Suggestions Here are sections of Chapter 15 that you do NOT need to worry about o pp 334336 Parental investment section ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Final Exam Study Guide Fighting Ultimate questions 0 Why animals compete limited resources 0 Why animals compete in the way they do fighting v some other strategy 0 Fighting has costs but also benefits 0 Settling contests wout fighting o Signals Indicators of fighting ability or status 0 Bullfrogs croaks signal size 0 Arbitrary rules eg resident wins 0 Accept place in society adopt subordinate status possibly with sneaky tactics Dominance hierarchy The paradox of alternative strategies often have lower immediate payoff so why do they persist o Paradox of alternative strategies o If submissive strategy has lower fitness payoff then why does it persist in the face of natural selection RS Of H1 making the best of a permanent bad situation scrawny unhealthy subordinate is lower than mother genetics dominant H2 making the best of a temporary bad situation youth inexperience injury H3 alternative strategies in evolutionary equilibrium 0 Dom high benefits but also high costs 0 Sub doesn t win but it also has low costs HawkDove Game 0 Imagine two strategies within same population 0 Hawks always fight 0 Doves run away from Hawks display to each other 0 Payoffs of each strategy depend on frequency in population 0 Hawks can predominate in population only if 0 Benefit of winning fight is huge 0 Costs are not too high Other Hawk Dove p301p60 30 15 30 v value of winning contest 15 w cost of being wounded H loses to H d display costs Doves only 0 p30101p10 1O 5 p probability of Winning against own type 5 ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Final Exam Study Guide o Is being a Hawk an evolutionarily stable strategy ESS No 0 E88 when common strategy can t spread o If population is all Hawk will Dove invade 0 Yes because 0 fitness units is better than 15 of injured Hawks o Is being a Dove an ESS No o If population is all Dove will Hawk invade 0 Yes because 30 is higher than Dove s 5 o Is there some mixture of Hawk amp Dove that is an ESS I H 5 h 2 frequency of Hawk H h 15 1 h30 15h 30 30h 30 45h 5h01 h5 05 5h 5 5h 30 45h5 5h 25 40h 40 40 h 58 lf Hawks were nearly ubiquitous 0 Optimal to be a dove lf Doves were nearly ubiquitous 0 Optimal to be a Hawk At some mix of HampD payoffs are equal no advantage to switching Nash equilibrium 0 Proximate basis of HawkDove 0 E88 58 H 38 D Genetic Polymorphism 0 58 of individuals are Hawks 0 38 of individuals are Doves Behavioral Polymorphism 0 Each individual plays H in 58 of encounters o See example in Table 181 and Box 181 o To test your understanding see what you would bet for changing valuesnote that the example in lecture used different values and got different outcomes ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Final Exam Study Guide Testing Evolutionary Game Theory o In general what does HawkDove model suggest would be conditions when highly aggressive Hawklike behavior would be favored lf Hawks were nearly ubiquitous Optimal to be a dove lf Doves were nearly ubiquitous Optimal to be a Hawk At some mix of HampD payoffs are equal no advantage to switching Nash equilibrium 0 Proximate basis of HawkDove ESS 58 H 38 D Genetic Polymorphism 58 of individuals are Hawks 38 of individuals are Doves Behavioral Polymorphism Each individual plays H in 58 of encounters o Animal examples 0 Bluegill sunfish alternative male strategiesfrom lecture o Bluegill strategies in equilibrium Parental males oldest largest fighting for territories caring for young Delay maturity have high mating success but may not survive to reproduce Cuckolder males Sneaker younger Satellite middleaged female mimic Mature early have lower mating success but higher chance of surviving to reproduce 0 Examples from book Other means of settling contests o Ownership arbitrary asymmetry 0 Owner residentincumbent in territory always wins contest o Asymmetry in Resource Holding Potential RHP o Resourceholding potential RHP Swordtails males fight for rank and opportunity to court females Body weight predicts winners o Asymmetry in reward value 0 Resource value Tilapia monogamous species w male territoriality Body weight not a good predictor of who wins but gonad size is Readings Don39t bother with the following parts of Chapter 18 o pp 413427 ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Final Exam Study Guide Functions of Communication o Not covered in lecture in detail See pp 367379 in Chapter 16 Communication defined o Roles Signaler or sender Receiver and nontarget audience o Benefits and costs to each party and this affects selection pressures on Signaler and Receiver Receiver Benefit Cost Communication Manipulationdeceit Benefit blue tits cuckoos Sender Cost Eavesdroppingexploitation Ignore dear mouseowl o Information 0 Signals potentially provide receiver with information about intent or state of signaler o In technical sense information can be inferred from correlation between signal and other information Characterizing signals qualitatively Concept of Information Signals seem to mean something in that they encode information about the state of the signaler and the world it is in Signals vary quantitatively with the state of the signaler implying that there may be a metric by which information content can be measured and reveal insights into selection on information content Referential communication o Definition communication from sender to receiver with distinct referents and effects o Vervet monkeys 0 Three classes of calls with distinct referents and distinct effects on receivers Leopard call run to trees out to tips of branches Eagle call trees stay close to trunk Snake call stand tall look around in grass o Honey bee dance language 0 Worker bee performs a pantomime of flight Body movements correlate with flight direction and distance Decoded by follower bees ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Final Exam Study Guide Ultimate Questions about Signal Design o Signal form matches function o Understanding quotstrategic decisionsquot in communications 0 Should signalers signal when do they get a benefit that outweighs cost 0 NOTE potential conflicts of interest and huge role played by receiver if it doesn t respond no signaling occurs 0 Communication networks Eavesdropping Potential receivers Intended receiver whose response would enhance signaler fhness Unintended receiver eavesdropper 9 imposes cost on signaler Signal Form and Function why do signals have the properties they do o Signals should be selected to be 0 More detectable by intended receiver 0 Less detectable by unintended receivers Outside range of sensory abilities of unintended receiver Low amplitude can t travel as farfast Hard to localize o Bat echolocation calls a type of quotautocommunicationquot or communication with self 0 Echolocation short highfrequency calls easily reflected by objects repetition allows ongoing sampling of environment o Moth sex pheromones 0 Chemical communication in moths Female moths emit a pheromone to attract males in virtual darkness Male antennae highly sensitive increase surface area by feathers Detect single molecules of pheromone Male tracks concentration gradient to find female Odor is species specific so is receptor Odors have light molecular weight Communication channel is private but vulnerable to eavesdropping Bolas spider can emit same chemical odor as female moth to attract male moth its prey o Antipredator calls by birds quotseetquot call vs mobbing call 0 Alarm calls seet Pure tones Soft onset o Mobbing calls Noisy broadband loud Repeated o Begging calls of baby birds groundnesters vs treenesters o Tradeoff reduce detection by predators and still be heard by parents Higher frequency calls don t travel as far Less likely to be heard outside the nest by predators 0 Ground nesting birds have higher frequency calls ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Final Exam Study Guide o Plant volatiles to attract predators of herbivorous insects enemy of my enemy is my fnend 0 Plans can give off signals pollination protection 0 Similar to Schreckstoff in fish attracts predators of predators o Recruitment calls by Greater Honeyguide predator of my prey is my friend 0 Greater Honeyguide eats wax o Ratel honey badger eats bees larvae 9 leaves wax doesn t give a shit about getting stung o Borana people nomads 9 also leave wax also don t give a shit Signal Honesty o Why do signalers have incentive to be dishonest and why do receivers have incentive to discriminate against liars o Examples of where there might be an incentive for dishonest signaling 0 Brood parasitism cuckoos Confuse competitors with false alarm calls Predator recognition signals Bluffing signals in fights Aggressive mimicry Bolas spiders 0 Protective mimicry Batesian o Factors that might make it hard to discriminate against liars o Uncertainty in correlation between signal and information being signaled eg a bad mate may display signals that overlap with those displayed by good mate 0 Cost of being too choosy Set threshold Too discriminating miss a lot of good males Not discriminating enough get all good males but also bad males o Receivers should evolve to pay attention to signals that are hard to fake reliably correlated with signaler quality 0 These will generally be costly o What enforces honesty when receivers are hurt by dishonesty Receivers discriminate against dishonest signals lowering incentive of signalers to produce them This works if receivers only respond to signals that are hard to fake What makes signals hard to fake Signal is a reliable index of underlying state eg body size Signals of quality that are costly hence achievable only by highquality signalers OOOO ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Final Exam Study Guide 0 Begging calls case study in response to honest costly signal Begging Calls in Birds Are parents being influenced Calls induce parents to feed chicks Louder begging leads to more feeding Calls are costly Are begging calls honest Parents don t feed all chicks equally often and not all live Which to feed Ones most likely to survive Gape color varies among chicks indicates offspring vigor 0 Do parents feed vigorous offspring more yes Readings Following are sections of Chapters 16 and 17 that you don39t need to worry about Chapter 16 pp 355367 Chapter 17 o pp 387391 o pp 396404 ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Final Exam Study Guide Why live in groups o Costs 0 Spread of disease Share resources Aggression Attracting predators vulnerability Mate competition 0000 o Benefits compare to advantages of group living covered in Foraging and Predation lectures 0 Defense against predators 0 Improved foraging success 0 Improved resource defense Altruism o Define helping others with no direct benefit to oneself 0 Examples Alarm signals Cooperative defense of territories Cooperative defense against predators Sharing of food Sharing of mates Cooperative care of offspring Florida scrub jay Especially in case of Eusociality OOOOOO Eusociality o Properties 0 Overlapping generations 0 Cooperative care of young 0 Reproductive division of labor o Examples bees wasps ants termites mole rats and a few others o Why was this especially the evolution of 39sterile castes39 with special worker phenotypes Darwin39s quotone special difficultyquot 0 Differential success of inherited variants Theoretical considerations o Defining roles Donor and Recipient of altruistic behavior o If there is a fitness benefit what entity is the beneficiary 0 Species 0 Population 0 Individual 0 Genes or copies of genes present in other individuals o Evolution of optimal clutch size in birds is reproductive restraint an adaptation to maximize population success or individual breeding success 0 Reproductive restraint by Great Tits What limits clutch size to 8 or 9 eggs H1 Population benefit 9 too many eggs would cause population to crash H2 Individual benefits 9 clutch size maximizes the fitness of the individual Vary clutch size by adding or removing eggs The bigger the nestbrood the lower the average weight of young Thus it is in the individual s best interest to hold back ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Final Exam Study Guide Hypotheses to explain evolution of cooperative behavior differ in terms of who pays the costs and who experiences the net fitness benefit o General Hypothesis donor should cooperate when its benefits exceed costs o Hypotheses for cooperation 0 H1 Mutualism Features Both donor amp recipient benefit from interaction Examples intraspecific Grooming coalitions Selfish herd Cooperative hunting Mate sharing 0 H2 Manipulation Features Donor gains no benefit recipient wins Explains helping of nonrelatives amp other species Donor should be selected to avoid Examples Brood parasitism cuckoostarlings Egg dumping Deceptive alarm calls eg tufted capuchin Production of RRDAs Resource Related Deceptive Alarms 0 H3 Kin Selection Features Donor pays cost recipient gains benefit Explains helping of relatives Extreme selfsacrifice can be evolutionarily stable Examples Cooperative breeding helping at the nest Cooperative defense Reproductive division of labor eusociality 0 H4 Reciprocity Features Costs and benefits to donor depend on whether or not recipient returns favor Donor receives delayed benefit by receiving help at future occasion from individuals heshe has helped Explains helping of nonrelatives Examples See book p 432434 Kin selection in detail o Gardenvariety natural selection heritable trait can spread in a population if it enhances the fitness of the individuals carrying the genes that produce the trait o Kin selection is an extension of this idea ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Final Exam Study Guide 0 Heritable altruistic trait can spread in a population if it enhances the fitness of other individuals carrying copies of the genes that produce the trait 0 Both offspring amp nonoffspring kin o Kin selection can be thought of as favoring selfish genes rather than selfish individuals 0 Quantifying effects on Kin Selection 0 Ecological predispositions high benefit relative to cost where o Benefit Br 0 Cost Cd 0 Genetic predispositions high degree of relationship between donor amp recipient o Coefficient of relatedness r o Calculating relatedness o Diploid case fM l pm eizi hilifgr elf allele wf dad IDLE Emma pm ehalizriljiqf elf allele wf meant 9155 1 quot39r39eiui llu39leim led fm Pflrtia mum vaia dad If t 132 If t 152 1L 1L 915 ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Final Exam Study Guide 0 Haplodiploid case lad PM Pfytia mm Pf If t 132 152 339 1 3f llill lm Dad rm Pflrtia mom 1 f 132 11 0 Thus females are more closely related to their full sisters than to their brothers or even their own offspring o Hamilton39s Rule an allele coding for altruistic tendency should increase in frequency in a population if BrCd gt 1r T39Br gt Cd 0 Here Benefits amp Costs are measured in terms of lives saved or sacrificed Consider alarm call with Cost 1 to donor How high does benefit have to be to repay cost o Depends on relatedness of donor to recipient For siblingsoffspring r 05 benefit must be gt2 For grandchildren r 025 benefit must be gt4 For greatgrandchildrenothers r 0125 benefit must be gt8 ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Final Exam Study Guide o Another way of expressing Hamilton s Rule An allele coding for altruistic tendency should increase in frequency in a population if B1 gt rdonorown offspring C d rdonorrecipient39s offspring Br rdonorrecipient39s offspring gt Cd rdonorown offspring 0 Here Benefits amp Costs are measured in terms of offspring produced or forgone o Test using quothelping at the nestquot in Florida Scrub Jays 0 Males upon fledging often do not go off to establish their own territories but instead stay on parental territory helping parents to rear more offspring defend territory fight off predators etc 0 To test kin selection hypothesis answer the following questions Q1 Do helpers really help Yes o Correlational evidence numbers of nestlings fledglings and independent young are higher o Experimental evidence experimental territories had helpers taken away and number of offspring went down Q2 Do helpers help relatives Yes o In Florida scrub jays yes helpers are typically rearing full siblings r 05 o Because of EPCs by female siblings are sometimes 12 siblings r 025 but average relatedness is still pretty high r 043 Q3 Do helpers help enough to repay costs of being helpers o The cost lost reproductive opportunity Cd rdonorown offspring number of offspring produced by firsttime breeders rparemwffspmg 124 05 062 o The benefit to break even by helping helpers would have to Add to the productivity of parents This added productivity is discounted by relatedness to these extra fledglings Net payoff due to helping should be 2 0 62 o Actual payoff to helpers average Avg extra fledglings per helpers Br 2 033 Avg relatedness of helpers to fledglings rdonorrecipient39s offspring 03943 I Net paYOff Br rdonorrecipient s offspring NOT ENOUGH o Other evidence altruism is targeted at relatives 0 Examples Stinging insects workers more likely to sting when near nest Mate amp food sharing lion Alarm calls Belding s Ground Squirrel females call more often ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Final Exam Study Guide Evolution of Eusociality o Phylogenetic evidence how many origins o Mole rats Damaraland mole rats amp naked mole rats gt 2 roots origins o Cockroaches Termites are eusocial cockroaches gt single root origin 0 Origins of eusociality within diploid lineages Termites 1 Mole rats 2 Snapping shrimp 3 Ambrosia beetles 1 o Origins of eusociality within haplodiploid lineages Hymenoptera at least 8 Aphids 1 Thrips 1 o Haplodiploidy Hypothesis Assume onstam DIplOId r 05 By Hamilton s Rule Haplodiploid T 05 Br Tdonor recipient39s offspring gt Cd Tdonor own offspring For dipIOidS rdonorrecipient39s offspring 0395 For hapIOdipIOidS rdonorrecipient39s offspring 03975 0 So Br doesn t have to be as big to favor helping Too simplistic to say that haplodiploidy is explanation for eusociality o Haplodiploidy is not necessary eg termites naked mole rats o Haplodiploidy is not sufficient most bee amp wasp species are non social Siblings r 05 Offspring r 10 Other related evidence males Who helps Haplodiploid species gt workers are female Diploid species gt male female workers 11 o Ecological biases BC Haplodiploid species gt eusocial species gt evolved from ancestors that built nests amp had parental care Termites amp mole rats diploid gt have to process cellulose gt economy of scale 0 Refined hypothesis haplodiploidy biases kin selection All else being equal cooperation evolves more easily in lineages where relatedness is high If B gt C cooperation can evolve without genetic predisposition ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Final Exam Study Guide Organization of Social Insect Colonies o A Factory Enclosed in a Fortress Edward O Wilson 0 Challenges to survival 0 Acquiring resources Processing resources Defense against predators Defense against pathogens Regulating climate temperature humiditiy Producing offspring o All organisms face these problems eusocial species face them on a colony level 0 Three principles 0 Division of labor By size leaf cutter ants gt Big soldier Med foragers Small tend queenride shotgun By form morphology gt termites By age gt honeybees 0 Communication Direct info signals o Trophallaxis in ants formica o Natural selection acted to shape communicative phenotype Chemical touch vibration sound etc Indirect info cues o Information left in environment o Other workers use this to guide behavior 0 Decentralized distributed control No leaders o No generals architects foremen supervisors choreographers etc o Ex starlings baitfish Instead o Local information 0 Simple rules for responding o Responses may include communicative signals food water nutrients OOOOO Readings The following sections of Chapter 19 are not going to be covered on exam o pp 429432 o Table 191 but you do need to understand basic idea of reciprocal altruism
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