Week #5 G/K readings: Representations, cultures, media, and marketsa ∙ Representation: addresses the ideas that pervade media ∙ Circulation leads to consumption of representations ∙ Representation is important because knowledge is power// the way women are represented shows political stance//women ∙ participate in media social movements are started and spreadDon't forget about the age old question of iyad alamir
We also discuss several other topics like hexaphenylbenzene boiling point
We also discuss several other topics like umd philosophy
We also discuss several other topics like posc umd
If you want to learn more check out umd psychology
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through media// Excerpts from a way of seeing (John Berger); ∙ Cultural Mystification: the concealing of historical truth by ideologies ∙ Every image embodies a way of seeing ∙ The way we see things is affected by what we know and believe ∙ When you realize you can see you realize you can be seen ∙ Man's presence is dependent on the power he exudes ∙ Woman's presence is dependent on her attitude and what can/cannot be done with her ∙ Women is the surveyor and the surveyed o Women are everything she is and does ∙ Men survey women before treating her ∙ Men act and women appear what does this mean???? Could mean that men are the actors or the aggressors and women are for appearances (“Women are to be seen and not heard”) ē(think Machismo and Marianismo) ∙ All females socialize using sexist thinking, values rested on appearance o Her own sense of being herself is supplanted by a sense of being appreciated by another. Making things mean (Catherine King) ∙ Art making should be a free thing but is not ∙ Women are categorized as making things at home ∙ for the fun of it v. men doing it for work ∙ Through men's control of public/private knowledge this has been allowed Pg 276280 Guerilla Girls (Suzanne Lustig) ∙ 1980 male artists were preferred to women artists ∙ 1984>>protest 1985>>guerilla girls come about ∙ By choosing to remain anonymous they highlighted the difference between chosen and forced anonymity Prologue (Judith Fryer) ∙ Migrant Women by Lange, 1936 o Peach picker on a farm influenced by the Great Depression. o Looking at migrant mother, looks at photographer and subject as having a photographic transaction o Has been used for other ethnicities Mackdaddy, Superfly, Rapper (Judith Halberstam) ∙ Female to male crossdressing>>>seeds of new identity Female pleasures and perversions…… (Andre Weiss)∙ Lesbian pop grew as women roles increased World media ∙ Limited options in terms of media ∙ Newspaper are rare and expensive and often have recycled stories ∙ Radio lacks respect in terms of media respect and is local 317320 ∙ Mass culture >>>commercial production of art ∙ Western view of nudity: the colored women is closer to nature because she's nude Bell Hooks reading: ∙ Before women's studies classes, before feminist literature, individual women learned about feminism in groups. Women in those groups were the first to begin to create feminist theory which included both an analysis of sexism, strategies for challenging patriarchy, and new models of social interaction ∙ The feminist movement allowed for the rediscovery of previously obscured/failed works written by women to come to light ∙ Late 80’s feminist were aware of class and race differences and were trying to produce literature that addressed ALL women issues ∙ Feminist movement followed civil rights & sexual liberation movements ∙ It is impossible to have complete sexual liberation without access to contraception and legal abortion ∙ Abortion issue caught attention of christianity, challenged the idea that women are here to bear children, and the many medical concerns surrounding pregnancy/childbirth/ and abortions ∙ If sex education, preventive health care, and easy access to contraceptives are offered to every female, fewer of us will have unwanted pregnancies. As a consequence the need for abortions would diminish ∙ Before feminist teaching, women were taught that their worth stemmed from how men viewed them physically ∙ Feminist thinking led to the change of fashion as well as women driven/controlled health centers ∙ Reformist vision of feminism>>equal rights for women within the preexisting class hierarchy ∙ Radical vision of feminism>>called for a change in the fundamental system as a whole ∙ Economically privileged v. the working class women had different goals and ideas as to what equality means Week 6 Readings G/W: The Body Beautiful (Rosalind Coward) ∙ Perfect female body>>>> think Barbie ∙ Western ideals dictate that women should work out or go under the knife they should be thin but with big boobs, removal of hair is expected >>> could be due to the fact that this look creates powerlessness ∙ The sexually mature women is a taboo1∙ Body parts are fragmented ∙ “unfit”= weakness & greed ∙ The words used to describe a bigger person tend to create a negative perception Nourishing ourselves (Nancy Worcester) ∙ Women tend to suffer from malnutrition ∙ boys/men are fed first and food is often used as a reward for masculine work ∙ takes at least two generations to get rid of malnutrition in a family ∙ Women self perpetuate the idea that men need/deserve more food, could be due to the idea that men are more valuable, becomes a cycle Grotesque Modern (Roland Marchand) ∙ What one wears defines who one is ∙ The way the ads set up women in ads imply that they need men for support Pg 359360 ∙ Is race a factor in nationality??>> a caribbean american women representing Italy was at first seen as scandalous ∙ The Italian president/official justified her crowning as “Italy is now changing and have more foreigners”. Ugliness in India over Miss. World (Barry Bearak) ∙ People threatened to burn where the crowning would take place due to it being an opening to other “beauty” procedures, conflict b/w the Hindu idea that beauty should be natural v. Western view of makeup ∙ Claim that western beauty strives to make all women look alike Barbie and the world economy (Rone Tempest) ∙ Dispute between China and the U.S. in regards to the $$$ need to make and export the doll ∙ Commonly made in parts Commodity Feminism: Robert Goldman ∙ feminism/femininity>>> strategy for markets ∙ Ads use our wants and fears to get us to buy products, usually centered around the male gaze, make women feel inadequate, selfpunish for not conforming ∙ Self fetishizing by women is ads leads to real women feeling inadequate, contradictory messages are being sent ∙ Commodity feminism embodies the process of punning feminism/femininity, reduces it an assigned object or look, sets up binary opposite ∙ What is “neofeminism”? o Neofeminism describes an emerging view of women as becoming empowered through the celebration of attributes perceived to be conventionally feminine, that is, it glorifies a womanly essence over claims to equality with men. Sandra Lee Bartky ∙ By putting someone in a power position everyone can be controlled ∙ We’re born male/female not masculine/feminine ∙ The ideal female figure demonstrate social and political values of the time∙ Women are more restricted in movement than men, women are expected to move with grace eroticism and modesty ∙ Womens skin must be soft, hairless & ageless ∙ Women's body language shows her education in the fact that she is less than her other >>think of the wage gap ∙ Women self punish themselves for not conforming, this has decreased with time due to greater access to freedom ∙ Proffering position|? ∙ What are “docile bodies”? o Creating submission of people without force. ∙ What is body discipline? Bell Hooks ∙ Once white women disregard age/color/class feminism will prevail>> think globally ∙ Women at home view their homes as a workplace, may be more restful for them if they get work elsewhere ∙ Feminism will succeed far more once race issues are addressed, it is important to understand the privilege a white woman has over a women of color ∙ Due to the rise in women entering the workforce and the rise of low paying jobs for men has led to a rise of patriarchal violence due to the need to hold on to power Week #7 G/W filipiina.com ∙ Three options come up when searching filipina, tends to bring an oversexualized image, looks at their bodies exclusively ∙ Tech is about the surveillance of new subjects and the creation of new markets. Part four ∙ Travel was seen for the most part as masculine and trade centered ∙ Travel is now seen as being for pleasure. work , forced or migration to a new beginning Travel & Tourism (Cynthia Enloe) ∙ Travelers are seen as the others while the locals are to be avoided for the harsh truths they represent ∙ Officials have looked to tourism to provide them with foreign currency. ∙ Government uses expansion of tourism to secure loyalty of local elites. ∙ Tourism needs patriarchy to survive. ∙ Women are not traditionally expected to travel without a male companion. o Tourism has the capacity to control women’s sense of their security and self worth. ∙ Tourism markets the idea that women are meant to be experienced ∙ tourism=global integration Give a thought to Africa ∙ As missionaries who are female as well as African American were treated as second hand citizens and were often discriminated against for their Western ideals. Female employment in Puerto Vallarta∙ Work was often segregated by gender with men having more forward facing jobs, these in the front desk jobs had room to improve oneself and also offered opportunity to get tips ∙ Women hostesses are often thought of as prostitutes. o Limited upward mobility. Excerpt from the world labor market (Lydia Potts) ∙ Many race stereotypes hinder immigrants from finding work ∙ Lack of work by men changed a family's social unit and required for women to take on more roles Women, Work and Immigration (Evelyn Nakano) ∙ A twotiered system has divided migrant workers by race so that the experience of European ethinic groups has been different from than nonEuropean ∙ Many women were forced into the domestic working class ∙ Many color barriers enacted in terms of political power A maid by any other name ∙ Women are seen in the workforce due to the migrant women who take care of their children allowing them to enter the workforce A maid in the Capitol ∙ Migrants are often forced to take bad paying jobs under horrible conditions and are often forced to illegal acts just to survive From Thailand to Japan ∙ Interview of Thai women between the ages of 2035. Held for violating immigration acts in 1989 ∙ There are hostesses & then there are the authentic sex workers ∙ Have to pay the yakuza in exchange for their protection ∙ Sex workers can be bought based on session/night or monthly ∙ Have created a network of help and support ∙ Thai’s people consumption exceeds their resources Maid in LA (Pierrette HondagneuSotela) ∙ Women from Latin America come and find jobs as livein maids and as a consequence often live without privacy, around the clock, & little food, they earn less than minimum wage; women who work there and go home at the end of the day get paid more in the long run and are more happy because they are able to go home to their families and live their own lives. Bell Hooks ∙ Notes the rise of awareness of domestic violence and patriarchal violence ∙ Matriarchal households teach patriarchal thinking, ∙ Patriarchal domination in marriage leads to divorce Week 7 Lecture Notes Gendering ∙ To consider what discourses of gender, class, sexuality, and race are mobilized to "sell" tourist destinations. Then consider economic and cultural impact of tourism on these "destinations";o If employment is rising what is happening to natural resources and local culture? o What benefits does tourism bring to communities? o What drawbacks? Key concepts ∙ Globalization and its impact on gender ∙ Relation of modernity to women' s travel ∙ Economic and cultural inequities of modern tourism Globalization ∙ Globalization is built upon several historical and economic events: o The growth of nationstates into nations with discernible borders; o The rise of industrial capitalism and modern finance; o Exploration, Western colonization and imperialism; o The building of international metropolitan centers of trade and finance; and o The increasing connection of all parts of the world by commerce influenced by capitalism. Who travels? Where? Why? How far? By what locomotive and financial means? Women and Mobility ∙ The history of Western women's mobility in the 19th century ∙ Ideologies of domesticity and the private sphere o Working class women o Personal freedoms How is tourism a political issue today? A gendered issue? What different roles do women play in contemporary international tourism? What cultural positions enable or compel them to participate? ∙ The multiple positions of women in relation to travel have a history grounded in Western exploration, colonialism and imperialism o Domestic ideologies of the 19th century Women Workers ∙ Women and labor migration ∙ The importance of transnationalism for feminist analyses of "women's work" ∙ Economic inequalities predicted on ethnicity, race and nation of female migrant workers ∙ Role of state control in structuring migrant labor, whether legal or illegal ∙ What are some factors that contribute to women migrating for work? o ∙ What are some advantages and challenges of migrating to work? Women and Labor Migration (where are the men?) ∙ Glenn and Salzinger both discuss the ways in which the race and gender come to matter in the kinds of jobs available for migrant workers.o Immigration and migration laws restructured in relation to race, gender, class, sexuality, religion and nationality ∙ Menchu and Watenabe show the personal costs of the struggle for livelihood when women, either forcibly or voluntarily, leave their homes and families for work. ∙ Watenabe is a person who engages in sexually explicit performance/acts for pay. ∙ We know that many migrant women end up doing either domestic or sex work. o What do the readings tell you about why women continue to do such work in particular locations? ∙ The racial and class politics of domestic labor. ∙ The structural and subjective consequences of women's migrant labor, and the complexities of cultural representations of migrant women workers. ∙ What factors affected the types of work that women performed in the 19th century through the midtwentieth century and the conditions under which they labored? ∙ Middle class women ∙ Migrant women ∙ Second and third generation European immigrants mobility different from immigrant women of color and AfricanAmerican women ∙ Salzinger states that the current phase of globalization is distinctive: that the types of domestic work demanded and those who require domestic labor are markedly different from those earlier in the 20th century. ∙ The relations of women to labor cannot be theorized without an informed analysis of the global politics of migration, production and consumption. WEEK #8 G/W Excerpt From Mankiller (Wilma Mankiller and Michael Wallis) ∙ Congress imposed policy cutting off 61 tribes from federal protection ∙ A way for the government to get rid of or stop the “Indian problem”. ∙ Moved from Mankiller because of poverty ∙ Once at the city they did not receive the help they were promised and faced many different social changes ∙ The promise of a “Better Life” was in reality, just a life in tough urban ghetto. Contested Terrain (Susan Davis) ∙ 1980 abortion was a major issue >> Roe v. Wade gave some give but it was followed by two girls being sterilized without their permission Productive rights (Angela Davis) ∙ Talk of sterilization that was sanctioned by the government. ∙ Native american women were prone to receiving federal propaganda on sterilization ∙ 1977 federal funds for abortion gone except in cases of rape/sever illness or risk of death Welcome to the Border (Augusta Dwyer) ∙ Maquiladora>> quick assembly in Mexico for parts and raw materials from other countries.∙ Maquiladora’s way of making money and way of living is going across the border to buy things from border towns. ∙ Because of the government, the Maquiladora’s entry to the border was limited, which caused border town stores to close down, and make Maquiladoras have a hard time making a living. Sex discrimination in the Maquiladoras ∙ Women were required to take pregnancy test for employment because in the long run it is cheaper for the company. Our policies their consequences ∙ The IMF required Zimbabwe to make changes in their social and political aspect and ultimately the people suffered from the global economy The gendered politics and violence of structural adjustment ∙ 1978 Oceanview saw changes in social, economic and political conditions ∙ Nurse brown dedicated her life to helping the community and always have side jobs in order to make ends meet and it was never enough Bell Hooks ∙ Women have sex because men want to, homosexuals have no support that affirms their sexuality ∙ Media tends to choose a straight heterosexual women as the face of feminism Week 8 Lecture Notes: ∙ Language barriers o Women o Immigrants ∙ Migration experience o Articles Menchu Thelma ∙ Potts takes up the issue of forced relocations in the context of labor power in the face of colonialism, industrialization, and globalization.. ∙ Phases under which people moved around the world to supply labor o Phase One is the "emergence and development of the world market for labor power under colonialism." o Phase two "began with industrialization and resulted in the direct incorporation into the world market of the capitalist metropole." BI selling ideas of demand of labor Not being able to find jobs in urban areas. o Example: the initial relocation of NativeAmericans in the 19th century can be seen as a "Phase One" relocation, and the movement of Mankiller and her family from Oklahoma to the urban center of San Francisco in the 195's as a part of "Phase Two". ∙ What can feminism teach us about forced relocations and displacements? ∙ What gender issues are in play? ∙ For women, forced relocation and displacement have some distinct characteristics. o Struggle to meet family needs Food, clothing, shelter, basic needs, etc. o Traditional gender roles have to be changed. breadwinner roles have been inverted ∙ Women's vexed relationship to citizenship and the state in general creates a vulnerable context for women on the move due to war or famine. o Comes to play with intersections . o Positions women, indigenous people, they have different situation as both women and race. ∙ States view women as appendages of their family, even as property of their male relatives. ∙ Women are alternatively viewed as in need of protection, as tools for wartime rape, exploitation or humiliation of whole communities or nations, as too modern and therefore a threat to the lost or vulnerable culture that was left behind, as unable to cope with change, and/or as having primary responsibility for cultural and physical survival. ∙ In the late 1960's, forced sterilization and increasingly available contraceptives had racial and class biases: "while racist in intent and effect, it was also liberating to have birth control publicly accepted and available." ∙ What are the impacts of literacy, unemployment rates, and the 1977 Hyde Amendment on sterilization practices and access to reproductive health care for women of color, poor women, and white women in the 1960's and the 1970's in the United States? o It defunded abortion o Keep in mind Trump with planned parenthood. Displacement ∙ Displaced women: 1. Women remain responsible for most domestic activities (often timeconsuming and dangerous for displaced individuals and groups) 2. Women cope with changes in family structures and roles (changes in males/female and parent/child roles due to war and/or relocation); 3. Women are expected to maintain traditional culture (this can produce intergenerational conflicts) ∙ Connections b/w gendered labor practices, national economies and international trade policies ∙ Consequences of free trade zones on women's living conditions and communities ∙ Connections b/w the histories of colonialism, domesticity, and nationalism to labor issues ∙ Feminist responses to IMF policies, NAFTA, etc. ∙ The NAFTA and the international Monetary Fund's Structural Adjustment programs are designed to increase and facilitate global trade. ∙ The impact of these policies on women differ according to their class and nationality across national boundaries and also according to race and class within specific countries. ∙ Since 1993 over three hundred women living and working in Juarez, Mexico have been murdered and thousands raped by unknown assailants ∙ Almost all the victims were workers in Maquiladoras who had traveled to Juarez for work∙ This widespread violence should be viewed as part of the gendered consequences of the Maquiladora system and provides a stark example of why free trade structural adjustment and globalization are critical areas for feminist. ∙ Maquiladoras are geographically specific examples of the industry found in Free Trade Zones and Export Processing Zones ∙ These zones are set up by transnational cooperation of developing nations in need of economic stimulus. o The zones are lack of regulation, minimal taxation, and low or no tariffs. ∙ Maquiladoras pay a minimum of taxes to Mexico o Exempt from health and safety regulations or labor regulations. o Function as "temporary" points of assembly: Parts are brought to the factories, poorly paid workers perform tasks on them, and then the product is shipped elsewhere to be sold or further assembled. ∙ Maquiladoras have given rise to extremely impoverished regions filled with substandard housing and unhealthy living and working conditions ∙ The U.S. and Mexican government condone this practice o U.S. economy and Mexico's depends on this relationship provide inexpensive goods produces though lowering labor costs and to sustain border town economies in the U.S. dependent on the patronage of Maquiladora employees. ∙ Why a concern to feminists? o Living conditions o Reproductive rights o Strong pull of female laborers ∙ Dwyer: o 70% of maquiladora employees are women o The MexicanU.S. borders attracts many "immigrants or temporary workers looking for jobs in the U.S…" o "yet it was rarely unemployed men who were hired to work in the new plants, but local women new to industrial work, apparently docile, and cheap who worked on the assembly line" o Women typically are paid less than men and, as Dwyer indicate, are , perhaps erroneously, viewed as more manageable and less demanding workers. ∙ Human Rights Watch's report claims that "most of the 2,100 maquiladoras systematically violate women's fundamental human rights, while Mexican authorities turn a blind eye" ∙ Note: U.S. authorities turn a blind eye and encourage such exploitation through the passage of trade agreements such as NAFTA. ∙ Globalization is based on the search for profitability and that search can lead to severe underdevelopment, with dire results for women. ∙ The International Monetary Fund has addressed the poverty and imbalances caused by imperialism and its aftermath imposing economic sanctions on countries seeking to borrow funds these policies are referred to as "structural adjustment policies" and are financial assistance with "strings attached" designed to make the borrowing nations conform to free market, capitalist systems of economic exchange.Week#9 G/W From routes to roots (Stuart Hall) ∙ Diaspora >> when people are removed from their country of origin with no hope of going back o Or the attempt of peoples who have been dispersed from their countries of origin but maintain ties with the past through preserving the traditions and culture. ∙ Cuts across the borders of national communities and disrupts and unsettles conception of culture, place, and identity. Gal you come from foreign (Claudette Williams) ∙ Author has fond memories of Jamaica where she grew up surrounded with the people she loved ∙ When she moved to Britain she discovered colorism>> enforced that her paler counterparts had more power ∙ Felt as an other & listened to the black panther movement. The movement was threatened by autonomy; a threat to male leadership and male egos. ∙ Gender oppression was reduced to sexuality and lesbianism became a weapon to deter women from organizing. Vietnam Journal/Journey (Mimi Nguyen) ∙ Vietnam refugee during the vietnam >> surrounded by insulting comments ∙ Would receive hate letters by blonde, blue eyed kids on her street ∙ Becoming punk… o “Rebelled” against the society that made her an alien refugee Dislocated Identities (Ella Shohat) ∙ As an ArabJew she felt the need to explain herself as foreigners ∙ The gulf war had intensified a pressure already familiar to the ArabJewish diaspora in the wake of the conflict o Pressure to choose b/w Jew and Arab Julio capo's "queering Mariel" ∙ Evidences suggest that the US drastically shifted its longstanding antihomosexual stance on immigration and citizenship to reconcile its position as a refuge for those fleeing Cuban communism ∙ The Carter administration was under considerable pressure to admit them however especially since the POTUS had publicly announced their welcome ∙ JD concluded that it had the legal obligation to exclude homosexuals from entering the US but it will be done solely upon the voluntary submission by the alien that he or she is homosexual. ∙ INS officer could not rely on his or her own interpretations of what constituted a "homosexual" o Courts determined the fate of homosexual aliens who qualified for exclusion under new policy. Bell Hooks∙ The feminist movement is lacking in schools and programs ∙ men must take a stance against patriarchy and join the feminist movement in order to teach feminist thinking to younger generations Week 9 Lecture Notes: ∙ Globalization is built upon several historical and economic events: o The growth of nationstates into nations with discernible borders; o the rise of industrial capitalism and modern finance; o exploration, Western colonization and imperialism; o the building of international metropolitan centers of trade and finance; o and the increasing connection of all parts of the world by commerce influenced by capitalism Development ∙ Like colonialism, economic development has an intervention philosophy. This provides a justification for outsiders to guide native people towards particular goals. ∙ Development is usually justified by the idea that the industrialization and modernization are desirable evolutionary advances. Neoliberalism ∙ Neoliberalism revise and extends classic economic liberalism: o the idea that government should not regulate private enterprise and that free market forces should rule. ∙ Different degrees of destruction, domination, resistance, survival, and modification of native cultures may follow interethnic contact. This may lead to a tribe's cultural collapse (ethnocide) or its physical extinction (genocide). ∙ Colonialism refers to the political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time ∙ Imperialism o A policy of extending the rule of a nation or empire over the foreign nation or of taking and holding foreign colonies. Analysis of the history of colonialism ∙ The development associated with colonial rule had two primary effects on what we know as third world countries. o Colonialism introduced private property, commercial and exportgeared agriculture with industry, service, and trade that followed o Large section of the population were alienated from adequate or stable resources, income, or employment. ∙ Thus the ways that people had produced food and shelter was disrupted and turned towards profitmaking agribusiness ∙ This process had very specific consequences for women: o private property and commercialization reduced their access to resources even more than men. Imperialism ∙ Policy of extending the rule of nation or empire over the foreign nation or of taking and holding foreign colonies. o British empire∙ Refers to political, social, economic and cultural dominations of territory and its people by foreign power for an extended period of time o Influence of colonialism doesn't disappear just because independence has been granted. ∙ Traced back to early states: Displacement of people ∙ Force or voluntary move people from their native land 21st century relocation ∙ Forced relocations, removals and genocides based on religion such as the Holocaust ∙ Removal of JapaneseAmericans to internment camps during WWII ∙ Recent internal national conflicts Diasporas ∙ Stuart Hall describes the diasporic people as those whom, through migration, 'have succeeded in remaking themselves and fashioning new kinds of cultural identity by consciously or unconsciously drawing on more than one cultural repertoire" ∙ What produces diasporic communities? ∙ How do cultural and racial and national identities become transformed in diasporas? ∙ How does the concept of diaspora complement and/or challenge the American concept of the “melting pot”? Key concepts ∙ Diaspora : both open and closed ? ∙ Transformations of diasporic and home cultures due to forced migrations and shifting geopolitics ∙ Cultural and political consequences of diasporic communities ∙ Gender of concepts such as "tradition" and "identity" in diaspora ∙ Diasporas generally refer to the displacements that the modern nationstates have created Hyphenated and Diasporic identities ∙ "hyphenatedidentities" ∙ Diaspora indicates a strong connection to an origin or home whereas hyphenated identities imply hybridism and split affiliation o Mobility and often forced mobility o Defined through a connection to home and a simultaneous scattering from that home. ∙ Hall o Outline the conventional "closed" Diaspora in juxtaposition to "open diasporas" o Diaspora "highlights connections which intersect and thus disrupt and unsettle our hitherto settled conceptions of culture, place, identity ∙ Reading in this section explore the cultural and political consequences of Diasporas and consider the gender and sexual politics of this phenomenon. Diaspora ∙ First used in relation to the Jewish Diaspora to indicate the scattering of people o Term is now used far more widely to indicate displacement from a home community or nation ∙ The African Diaspora is a result of mass enslavement∙ Jewish, Muslim, Armenian and Palestinian Diasporas result from expulsion of groups from nationstates. ∙ Generally refer to the displacements that the modern nationstate have created ∙ Shares meanings with; immigrant, expatriate, refugee, guestworker, exile community, overseas community, ethnic community. ∙ (another e.g.)Hmong culture in Laos/Thailand during Vietnam war coming to America ∙ Transnationalism o "process by which migrants, through their daily life activities create social fields that cross national boundaries" Refers to movements of good, bodies, and ideas across national boundaries such as the strict distinctions among nations become altered or more flexible. Cubans in the Diaspora ∙ Cubans outside are in certain ways a Diaspora that stretches from Madrid to Miami and beyond, the result of both coerced and voluntary departure. ∙ The U.S. media refers to them as an exile community. ∙ And 'Cuban' is an ethnic designation. ∙ Cubans are a transnational community, existing across borders from their own and other nationstates, while maintaining cultural and political ties. ∙ Hall: outline the conventional "closed" Diaspora in juxtaposition to "open diasporas" ∙ Diaspora "highlights connections which intersect and thus disrupt and unsettle our hitherto settled conceptions of culture, place, and identity". ∙ Williams: narrative captures many of the characteristic elements of dislocation and transformation that Hall outlines. o Jamaica's history of colonial relations to England: Jamaica was first colonized by the Spanish in 1509 and the the English in 1655 under those who reign it became center of the slave trade in the 18th century o Jamaica remained a British Colony until 1962 and is now an independent nation, but remains a member of the British commonwealth of nations. ∙ Nguyen: "We are here because you were there." o How does Nguyen construct Diaspora in this text? o What are the consequences of Diaspora for identity, mobility, and definitions of "home"? I'm The connection of political and personal history for Nguyen How bodily signifiers of alienation (green hair, punk aesthetic) come to stand beside national dislocation Gender politics of cultural transmission and Nguyen's refusal of the feminized role of preserver of culture. ∙ Shohat: this piece encapsulates many of the complexities of diaspora the consequences of the marriage of identity politics to nationalism. o Diasporic identity has very little social space for recognition. Week 10 Lecture Notes Feminist Organization Across Borders ∙ In most modern nationalist formations, women are viewed as critical to the state, but almost always linked to maternity and family. ∙ This section exposes students to women and men organizing to resist these nationalist configurations of men. ∙ Many women and men believe that nationalism almost always confines women into narrowly circumscribe roles that reflect patriarchal modes of power. ∙ Thus organizing against nationalisms often includes redefinitions of gender roles and women's relations to the state. ∙ Angela Davis at Women's March in Washington DC 1/21/17 o Climate change o How intersectional identities make up an individual Race Gender Sexuality Ethnicity Religion Class Sexual identity ∙ Rupp: provides a historical context for current transnational feminist organization and illustrates some of the potential political benefits and pitfalls when women organize as women internationally. o International Council of Women, 1888. o International Alliance of Women (International Women's Suffrage Alliance), 1904. o Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, 1915. ∙ The World AntiSlavery Convention (held in London in 1840) was one of the sites that spurred the creation of transnational women's movements. ∙ Many international and transnational women's groups were organized to prevent war WWI ∙ Women's antiwar and peace groups were an example of the power of grassroots organizing. ∙ Linda Sarsour Speaks at Women's March in Washington DC 12117 o Grassroot organizing ∙ Saheed the women living under Muslim laws collective and the testimony of the belgrade feminists both demonstrate a strategic fluidity of identity ∙ Mladjenovic and Litricin: o This article presents the crises in identity that was and armed conflicts can engender. o The authors argue that the nationalists "are based on violence against others, but everyone is a potential other, neither the 'sacred nationality' nor the ' sacred gender' is a guarantee anymore" o Is their identification with the women of Bosnia essentialist? As women?o Her "women" are not established through biological essentialism but through political expediency and necessity. These are social movements that are transnational crossing national borders and even subverting the logic of nations in favor of establishing identity across differences ∙ Woodhull: this piece ties together the concepts of transnational activism, the history of the u.s. feminist movement ( first, second, and third waves), and the importance of viewing the evolution of social movement in geopolitical and economic contexts. o Connections between the concerns of first and third world women in new social movements o the history of the rise of new media and the rise of "third wave" feminism in the U.S. o the concept of a "transnational public sphere" as a realm of activism and cultural transformation o how "global citizenship" provides an alternative model of resistance and transformation for Woodhull. ∙ Hershey: o Highlight both structural constraints and tools for the liberation of disabled women in a variety of cultural, political, and national contexts. o How does this essay argue that gender impacts disability? ∙ What are some examples of feminist disabilities activists are seeking to address these inequalities? ∙ Are there specific ∙ Identity formation in the face of and in opposition to essentialized categories such as gender, nation, race, class. ∙ Question identity by historicizing and contextualizing the work of identity. ∙ Conceptualize identity politics as the political and cultural making of communities through transnational linkages instead of the establishment of static authentic identities for the purpose of dividing, judging, excluding, and even making war on others. ∙ It can be useful to return to the concept of hegemony to begin this section: o The diffuse nature of power in modernity and the possibilities that such a model of power relations represent for resistance, subversion, and transformation. o Position has the potential to reinforce and challenge existing structures of power o We each possess and needs to be aware of "our power and our privileges well as our limits and marginalizations" We examined cases of inequalities based in gender as well as race, class, sexuality, and nationalism with discussions of resistance, organizing and transformations of inequalities. The course concluded by not only mapping gendered difficulties and inequalities but by pointing to some of the movement, change, and coalitions that can result from critical skills, knowledge, and awareness of gender in a transnational world.