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CSU / History / HIST 120 / Why is xuanzang important?

Why is xuanzang important?

Why is xuanzang important?

Description

School: Colorado State University
Department: History
Course: Asian Civilizations I (GT-HI1)
Professor: Eli alberts
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Mongols, Tang, Jin, and Buddhism
Cost: 50
Name: FInal Study Guide Asian Civilizations I HIST120
Description: Spring 2017, Professor Alberts
Uploaded: 05/10/2017
6 Pages 24 Views 2 Unlocks
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STUDY GUIDE FINAL 


Why is xuanzang important?



Li Shimin: Emperor Taizong, he rose to power through the Xuanwu gate incident by  betraying his brothers Page 178 

● 2nd Tang Emperor 

● Coup-Xuanwu Gate Incident 

● Kills brothers, forces father down 

● Remembered in a negative way, when he dies he will need to pay for what he’s done 

Xuanwu Gate Incident PAGE 178 

Wu Zetian 419 

● Only female emperor If you want to learn more check out Why is a credit card not considered money?

● No translation for reigning female empress 

● Consort to Emperor Taizong 

● Married his son when he died 


Who wrote the tang code?



● When he became ill, she took over 

● Eliminated other consorts 

● Lots of myths about her cruelty 

○ Not sure if they were true or just propaganda because  

emperors after her were not fond of her 

● There were no female emperors after her because an emperor put rules in  place that made it impossible for women to gain power Don't forget about the age old question of What is duality of patterning in language?

● Same thing happened in Russia (Catherine the great) 

Xuanzang (monk) 179 

● Pilgrimage of 17 years to India 

● Brought back Buddhist manuscripts and translated them 

● Brought Buddhism to China in a mass, accessible way  


What did yang guifei do?



● Travel literature: showed people in China a broader view of the world Tang Legal Code 173-74, 79-81, 91, 93-96, 210 303 

● Portable sanctity 

● Incorporated Confucianism and Legalism 

● Printed and circulated because they wanted everyone in the empire to  know the laws 

● Included offenses and punishes 

● What to do if officials commit crimes while in office 

○ Accountability  

Yang Guifei 

● Associated by the An Lushan rebellion  

● Precious Consort Yang of Emperor Xuazong 

● One of the four beauties of Ancient China We also discuss several other topics like How do you know if variances are equal?

● Promoted An Lushan (adopted him) and because of this, he rose high up in the military 

● He had a rivalry with her brother and he threatened to overthrow the  government because he wanted more power 

● Court evacuates, lots of mayhem

● Blamed on Yang Guifei and she is killed 

● Emperor is extremely sad, the poem called... 

Heian 

● Japan during the Tang Dynasty  

● Influence in the arts, Buddhism, etc. 

● Shogun military ruler rises to power 

● Tang dynasty falls, but Heian Japan keeps their customs alive 

The Tale of Genji 

● First Japanese Novel 

● Written by a noble women 

● One of the best records of what life was like in the Japanese court at that  time If you want to learn more check out What is the turbulent flow inside a pipe?

Zhao Kuangyin 221 241 

● Emperor Taizu of Song, was the founder and first emperor of the Song dynasty in China in 976 

● He was a commoner but was not “destined” to be emperor 

● Joins the military and becomes a leader  

● Coup, takes power and becomes emperor 

● Creates Bureaucracies 

○ Section of government specifically for military, finance, etc 

● Created a “spiderweb” government, made sure that not one person could gain too much power 

Khitan (Liao) 

● Liao Dynasty 

○ Khitan people, pastoral nomads, Manchuria  

(Mongolia) 

○ Khitan wouldn’t have been powerful if it hadn’t been  

for abaoji 

○ Dual organization Don't forget about the age old question of What are the criticisms of globalization?

○ Abaoji innovated government 

○ 5 capital cities 

○ No fixed palace district 

● Women in Liao Society 

○ Empress Chunqin 

○ Much more powerful than women in Song  We also discuss several other topics like What is the systematic study of society?

Dynasty 

○ Took woman's last name instead of men’s 

○ Adopted customs from Chinese culture to be  

accepted into diplomacy  

Tangut (Western Xia) 

● Tanguts

○ Xia kingdom in the west 

○ One man uniting many tribesmen 

○ Emperor in 1038 

○ Equal status to son to ruler 

○ Developed their own script 

○ Moveable type Buddhist texts 

○ Ancestors were the Tuoba (probably where Mulan  

came from) 

○ Gained control of a lot of trade routes in the silk road 

○ This=power 

○ Constant fighting with the Song, forced Song to sign  

a treaty saying they would give them money 

○ Eventually they just took them over 

Jurchen (Jin) 

● Taizu Rebellion against the Liao  

● North (them) is fighting with the Song 

● Developed gunpowder  

● Started fortifying the Great Wall 

Hangzhou 

● City Capital of the Song 

The Secret History of the Mongols 

● Book that detailed the life of Genghis Khan and the Mongols 

● Written for the Mongols, by the Mongols saying “this is why we do what we do” 

Temujin - Chinggis Khan’s birth name 

Khuriltai 

● Mongol Council  

● Decided who would be the next Khan, military positions 

Chinggis (Genghis) Khan 

● United the Mongol tribes 

● Expands the Empire into present day Russia, China, central Asia ● Translates to “king of the empire” 

Ogodei 

● Khan after Genghis 

● Third son of Genghis 

● Conquered a lot of land 

Mongke 

● Rise of Mongke 

○ Power vacuum after the death of Ogedei

○ Sorghaghtani Beki - the most remarkable woman of  

her age 

○ Mongke’s expansionist policies - brother Hulegu in  

West Asia and Khubilai against Song China 

○ The assassins in northwestern Iran, followed by  

Baghdad 

○ Fragmentation of different Khanates 

○ Genghis’s grandson 

○ Brought minted coins 

○ Various regulations and religious tolerance  

Khubilai Khan 

● Khubilai Khan 

○ Commissioned by Mongke in 1958 to defeat the Song 

○ Becomes Great Khan in 1260 

○ Chinese-style capital city in Beijing “capital of a vast  

transcontinental Mongol empire” 

○ Chose a Chinese dynasty name, Yuan, which means  

origin 

○ Muslims in governmental positions 

○ Brother of Mongke  

○ Gained position during the civil war 

○ Established the Yuan dynasty in China 

Golden Horde 

● The Golden Horde 

○ Grandson of Chinggis, Batu 

○ Disunity of Russian princes 

○ Supported commerce and benefitted from markets 

○ Tolerance of Russian orthodox church 

○ Mongol influence on Russia 

■ Language 

■ Administrative structure 

○ Group of Mongols that lived in present day Russia 

○ They ran Russia 

Il Khanate 

● Mongol group that converted to Islam 

● Rulers of present day Middle East 

Zhu Yuanzhang 342-52 

● First Ming Emperor 

● Came from a very poor background 

● Started out as a Buddhist monk 

● His monastery was attacked by the Mongols (Yuan Dynasty) 

● Inspired to join a rebel group

○ Red turban rebellion  

● Drove out the Yuan dynasty and he became emperor 

● One of his reforms was to improve infrastructures 

● Land reforms: made sure that peasants weren’t made to pay taxes by the  rich 

Zheng He 341, 355-60 

● Unich hired by the Emperor Zhu Di as the naval commander 

● Sent on famous ocean voyages to find trade routes 

Matteo Ricci 

● Portuguese Missionary who lived in the colony of Macau 

● Translated Buddhist texts to Latin so the west could read them 

Chinoiserie 

● European commodification and interpretation of Asian Culture 

● Could be racist 

1. How did Temujin unify the different lineages and tribes on the Mongolian steppe into  an empire? 

● Conquered the tribes as his first method 

● Then used diplomacy and made alliances based on kinship 

● Trade 

● Very self driven person, he inspired people  

● Became successful, bandwagon 

● Rose to power by proving himself in battle and showing leadership skills ● Gained respect of people who recognized his talent 

● Given his title by a shaman 

○ Respected on a secular level by the elder council 

2. What was Temujin's legacy? 

● Expanded trade through his huge empire 

● Resulted in cultural exchange with Central Asia and Europe 

● Yuan Dynasty would not have existed without his work  

● His DNA is all over now, lost of lineage 

● Mongol Horse DNA in Europe 

3. What were some weaknesses in the Mongol empire that led to the ultimate collapse  of the Yuan dynasty? 

● Division of Khanates and hordes 

○ Division of religion (Islam and Buddhism) 

○ Was too big, too many people in charge  

● People in China saw them as outsiders and did not want them in power ● Viewed as barbarians 

● Mongol leaders were technically living at the palace but weren’t really ○ Lived in tents, brought grass seeds so they could live in the  

tents 

○ Still raiding after they had conquerored

● No mobility 

○ Cut people into classes 

4. Consider international relations between China and other areas of Asia and beyond  from the Tang dynasty up to the Ming. 

● Even though Buddhism originated in India, China helped spread Buddhism ● Heian took many aspects of Chinese Culture (Tang) 

○ Replicated their city center after that of Beijing 

● Korea also did the same (Buddhism, Literature, Art)  

● Mongols spread over so much of the continent that they spread many of  their ideas 

● Missions between their countries where people would go to learn  ○ Japanese students would go to China for their education 

○ They would serve Japan for having diplomatic relations with  

China 

● Language 

○ Heian - Beijing routes 

● Kanji Sphere 

○ Even though Japan had their own language, they adopted  

their written script from China which spread to many parts of Asia  5. How have your views of Asia altered during this semester?

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