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IU / Psychology / PSY 101 / What is a structure of consciousness?

What is a structure of consciousness?

What is a structure of consciousness?

Description

School: Indiana University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introductory Psychology I
Professor: Irene vlachos-weber
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Intro to Psychology
Cost: 25
Name: Psych 101, Lesson 1.2
Description: These notes cover an introduction to psychology--the roots of psychology and the people behind the development of the field.
Uploaded: 05/10/2017
7 Pages 104 Views 0 Unlocks
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Why does the mind occasionally functions so ineffectively in the world?




How does the mind usually allow us to function effectively in the world?




What are the bases of perceptions, thoughts, memories, and feelings, or our subjective sense of will?



Lesson 1.2: Intro to Pysch. and Brain Sciences 1. What is psych: the scientific study of mind and behavior a. Not looking to predict precisely what an y individual person will do at  any single moment in time, insIf you want to learn more check out uta international business
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tead, we are looking for general  patterns and principles that inform our general understanding of  behavior and mind b. Scientific—it needs to be based on some kind of direct or indirect  observation i. Conduct research and experiments ii. Is it possible to scientifically study these? 1. Idea of free will—people have a lot of freedom; however,  people tend to behave in similar ways 2. The Dawn of Psych a. Philosophy lineage—early philosophers realized in order to understand humanity, they’d need to understand how the mind works i. Wacky ideas 1. Ex) Aristotle believed that the heart was responsible for  mental function ii. Descartes “I am thinking, therefore I exist”  1. Existence of his mind separate from his physical body  (like a soul… spiritual and metaphysical) b. Physiology lineage: study the function of living systems i. Hippocrates (450 BCE) hypothesized that there were four bodily  fluids (humors) ea. associated with a specific emotional state 1. Galen expanded, proposing:  a. ii. Jean Pierre Flourens (early 19th cent) realized brain was  important for mental functions c. Birth of Psych i. Herman von Helmhlotz: developed a lab where he was  interested to measure the length of time it would take for the  brain to perceive sound, color, touch, etc. 1. Wilhelm Wundt (Herman research assistant) founded his  own lab at U of Leipzig a. First lab exclusively devoted to scientific studies of  psych phenomenons b. Ex) simple rxn times vs choice rxn tiems d. The “isms” of early psych i. Systematic introspection: Wundt’s scientific tech. for recording  conscious experience 1. First historical example of a coherent research programii. Structuralism: structure of consciousness  1. Wundt interested in sensation of taste is made from  combo of salty, biter, sour, sweet 2. Titchener: interested in mapping out this structure iii. Functionalism: influenced by Darwin; drawing focus on how a  mental process might be beneficial to an organism’s ability to  survive and reproduce 1. James believed that you couldn’t understand the mind  through structure—the consciousness wasn’t a bundle of  separable elements a. Scientist should see to understand mental  processes by understanding the goal or purpose of  those processes i. Ex) memory iv. Psychoanalysis (Freudianism): Freud believed that psych  problems often stem from conflicts and memories outside of  conscious awareness, and the problems are best solved through  insight 1. Attempted to bring unconscious material into conscious  awareness so that his patients would better understand  their disorders v. Humanism: the view that humans have great potential for  growth, and that therapists should encourage this growth  through nonjudgmental support vi. Behaviorism: rejected humanism; psychologists should only  focus on observable behavior in carefully-controlled lab studies 1. Developed experiments wherein they would present an  animal with a stimulus, and observe the animal’s  response—and begin to uncover the laws of behavior by  measuring the connections between stimulus and  response a. ONLY focus on observable behaviors 3. ETEXT  1. Psych: the scientific study of mind and behavior a. Mind: the private inner experience of perceptions, thoughts, memories, and feelings, and ever-flowing stream of consciousness b. Behavior: observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals the things that we do in the world, by ourselves or with others c. An attempt to use scientific methods to address fund. questions about  mind and behavior d. 3 key examples i. What are the bases of perceptions, thoughts, memories, and  feelings, or our subjective sense of will? 1. Ex) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): allows  scientist to scan a brain to determine which parts are active when a person reads a word, sees a face, learns a  new skill, or remembers a personal experience a. Directly measures the behavior of a person’s  neurons ii. How does the mind usually allow us to function effectively in the  world? 1. Form follows function: if we want to understand how something works, we need to know what it is working for 2. Psych processes are adaptive: they promote the welfare  and reproduction of organisms that engage in those  processes a. Perception: allows us to recognize our family, see  predators before they see us, and avoid stumbling  into oncoming traffic b. Language: allows us to recognize our thoughts and  communication with others, which enables us to  form social groups and cooperate c. Memory: allows us to avoid solving the same  problems over again every time we encounter them and to keep in mind what we are doing and why d. Emotions: allow us to react quickly to events that  have life or death significance, and they enable us  to form strong social bonds iii. Why does the mind occasionally functions so ineffectively in the  world? 1. We are all prone to a variety of errors and illusions a. If thoughts, feelings, and actions were error free,  human behavior would be orderly, predictable, and  dull 2. William James (1890) thought that habit could explain  absent-minded people a. Wrote The Principles of Psychology 2. Psych Roots: The Path to a Science of Mind a. Philosophers i. Greek: debated many of the questions we continue to debate  today ii. Plato argues in favor of nativism: the philosophical view that  certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn iii. Aristotle believed that the child’s mind was a tabula rasa (blank  state) on which experiences were written—argued for  philosophical empiricism: the view that all knowledge is acquired through experience b. Structuralism: Applying Methods from Physiology to Psychology i. Physiology: the study of biological processes especially in the  human body 1. Helmholtz: experiments in physiology and physics— developed a method for measuring the speed of nerve  impulses in a frog’s leg—responding to stimulusa. Stimulus: sensory input from environment b. Rxn time: the amt of time take to respond to  specific stimulus after applying stimulus c. Main idea: found that people generally took longer  to respond when their toe was stimulated than their tow i. Allowed to estimated how long it took a  nerve impulse to travel to the brain (instead  of instant) ii. Useful to study brain 2. Wundt a. Consciousness: a person’s subjective experience of the world and mind b. Structuralism: the analysis of the basic elements  that constitute the mind i. Involved breaking down consciousness into  elemental sensations and feelings c. Introspection: the subjective observation of one’s  own experience d. Attempted to carefully describe the feelings  associated with elementary perceptions 3. Titchener a. Focused on identifying the basic elements  themselves b. Wrote An Online of Psychology (1896): put list of  44000+ elemental qualities of conscious  experience, most of them visual or auditory 4. James a. Functionalism: the study of the purposeful mental  processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment i. Inspired by Charles Darwin’s natural  selection: the features of an organism that  help it survive and reproduce are more likely  than other features to be passed on to  subsequent generations 1. Mental abilities evolved because they  helped solve problems and increased  their chances of survival 3. The Development of Clinical Psych a. Freud i. Conducted work on hysterical patients: patients w/ a temp loss  of cognitive or motor functions, usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiences 1. Main idea: many of the patient’s problems could be traced to he effects of painful childhood experiences that the  person could not remember, and he suggested that the powerful influence seemingly lose memories revealed the  presence of an unconscious mind a. Unconscious: the part of the mind that operates  outside of conscious awareness ii. Psychoanalytic theory: an approach that emphasizes the  importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors 1. Important to uncover early experiences iii. Influence of Psychoanalysis 1. Maslow and Rogers pioneered humanistic pysh: an  approach to understanding human nature that  emphasizes the positive potential of human beings a. Focus on the highest aspirations that people had  for themselves rather than the past 4. The search for objective measurement a. Behaviorism: psychologists restrict themselves to scientific study of  objectively observable behavior i. Watson believed that private experience was too idiosyncratic  and vague to be an object of scientific inquiry 1. What people do rather than what people experience ii. Skinner—principle of reinforcement: the consequence of a  behavior determine whether it will be more or less likely to occur again 1. Wrote The Behavior of Organisms (1938) 2. We do things in the present that have been rewarding in  the past, and our sense of choosing to do them is nothing  more than an illusion a. Gives away free will—controversial 5. Return of the Mind: Psych Expands a. The pioneers of cognitive psych i. Max Wertheimer 1. Focused on illlusions: errors of perception, memory, or  judgement in which subjective experience differs from  objective reality 2. Gestalt pysch: a psychological approach that emphasizes  that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of  the parts a. The mind imposes organization on what it  perceives, so people don’t see what the  experimenter actually shows them (2 sep lights)— instead they see the elements unified as a whole  (one moving light) ii. Bartlett 1. Believed that it was more important to examine memory  for the kinds of info people actually encounter in everyday life, so her gave people stories to remember and carefully  observed the kinds of errors they made when they tried to recall them lateriii. Piaget 1. Studied the perceptual and cognitive errors of children in  order to gain insight into the nature and development of  the human mind a. Main idea: younger children lack a particular  cognitive ability that allows older children to  appreciate the fact that the mass of an object  remains constant even when divided iv. Lewin: argued that a person’s behavior in the world could be  predicted by understanding the person’s subjective experience  of the world 1. Not stimulus, but rather construal of the stimulus  determines subsequent behavior a. People react to the world as they see it, not how it  actually is b. Technology and the development of cognitive psych: the scientific  study of mental processes, including perception, though, memory, and  reasoning i. Broadbent: showed the limited capacity to handle incoming info  is a fundamental feature of human cognition ii. Miller: we can pay attention to, and briefly hold in memory,  about 7 (give or take 2) pieces of info iii. Chomsky: published a critique on Skinner’s Verbal Behavior in  which he argued that Skinner’s insistence on observable  behavior had caused him to miss some of the most important  features of language 1. Language relies on mental rules that allow people to  understand and produce novel words and sentences 2. Provided a clever detailed and thoroughly cognitive  account of language that could explain many of the  phenomena that behaviorists could not account for 3. Neisser wrote Cognitive Psychology (1967) and provided a foundation for the development of cognitive psych c. The Brain meets the mind: neuroscience i. Behavioral neuroscience: an approach to psych that links  psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and  other bodily processes 1. Lashley developed it while experimenting rats and mazes 2. Observe animals’ responses as the animals perform  special tasks ii. Cognitive neuroscience: the field of study that attempts to  understand the links between cognitive processes and brain  activity d. Evolutionary psych: explains mind and behavior in terms of adaptive  value of abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection i. Roots in Darwin theory of natural selectionii. Think of the mind as a collection of specialized “modules” that  are designed to solve human problems our ancestors faced as  they attempted to eat, mate, and reproduce 6. Social and Cultural Perspectives a. Social psych: the study of the causes and consequences of sociality b. Cultural psych: the study of how cultures reflect and shape psych  processes of their members i. Study a wide range from visual perception to social interaction

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