Lesson 1.2: Intro to Pysch. and Brain Sciences 1. What is psych: the scientific study of mind and behavior a. Not looking to predict precisely what an y individual person will do at any single moment in time, insIf you want to learn more check out uta international business
Don't forget about the age old question of freshwater biome rainfall
We also discuss several other topics like ectopias dyslexia
We also discuss several other topics like pacsuu
Don't forget about the age old question of comm 1120
We also discuss several other topics like Who wrote Novum Organum (1620)?
tead, we are looking for general patterns and principles that inform our general understanding of behavior and mind b. Scientific—it needs to be based on some kind of direct or indirect observation i. Conduct research and experiments ii. Is it possible to scientifically study these? 1. Idea of free will—people have a lot of freedom; however, people tend to behave in similar ways 2. The Dawn of Psych a. Philosophy lineage—early philosophers realized in order to understand humanity, they’d need to understand how the mind works i. Wacky ideas 1. Ex) Aristotle believed that the heart was responsible for mental function ii. Descartes “I am thinking, therefore I exist” 1. Existence of his mind separate from his physical body (like a soul… spiritual and metaphysical) b. Physiology lineage: study the function of living systems i. Hippocrates (450 BCE) hypothesized that there were four bodily fluids (humors) ea. associated with a specific emotional state 1. Galen expanded, proposing: a. ii. Jean Pierre Flourens (early 19th cent) realized brain was important for mental functions c. Birth of Psych i. Herman von Helmhlotz: developed a lab where he was interested to measure the length of time it would take for the brain to perceive sound, color, touch, etc. 1. Wilhelm Wundt (Herman research assistant) founded his own lab at U of Leipzig a. First lab exclusively devoted to scientific studies of psych phenomenons b. Ex) simple rxn times vs choice rxn tiems d. The “isms” of early psych i. Systematic introspection: Wundt’s scientific tech. for recording conscious experience 1. First historical example of a coherent research programii. Structuralism: structure of consciousness 1. Wundt interested in sensation of taste is made from combo of salty, biter, sour, sweet 2. Titchener: interested in mapping out this structure iii. Functionalism: influenced by Darwin; drawing focus on how a mental process might be beneficial to an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce 1. James believed that you couldn’t understand the mind through structure—the consciousness wasn’t a bundle of separable elements a. Scientist should see to understand mental processes by understanding the goal or purpose of those processes i. Ex) memory iv. Psychoanalysis (Freudianism): Freud believed that psych problems often stem from conflicts and memories outside of conscious awareness, and the problems are best solved through insight 1. Attempted to bring unconscious material into conscious awareness so that his patients would better understand their disorders v. Humanism: the view that humans have great potential for growth, and that therapists should encourage this growth through nonjudgmental support vi. Behaviorism: rejected humanism; psychologists should only focus on observable behavior in carefully-controlled lab studies 1. Developed experiments wherein they would present an animal with a stimulus, and observe the animal’s response—and begin to uncover the laws of behavior by measuring the connections between stimulus and response a. ONLY focus on observable behaviors 3. ETEXT 1. Psych: the scientific study of mind and behavior a. Mind: the private inner experience of perceptions, thoughts, memories, and feelings, and ever-flowing stream of consciousness b. Behavior: observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals the things that we do in the world, by ourselves or with others c. An attempt to use scientific methods to address fund. questions about mind and behavior d. 3 key examples i. What are the bases of perceptions, thoughts, memories, and feelings, or our subjective sense of will? 1. Ex) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): allows scientist to scan a brain to determine which parts are active when a person reads a word, sees a face, learns a new skill, or remembers a personal experience a. Directly measures the behavior of a person’s neurons ii. How does the mind usually allow us to function effectively in the world? 1. Form follows function: if we want to understand how something works, we need to know what it is working for 2. Psych processes are adaptive: they promote the welfare and reproduction of organisms that engage in those processes a. Perception: allows us to recognize our family, see predators before they see us, and avoid stumbling into oncoming traffic b. Language: allows us to recognize our thoughts and communication with others, which enables us to form social groups and cooperate c. Memory: allows us to avoid solving the same problems over again every time we encounter them and to keep in mind what we are doing and why d. Emotions: allow us to react quickly to events that have life or death significance, and they enable us to form strong social bonds iii. Why does the mind occasionally functions so ineffectively in the world? 1. We are all prone to a variety of errors and illusions a. If thoughts, feelings, and actions were error free, human behavior would be orderly, predictable, and dull 2. William James (1890) thought that habit could explain absent-minded people a. Wrote The Principles of Psychology 2. Psych Roots: The Path to a Science of Mind a. Philosophers i. Greek: debated many of the questions we continue to debate today ii. Plato argues in favor of nativism: the philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn iii. Aristotle believed that the child’s mind was a tabula rasa (blank state) on which experiences were written—argued for philosophical empiricism: the view that all knowledge is acquired through experience b. Structuralism: Applying Methods from Physiology to Psychology i. Physiology: the study of biological processes especially in the human body 1. Helmholtz: experiments in physiology and physics— developed a method for measuring the speed of nerve impulses in a frog’s leg—responding to stimulusa. Stimulus: sensory input from environment b. Rxn time: the amt of time take to respond to specific stimulus after applying stimulus c. Main idea: found that people generally took longer to respond when their toe was stimulated than their tow i. Allowed to estimated how long it took a nerve impulse to travel to the brain (instead of instant) ii. Useful to study brain 2. Wundt a. Consciousness: a person’s subjective experience of the world and mind b. Structuralism: the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind i. Involved breaking down consciousness into elemental sensations and feelings c. Introspection: the subjective observation of one’s own experience d. Attempted to carefully describe the feelings associated with elementary perceptions 3. Titchener a. Focused on identifying the basic elements themselves b. Wrote An Online of Psychology (1896): put list of 44000+ elemental qualities of conscious experience, most of them visual or auditory 4. James a. Functionalism: the study of the purposeful mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment i. Inspired by Charles Darwin’s natural selection: the features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely than other features to be passed on to subsequent generations 1. Mental abilities evolved because they helped solve problems and increased their chances of survival 3. The Development of Clinical Psych a. Freud i. Conducted work on hysterical patients: patients w/ a temp loss of cognitive or motor functions, usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiences 1. Main idea: many of the patient’s problems could be traced to he effects of painful childhood experiences that the person could not remember, and he suggested that the powerful influence seemingly lose memories revealed the presence of an unconscious mind a. Unconscious: the part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness ii. Psychoanalytic theory: an approach that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors 1. Important to uncover early experiences iii. Influence of Psychoanalysis 1. Maslow and Rogers pioneered humanistic pysh: an approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings a. Focus on the highest aspirations that people had for themselves rather than the past 4. The search for objective measurement a. Behaviorism: psychologists restrict themselves to scientific study of objectively observable behavior i. Watson believed that private experience was too idiosyncratic and vague to be an object of scientific inquiry 1. What people do rather than what people experience ii. Skinner—principle of reinforcement: the consequence of a behavior determine whether it will be more or less likely to occur again 1. Wrote The Behavior of Organisms (1938) 2. We do things in the present that have been rewarding in the past, and our sense of choosing to do them is nothing more than an illusion a. Gives away free will—controversial 5. Return of the Mind: Psych Expands a. The pioneers of cognitive psych i. Max Wertheimer 1. Focused on illlusions: errors of perception, memory, or judgement in which subjective experience differs from objective reality 2. Gestalt pysch: a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts a. The mind imposes organization on what it perceives, so people don’t see what the experimenter actually shows them (2 sep lights)— instead they see the elements unified as a whole (one moving light) ii. Bartlett 1. Believed that it was more important to examine memory for the kinds of info people actually encounter in everyday life, so her gave people stories to remember and carefully observed the kinds of errors they made when they tried to recall them lateriii. Piaget 1. Studied the perceptual and cognitive errors of children in order to gain insight into the nature and development of the human mind a. Main idea: younger children lack a particular cognitive ability that allows older children to appreciate the fact that the mass of an object remains constant even when divided iv. Lewin: argued that a person’s behavior in the world could be predicted by understanding the person’s subjective experience of the world 1. Not stimulus, but rather construal of the stimulus determines subsequent behavior a. People react to the world as they see it, not how it actually is b. Technology and the development of cognitive psych: the scientific study of mental processes, including perception, though, memory, and reasoning i. Broadbent: showed the limited capacity to handle incoming info is a fundamental feature of human cognition ii. Miller: we can pay attention to, and briefly hold in memory, about 7 (give or take 2) pieces of info iii. Chomsky: published a critique on Skinner’s Verbal Behavior in which he argued that Skinner’s insistence on observable behavior had caused him to miss some of the most important features of language 1. Language relies on mental rules that allow people to understand and produce novel words and sentences 2. Provided a clever detailed and thoroughly cognitive account of language that could explain many of the phenomena that behaviorists could not account for 3. Neisser wrote Cognitive Psychology (1967) and provided a foundation for the development of cognitive psych c. The Brain meets the mind: neuroscience i. Behavioral neuroscience: an approach to psych that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes 1. Lashley developed it while experimenting rats and mazes 2. Observe animals’ responses as the animals perform special tasks ii. Cognitive neuroscience: the field of study that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain activity d. Evolutionary psych: explains mind and behavior in terms of adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection i. Roots in Darwin theory of natural selectionii. Think of the mind as a collection of specialized “modules” that are designed to solve human problems our ancestors faced as they attempted to eat, mate, and reproduce 6. Social and Cultural Perspectives a. Social psych: the study of the causes and consequences of sociality b. Cultural psych: the study of how cultures reflect and shape psych processes of their members i. Study a wide range from visual perception to social interaction