- Core principles in IR to manage collective goods problem: o Dominance- Power of Hierarchy Hegemon/Superpower (enforces common good, less conflict) Lower Ranking Members (might feel oppressed, resentment, conflicts over position) Example: In the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) - the “big five are the enforcing superpowers. o Reciprocity – No need for authority ∙ Positive o Rewarding Contributors. Arms Control (“you scratch my back; I scratch yours”) ∙ Negative o Punishing self-interest, “eye for an eye” ∙ Problem: “people underestimate others good intentions and tend to overestimate their own” Examples: Iran - Israel or Pakistan – India o Identity- Sacrifice ∙ The identity community does not seek self-interest and does not care about benefits they only care about others and benefiting them. The most reliable core principle. Examples: Sweden, Germany, South Africa, Japan 2 Main Principles: ∙ Principle of self-determination o A nation has the right to determine its political fate independently from other nations. ∙ Principle of state sovereignty o A sovereign state has the right to exercise supreme authority over their own land. ∙ Principle of Non Intervention- only states can legally claim a monopoly of jurisdiction within their borders Responsibility to Protect Principle A sovereign state is responsible for protecting its people from harm due to failed government, war at home…. Failure to do so will allow the principle of non intervention (non use of force) to be voided and allows the international responsibility to protect to become effective. The International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS), 2001: xi) Lecture 17: International Order, Security, and Foreign Policy ∙ The concept of bounded rationality ∙ Main tenets of prospect theory ∙ “Government bargaining” model of decision making ∙ “Organizational process” model of decision making Lecture 18: Theories of International Relations Traditional Theories ∙ The meaning of “Raison d’état” ∙ Realism ∙ Liberalism ∙ Neorealism o Reef Poll: What is neo-realism? Ans: An attempt to restate the basic ideas of realism in a more “scientific” and modified form. ∙ Neoliberalism ∙ Realist perception of the international system ∙ Realist perception of alliances ∙ The meaning of anarchy in the international system ∙ Fundamental assumptions of neorealism ∙ Game theory ∙ The prisoner’s dilemma Alternative Approaches ∙ Marxism ∙ Constructivism ∙ Orientalism ∙ Types of feminism in IR: empirical, analytical, and normative feminisms o Reef Poll: Which type of feminism specifically critiques existing forms of power and seeks to construct an agenda for global reform? Ans: Normative feminism Lecture 19: International Organizations ∙ Inter-governmental versus non-governmental organizations (definition, examples, characteristics) o Reef Poll: Inter-governmental organizations (IGOs) are set up by... Ans: states ∙ The history of the United Nations (When was it established? What was the predecessor of the UN?) o Reef Poll: The United Nations is the successor to… Ans: The League of Nations ∙ The structure of the UN and functions of each organ (General Assembly, Security Council, Secretariat, World Court) o Reef Poll: Which of the following is one of the United Nations’ best known organizations? Ans: WHO ∙ The headquarters of the UN ∙ Know the permanent members of the UN Security Council ∙ The difference between permanent members and non-permanent members of the UN Security Council (= veto power) o Reef Poll: What can the permanent members of the UN Security Council do that nonpermanent members cannot? Ans: Veto resolutions ∙ Issues regarding reform in the structure of the UN Security Council ∙ Mission of the Amnesty International ∙ The link between the non-governmental organizations (NGOs), realism, and liberalism. o Reef Poll: Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of non-governmental organizations (NGOs)? Ans: They are usually dependent on governments. ∙ The concept of cosmopolitanism ∙ Definition of “social movement” Lecture 20: International Political Economy ∙ What do scholars of International Political Economy study? ∙ The tension between states and markets (= sovereignty versus openness) ∙ The meaning of “laissez-faire” ∙ Mercantilism- belief in the benefits of profitable trading ∙ The meaning of the term “beggar-your-neighbor” o Reef Poll: In the context of International Political Economy, the term “beggar your neighbor” refers to… Ans: mercantilist policies that seek benefits for one’s own country at the expense of others. ∙ The Bretton Woods agreement o Reef Poll: The Bretton Woods agreement... Ans: led to the establishment of the International Monetary Fund (IMF). ∙ The Brandt Report o Reef Poll: As of today, what is the world's population? Ans: Approximately 7.5 billion people ∙ Microcredit o Reef Poll: Microcredit… Ans: provides small loans to poor people, especially women, to support economic self‐sufficiency. ∙ The New Political Economy ∙ The main arguments of John M. Keynes
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