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GSU / Business Management / MGNT 3130 / which of the following types of change is gradual, incremental, and na

which of the following types of change is gradual, incremental, and na

which of the following types of change is gradual, incremental, and na

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School: Georgia Southern University
Department: Business Management
Course: Principles of Management
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: definitions and notes
Cost: 25
Name: Notes week 3 exam
Description: Covering whats on exam 3 exact notes I got a 99 with noters on test
Uploaded: 05/14/2017
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MGNT Exam 3 Chapters 10-13 Organizational Architecture: The organizational structure, control systems, culture, and human resource management systems that together determine how efficiently and effectively  organizational resources are used.  Organizing: The process by which managers establish working relationships among employees  to achieve goals  Organizational structure: formal system of task and reporting relationships that coordinates  and motivates organizational members so they work together to achieve organizational goals Factors of affecting organizational structure: Organizational environment, technology,  strategy, & human resources  Organizational design: the process by which managers create as specific type of organizational  structure and culture so that a company can operate in the most efficient and effective way Choices managers make to have an organizational structure: 1. How to group tasks into individual jobs 2. How to group jobs into functions and divisions 3. How to allocate authority and coordinate functions and divisions Job design: The process by which managers decide how to divide tasks into specific jobs & the  appropriate division of labor results in an effective and efficient workforce Job simplification: the process of reducing the number of tasks that each worker preforms Job enlargement: increasing the number of different tasks ina given job by changing the  division of labor Job enlargement is increasing the number of different tasks in a given job by changing the  division of labor  Job enrichment: increasing the degree of responsibility a worker has over a job Functional Structure: an organizational structure composed of all the departments that an  organization requires to produce its goods or services Advantages: ∙ Encourages learning from others doing similar jobs ∙ Easy for managers to monitor and evaluate workers ∙ Allows managers to create the set of functions they need in order to scan and monitor the  competitive environment  Disadvantages:∙ Difficult for departments to communicate with others ∙ Preoccupation with own department and losing sign of organizational goals Divisional structure: an organizational structure composed of separate business units within  which are the functions that work together to produce a specific product for a specific customer  (product, market, geographic)  Flat structures: have fewer levels and wide spans of control ∙ Structure results in quick communications but can lead to overworked managers  ∙ 3 levels in hierarchy  Organizational structure: Characteristics of organizational members, the employment  relationship, organizational structure, organizational ethics Organizational culture is shaped by the interaction of four man factors: refer above  Adaptive cultures: values and norms help an organization to build momentum and to grow and  change as needed to achieve its goals and be effective Inert cultures: those that lead to values and norms that fail to motivate or inspire employees &  lead to stagnation and often failure over time An inert culture develops an emphasis on close supervision How is a product team different from a matric structure? Unlike a matrix, a product team  structure results in employees reporting to either the product team manager or to one of his or  her direct subordinates Cross­functional team is a group of managers brought together from different departments to  perform organizational tasks Joans job requires her to use a wide range of abilities and knowledge. From the information  given, it can be said that her job has: Skill variety  Task significance is the degree to which a worker feels his or her job is meaningful because of  its effect on people inside the organization, such as coworkers, or on people outside the  organization, such as customers Autonomy is the degree to which a job gives ane mploee the freedom and discretion needed to  schedule different tasks and decide how to carry them out Task identity is the extent to which a job requires that a worker perform all the tasks necessary  to complete the job, from the beginning to the end of the production process Chapter 11Organizational control: Managers monitor and regulate how efficiently and effectively an  organization and its members are performing the activities necessary to achieve organization  goals  Control systems: Formal, target­setting, monitoring, evaluation and feedback systems that  provide managers with information about whether the organizations strategy and structure are  working efficiently and effectively Control systems provide managers with information about how well the organizational strategy  and structure are working Which control procedure is used at the conversion stage to obtain immediate feedback about  how efficiently raw materials are being transformed into finished goods? Concurrent control Three types of control: 1. Input stage: Feedforward control (anticipate problems before they occur)  2. Conversion Stage: Concurrent control (manager problems as they occur) 3. Output Stage: Feedback control (manage problems after they arise) Control process steps:  1. Establish the standards  2. Measure actual performance 3. Compare actual performance  4. Evaluate the results Organizational control systems: 1. Output control: financial measures of performance, organizational goals, operating  budgets 2. Behavior control: direct supervision, management by objectives, rules and standard  operating procedures  3. Clean control: values, norms, and socialization Management by Objectives (MBO): A goal­setting process in which a manager and each of his or her subordinates negotiate specific goals and objectives for the subordinate to achieve and  then periodically evaluate the extent to which the subordinate is achieving those goals Management by Objectives: 1. Specific goals & objectives are established at each level of the organization 2. Managers and their subordinates together determine the subordinates’ goals 3. Managers and their subordinates periodically review the subordinates’ progress toward  meeting goals Organizational change: Movement of an organization away from its present state and toward  some desired future state to increase its efficiency and effectivenessManagers must balance the need for an organization to improve the way it currently operates and the need for it to change in response to new, unanticipated events Evolutionary change: gradual, incremental, and narrowly focused Revolutionary change: rabid, dramatic, and broadly focused Steps in organization change process: 1. Assess the need for change  ∙ Recognize that there is a problem & identify the sources of the problem 2. Decide on the change to make ∙ Decide what the organizations ideal future state would be & identify obstacles to  change 3. Implement the change ∙ Decide whether change will occur from the top down or from the bottom up &  introduce and manage change 4. Evaluate the change ∙ Compare perchance performance with post change performance & use  benchmarking Top down change: A fast, revolutionary approach to change in which top managers identify  what needs to be changed and then move quickly to implement the changes throughout the  organizations With top­down change, the emphasis is on making changes quickly and dealing with problems as they arise; it is revolutionary in nature.  Bottom­up change: A gradual or evolutionary approach to change in which managers at all  levels work together to develop a detailed plan for change Benchmarking: The process of comparing ones company’s performance on specific dimensions  with the performance of other, high­performing organizations Which of the following is an advantage of benchmarking? It helps organizations decide how  successful a change effort has been Which of the following is a reason why direct supervision is expensive? Managers can effectively manage only a small group of employees Which of the following is true of comparing actual performance with standards? It is easy to  take corrective action when the reasons for poor performance can be identified  Clan control takes advantage of the power of organizational culture to serve a dual function of  keeping organization members goal­directed while open to new opportunities Chapter 12Human resources management (HRM): Activities that managers engage in to attract and  retain employees and to ensure that they perform at a high level and contribute to the  accomplishment of organizational goals Strategic Human Resource Management: The process by which managers design the  components of a HRM system to be consistent with each other, with other elements of  organizational architecture, and with the organization’s strategy and goals Components of HRM: Recruitment & selection, training & development, Performance appraisal and feedback, pay & benefits, labor relations Equal employment opportunity (EEO): The equal right of all citizens to the opportunity to  obtain employment regardless of their gender, age, race, country of origin, religion, or  disabilities. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforces employment laws 1963 Equal pay Act Requires men & women be  paid equally  1964 Title VII of the civil rights act Prohibits employment  discriminations against race,  religion, sex, color, or origin 1967 Age discrimination in  employment act Prohibits discrimination  against workers over the age  of 40  1978 Pregnancy discrimination act Against women on the basis  of pregnancy, childbirth, and  related medical decisions 1990 Americans with disabilities  act Against individuals with  disabilities and requires that  employers make  accommodations 1991 Civil Rights Act Allows awarding of punitive  and compensatory damages 1993 Family and medical leave act Requires employers provide  12 weeks of unpaid leave for  medical and family reasons 


How is a product team different from a matric structure?



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We also discuss several other topics like the opportunity cost of holding money refers to

Recruitment: Activities that managers engage in to develop a pool of candidates for open  positions Selection: The process that managers use to determine the relative qualifications of job  applicants and their potential for performing well in a particular job Human Resource Planning (HRP): Activities that managers engage in to forecast their current  and future needs for human resourcesDemand forecast: estimates the qualifications and numbers of employees the firm will need  given its goals strategies  Supply Forecasts: estimates the availability and qualifications of current employees now and in  the future, as well as the supply of qualified workers in the external labor market Outsourcing: Using outside suppliers and manufactures to produces goods and services. Using  contract workers rather than hiring them. More flexible for the firm. Provides human capital at a  lower cost Job analysis: Identifying the tasks, duties and responsibilities that make up a job and the  knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform the job & should be done for each job in the  organization Job analysis methods: Observing what current workers do, and having workers and managers  fill out questionnaires External recruiting: Looking outside the organization for people who have not worked at the  firm previously; newspapers, advertisements, open houses, career fairs  Internal recruiting: Managers turn to existing employees to fill open positions Realistic job preview: An honest assessment of the advantage and disadvantage of a job and  organization & can reduce the number of new hires who quit when jobs and organizations fail to  meet their unrealistic expectations Selection process: Managers find out whether each applicant is qualified for the position and  likely to be a good performer Reliability: The degree to which the tool or test measures the same thing each time it is used  Validity: The degree to which the test measures what it is supposed to measure Training: Teaching organizational members how to perform current jobs and helping them to  acquire the knowledge and skills they need to be effective performers Development: Building the knowledge and skills of organizational members to enable them to  take on new responsibilities and challenges Needs Assessment: As assessment of which employees need training or development and wha  type of skills knowledge they need to acquire  ∙ Training: Classroom instruction, on­the­job training, Apprenticeships  ∙ Development: Classroom instruction, on­the­job training, varied work  experiences, formal educationPerformance Appraisal: The evaluation of employee’s job performance and contributions to  their organization. (Traits, behaviors, results) Performance feedback: The process through which managers share performance appraisal  information with subordinates, give subordinates an opportunity to reflect on their own  performance, and develop, with subordinates, plans for the future Graphic rating scale: Performance is assessed alone one or more continua with specified  intervals (1 being very low quality – 5 being very high quality) Behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS): performance is assessed alone a scale with clearly defined points containing examples of specific behaviors  Behavioral Observation scale (BOS): performance in terms of the frequency with which  specific behaviors are performed  Formal appraisals: An appraisal conducted at a set time during the year and based on  performance dimensions that were specified in advance Informal appraisals: An unscheduled appraisal of ongoing progress an areas for improvement Pay: ∙ Includes employees’ base salaries, pay raises, and bonuses  ∙ Determined by characteristics of the organization and the job and levels of performance ∙ Benefits are based on membership in an organization Pay level: The relative position of an organizations incentives in comparison with those of other  firms in the same industry employing similar kinds of workers Pay structure: The arrangement of jobs into categories based on their relative importance to the  organization and its goals, level of skills, and other characteristics Benefits: ∙ Legally required: social security, workers compensation, unemployment insurance ∙ Voluntary: Health insurance, retirement, day care ∙ Cafeteria­style benefits: plans allow employees to choose the bes mix of benefits for  them, but can be hard to manage  Labor relations: The activities managers engage in to ensure they have effective working  relationships with the labor unions that represent their employees interests Unions: Represent workers interests to management in organizationsCollective bargaining: Negotiation between labor and management to resolve conflicts and  disputes about issues such as working hours, wages, benefits, working conditions, and job  security  Chapter 13 Motivation: The psychological forces that determine the direction of a persons behavior in an  organization, a persons level of effort, and a persons level of persistence. Explains why people  behave the way they do in organizations Intrinsically Motivated Behavior: Behavior that is performed for its own sake Extrinsically Motivated Behavior: Behavior that is performed to acquire material or social  rewards or to avoid punishment Prosocially motivated behavior: Behavior performed to benefit or help others  The motivation equation: 1. Inputs from organizational members: Time, effort, education, experience, skills,  knowledge, and work behaviors 2. Performance: Contributes to organizational efficiency, organizational effectiveness, and  the attainment of organizational goals 3. Outcomes received by organization members: pay, job security, benefits, job satisfaction, autonomy Expectancy theory: The theory that motivation will be high when workers believe that high  levels of effort lead to high performance and high performance leads to the attainment of desired  outcomes Expectancy: A person’s perception about the extent to which his or her effort will result in a  certain level of performance  Instrumentality: A person’s perception about the extent to which performance at a certain level  will result in the attainment of outcomes Valence: How desirable each of the outcomes available from a job or organization is to a person Need theories: Theories of motivation that focus on what needs people are trying to satisfy at  work and what outcomes will satisfy those needs Need: A requirement of necessity for survival and well­being Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: An arrangement of five basic needs that motivate behavior.  Maslow proposed that the lowest level of unmet needs is the prime motivator and that only one  level of needs is motivational at a time  Highest­level needs  Needs Description Examples of how 


Which control procedure is used at the conversion stage to obtain immediate feedback about how efficiently raw materials are being transformed into finished goods?



We also discuss several other topics like If a data communication system uses 8 levels of voltage to represent data, how many data bits can each level represent?

employees can satisfy  these needs

Self­actualization  needs The needs to realize  ones full potential as a human being Giving people the  opportunity to use  their skills to the  fullest extent

Esteem needs The needs to feel  good about ones self  & ones capabilities to  be respected, and  receive recognition  and appreciation  By granting  promotions and  recognizing  accomplishments 

Belongingness needs Needs for social  interaction,  friendship, affection  and love By promoting good  interpersonal  relations, and  organizing social  functions 

Safety needs Needs for security,  stability, and a safe  environment  By providing job  security, medical  benefits, and safe  working conditions Lowest­level needs  (most basic) Physiological needs  Basic needs for things such as food, water,  and shelter  Providing a level of  pay that enables a  person to buy food  and clothing and  shelter 


Which of the following is a reason why direct supervision is expensive?



We also discuss several other topics like ovulation a j10
Don't forget about the age old question of Name the two basic categories of cost.

Alderfer’s ERG theory: The theory that three universal needs­ for existence, relatedness, and  growth – constitute a hierarchy of needs and motivate behavior. Alderfer proposed that needs at  more than one level can be motivational at the same time  Highest­level Needs Description Examples of how  managers can help  people satisfy the  needs

Growth needs The needs for self development and  creative and  productive work  By allowing people to continually improve  their skills and  abilities and engage in meaningful work

Relatedness needs The needs to have  good interpersonal  By promoting good  interpersonal relations

relations, to share  thoughts and feelings,  open two­way  communications and by providing  accurate feedback Lowest­level Existence needs  Basic needs for food,  water, clothing,  shelter, safe  environment  By providing enough  pay for the basic  necessities of life and  safe working  conditions 

Herzbergs motivator­hygiene theory: A need theory that distinguishes between motivator  needs and hygiene needs and proposes that motivator needs must be met for motivation and job  satisfaction to be high  ∙ Motivator needs: relate to the nature of the work itself – autonomy, responsibility,  interesting work ∙ Hygiene needs: related to the physical and psychological context of the work –  comfortable work environment, pay, & job security  McClellands  Need for achievement: The extent to which an individual has a strong desire to perform  challenging tasks well and to meet personal standards for excellence Need for affiliation: Concerned about establishing and maintain good interpersonal relations,  being liked, and having the people around him get along with each other Need for power: A desire to control or influence others Equity theory: A theory of motivation that focuses on peoples perceptions of the fairness of  their work outcomes relative to their work inputs Condition Person

Referent Example Equity Outcomes/Inputs = Outcomes/Inputs An engineer  perceives that he  contributes more  inputs (time &  effort) and  receives  proportionally  more outcomes 

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(higher salary  and choice job)  than his referent  Underpayment  inequity Outcomes/Inputs < (less than)  Outcomes/Inputs An engineer  perceives that he  contributes more  inputs but  receives the same outcomes as his  referent  Overpayment  inequity  Outcomes/Inputs > (greater than)  Outcomes/Inputs An engineer  perceives that he  contributes the  same inputs but  receives more  outcomes that his referent 

Goal­setting theory: A theory that focuses on identifying the types of goals that are most  effective in producing high levels of motivation and performance and explaining why goals have  these effects. May be specific and difficult Learning theories: Theories that focus on increasing employee motivation and performance by  linking the outcomes that employees receive to the performance of desired behaviors and the  attainment of goals Operant conditioning: People learn to perform behaviors that lead to desired consequences and  learn not to perform behaviors that lead to undesired consequences Positive reinforcement: Give people outcomes they desire when they perform organizationally  functionally behaviors Negative reinforcement: Eliminating or removing undesired outcomes when people perform  organizationally functional behaviors  Extinction: Curtailing the performance of a dysfunctional behavior by eliminating whatever is  reinforcing it Punishment: Administering an undesired or negative consequence when dysfunctional behavior  occurs Social learning theory: A theory that takes into account how learning and motivation are  influenced by peoples thoughts and beliefs and their observations of others peoples behaviorVicarious learning: Occurs when a person becomes motivated to perform a behavior by  watching another person perform the behavior and be positively reinforced for doing so, also  called observational learning Pay as a motivator ∙ Expectancy: Instrumentality, the association between performance and outcomes, must  be high for motivation to be high ∙ Need theory: pay is used to satisfy many needs ∙ Equity theory: pay is given in relationship to inputs ∙ Goal setting theory: pay is linked to attainment of goals ∙ Learning theory: outcomes (pay), is distributed upon performance of functional behaviorsCH02  Who developed philogy? Lorenzo Valia When did martin Luther decide to become a monk? During a  thunderstorm What was the major difference in the renaissance perspective  during the Norther renaissance? Much more concerned with  religion During the Ming period, the Chinese were distrustful of foreigners.  What is this called? Xenophobia Which ruler of Japan tried unsuccessfully on two occasions to  invade & conquer Korea? Toyotomi Hideyoshi What was the most significant change in art during the  renaissance? Tended to focus on the beauty of the human body What position was at the head of the Ottoman Empire? Sultan What were the two sacraments accepted by Luther in his church?  Baptism & Eucharist  Which ruler of japan finally brought peace to the country?  Tokugawa leyasu What two institutions were central to the foundations of the  Ottoman Empire? Janissary & Preben dal system  What was the closing of japan? A policy of self-imposed isolation in Japan Which of the following was one of the accomplishments of Abbas  the Great in the Safavid Empire? Completely reformed &  restructured his military Which Italian city is considered the birthplace of the renaissance?  Florence Which Islamic empire did the office of the grand vizier play a  central role? Ottoman Empire What led to the decline of Tokugawa Japan? A poor economy Which of the following was not an accomplishment of Suleiman the magnificent? He expanded the Ottoman Empire to its largest size  For which two publications is Desiderius Erasmus most well known? More accurate translation of New Testament & the Praise  of Folly Humanism: Cultural & educational program based on the study of  the classics & the inherent dignity of mankindSecularism: Focus on the material world around people rather than on the eternal world of spirits  For Martin, what was the source at all authority in the church? God Which of the following did not oppose reason that Chinese  technology slowed during Mind period? The end of overseas trade Main policy central to Akbar’s success as ruler of Mughal Empire?  Reconciliation & cooperation Sheng he? Imperial Eunuch in charge of voyages into Indian Ocean Chinese maritime missions to Indian Ocean ended in 1433?  Emperor stopped them because of their expenses  Which Chinese emperor founded maritime voyages in Indian  Ocean? Yongle  Islamic emperor did office of grand vizier central role? Ottoman  In what African kingdom did the Portuguese succeed at converting  the people to Christianity? Kongo How was the response to the Portuguese different in West Africa &  East Africa? West willing entered and east tried to distance  themselves What was NOT a religious colony founded by the English?  Pennsylvania  Quiz 3 Who was Atahualpa? The rule of Incas Which Islamic empire lasted into the 20th century and is known as  “sick man of Europe”? The Ottoman Empire Which European explorer was the first to sail around the world?  Ferdinand Magellian What policy of peter the great was central to his rule?  Westernization Who was responsible for organizing the 1st expectations by the  Portuguese to the coast of Africa? Prince Henry the navigator How was the time of trouble finally brought to an end in Russia in  1613? The Russian nobles selected the Romanov Dynasty rule  Russia  The trade of what Spanish-controlled good was the first truly  global market? Gold ---- What region of Asia did the Chinese Ging Dynasty NOT conquer?  JapanWhich European power created two viceroyalties in the new world? Spain Which statement best describes the Portuguese involvement in  the Indian Ocean trade system? Portuguese used their advanced  ships & weapons to begin conquering areas and forcing the people into unfair trade agreements 1st successful English colony in North America? Jamestown What was he chief motivation for Frenchman who came to the new world? Profit through the fur trade Which statement best describes the Qing ruler emperor Xangxi?  Successful military leader and putting down rebellions, and  conquering territory Two foods came from Europe to Americas during Colombian  exchange? Olives & Oranges ---- What policy of Aurangzeb helped bring about the end of the  Mughal Empire? The persecution of non-Muslims Hennan Cortes? Spanish conquistador responsible for the conquest of Aztecs Before European arrival in the Americas what was the largest  beast of burden in America? Llama ---- Why did the Aztecs not try to stop the Spaniards as they advanced on Tenochtitlan? They did not understand the nature of the threat What was the Martha confederacy? A Hindu nationalistic  movement Which European country was first to engage in exploration into the Atlanta? Portugal  Why was a daughter valued less in Chinese society than a son? A  daughter would join her husband’s family when married, but the  son would stay a care for his elderly parents What was the main reason for the decline of the Ottoman Empire?  The end of the expansion for the empire  Quiz 4 REVIEWS Quiz 5 Quinine revolutionized medicine because: it meant British officials  could live in tropical areas Why were European identities unclear in the 19th century?  Language boundaries & political; borders were not the sameCapitalism expressed by Adam smith: argued that consumption  was an important part of a healthy economy Nationalism traced its origins to: liberal political revolutions The germ theory of disease replaced the idea that sickness was  caused by: Bad air Why was the idea of German nationalism so radical in the 19th century? Germanic kingdoms were so numerous and because  loyalty was not given to an imagined entity like a state, but to a  flesh-and-blood person, a king In the early years, factory work was characterized by? Long hours,  no breaks, and no food Capitalism was supported by the same people in lower classes  because: promised to make merchants and owners wealthier The ideas behind industrialization include all except: mercantilism Critiques of industrialization include: the machines took their jobs The contributions of Bessemer, Siemens-martin and Carnegie to  the creation of steel demonstrate: the multi-national nature of  industrial development Owens town of new lanmark: was focused on making more  efficient workers  The critiques of industrialization from the woolen spinning  example included all except: working in the factory exposed  women and girls to dangers The telegraph: facilitated communications over long distances How did the development of nationalism change notions of  political superiority in the 19 century? Beyond being just better  than their neighbors, countries saw themselves as more civilized  or evolved than their neighbors  First stage of industrialization: growth of textile production and the use of coal  Steel made farming: easier --- Telegraphs line could be laid: overland and undersea What is industrialization: machines and mechanization replaced  human labor  Industrialization in chemicals, steel usage, petroleum and  communication Unit 6 Unlike Galton who relied on head-size to determine intelligence,  Billet based his arguments about intelligence on: social class Imperialism was motivated by all except: The ideal that all humans were equal & entitled to self-government Nationalism helped intellectuals reinforce feelings of: difference &  superiority  Egyptian nationalism demonstrates how it was both: constructive  and destructive 19th century imperialism differed from 16th & 17th cent because:  more European government established direct colonies throughout the world & bc they tried to institute some aspects of  enlightenment & scientific revolution thought How did ideas of imperial/state superiority change in the 19th century? It enhanced European governments sense of authority The Indian mutiny resulted in: the British government taking over  the British East India company, controlled areas The superiority exhibited by the Qing emperor and the 19th cent  European imperialists differed into hat: The Qing adopted  European enlightenment philosophies early on and thus felt  superior Oman is an exception to the other examples of imperialism  presented in this chapter because: it became an imperial power  itself Imperial motivations in the 19th cent differed from earlier centuries in that: they industrialized the areas they colonies & empowered  those economies to compete with the home governments in  Europe ----  The quotation from Qing emperor in D2L content shows the  European ideas of superiority differed from Qing ideas in that: The  qing did not think it possible or likely that they could educate  people to bring the inferiors up to their level John greens definition of nation-state requires linguistic connection According to Ruskin, England must do what? Seize colonies  Racism changed in the 19th century because: intellectuals rejected  entirely on the basis all men were equal OR it was eradicated  Russia great reforms included: the abolition of serfdom Russia industrialized regions: by making them specialize in the  manufacturing or extraction of goodsThe trans-Siberian railway was important to Russia because: it  proved the success of the Russian industrialization program  Us industrialization aided: its expansion  The Monroe doctrine: eliminated all European interest in the  Caribbean OR asserted US ability to protect Latin American  countries independence  Although US supported Cuban independence they did not support:  Filipino independence  McKinley’s attitude towards the Philippines demonstrates that the  US decision to take the Philippines: resulted in the US freeing the  Philippines from all imperial influences  European power grew: quickly at the turn of the 20th century  (1882-1914) Why did Japanese coup reinstate the emperor? To undermine the  army  Biological determinism suggested that: social & moral attitudes  were linked genetically & inherited  The Meiji government did all of the following except: lose colonies Nationalism & imperialism are linked BC: these identities require  others to identify against  The scramble for Africa changed Africa BC: European counties  scrambled to take colonies The French motivation for gaining colonies resulted from: their  desire to quell unrest in France Opium wars were to: force china to open to trade with western  Europe & America ---  African is occasionally called the “Dark continent” by the late 19th cent European imperialist, what did this mean? Africans believed  themselves to be uncivilized & so called their continent dark to  reflect their own ignorance OR Europeans did not know what was  in the center & called it dark to express their ignorance--- Ottoman reforms failed because: no one initially supported them South African is a weird colony in terms of the 19th cent  imperialism bc the British took the colony: from both the Dutch &  the indigenous inhabitants  In the Belgian Congo, Belgian rule was characterized by: desire to  civilize & educate the population in modern agriculture techniquesThe congress of Berlin in 1885 divided African by: geographic  markers The Chinese opium war affected japan in what way? It made the  tokugawa government realize that foreign gov’t could destabilize  their own  This map illustrates: the British East India Co. did not control all of  India  The Meiji restoration is a period when all except: the shoguns,  modernized the country, happened  Arndt’s poem & German nationalism more broadly expressed the  revolutionary idea that: affinity forking was less important than  affinity for your fellow Germans  Quiz 7 What was the immediate cause of the US involvement into WW1?  The Germans bombing of the Lusitania in which killed many  Americans  Some scholars have argued that the great depression provided an  opportunity to reexamine communism & socialism as viable  alternate economic systems: true or false  Once the Us decided to enter WW11, the 1st enemy country that  was invaded by American troops was Japans? True false  Match the following countries to their appropriate alliance  systems: central powers – Germany, Austrian-hungry, Ottoman  Empire The Schlieffen plan basically required that: Germany should  overpower France quickly enough before Russia could enter the  war Which terrorist event in 1914 sparked WW1? The assassination of  the heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, Franz Ferdinand  The iron curtain: described the division of Europe into the  communist east & the capitalist West Which of the following resulted from Japans attack on Pearl  Harbor? The wars in Asia & Europe merged into a single global war Which of these statements is true of fascism in Germany but not in Italy? Its members claimed racial superiority & made a policy of  persecuting minorities The government established in Germany immediately after WW1  was known as: Weimar Republic  Which of the following measures brought Germany out of the  Great Depression? The Nazi government investment in  infrastructure & rearmament  How did Hitler become chancellor of Germany? By lawful election:  His Nazi party won the largest number of delegates to the German parliament & he was invited to a form of government  Which of the following was a penalty from the treaty of Versailles?  Germans were held responsible for causing the war under the war  guilt clause What role did disease play in the Great war? Diseases like  influenza killed more people than the war itself  The treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Russia lost control of some of its  territories to communist  Woodrow Wilson fourteen points included….this multinational body was known as: League of Nations Which of the following was a reason for the failure of the League of Nations? The U.S. refused to join the league, weakening it before it even started The Great Depression was: A crash in the U.S stock market, which  affected many counties across the globe What were the goals of the Dawes & Young plan? Provide American loans to Germans to help pay their debts & reparations The American economy in the period after WW1 experienced?  Continued production of goods, which were in demand in war,  ravaged Europe  What was the New Deal? A collection of reforms intended to  restart economic growth in the depression-era U.S Which statement best describes the U.S. role in WW1? The U.S  entered the war late, but played an important role in the defeat of  Germany  In the Berlin Blockade of 1948-1949 the: Germans blocked all land  access to Western Berlin  The U.S invested $12 billion in Europe’s recovery in a plan named:  George Marshal PlanWhich of the following statements best describes the  establishment of communist rule in China & Vietnam? It was  decades long & violent struggle  In which of these countries did the CIA orchestrate coups to  remove democratically elected governments? Guatemala & Iran During the cold war, the first country to send a man into space  was? Russia  Unit 8 quiz The nineteenth century was known as the century of the collapse  of empires: FALSE  Which of the following factors was not an influence on the collapse of European empires in Asian & Africa? Women in Europe wanted  their countries to abandon the empire  How did the allied defeat of Nazi Germany discredit the idea of  “Empire”? The defeat of German Imperialist ideal to conquer &  control Europe meant European could not longer justify their own  imperialism Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, known as DACA was  created to: grant work authorization & other benefits to those who  were brought to the U.S. as minors  China was not carved up the way Africa had been in the Berlin  conference of 1884 primarily because: the open door policy was  intended to keep China available to all foreign powers How did China regain its independence? The defeat of Japan in  1945 This Asian country had been influenced by & borrowed from the  Chinese civilization for many centuries but ended up as a major  colonial power over china in the 1930’s and 1940’s? None of the  above, its Japan Which event precipitated the collapse of the Ottoman Empire &  the division of its territories among the British & the French? World War 1  The Sykes-Picot agreement of 1916: divides up the Ottoman  Empire “nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious  rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine” this  statement was made in reference to: Balfour DeclarationWhich of the following was land that was not captured by the state of Israel in the war of 1967? West Jerusalem  The “Land-for-Peace” deal employed in Israeli-Arab postwar  negotiations implied that: Arab states must recognize the  sovereignty of Palestine Babus was a derogatory term used by the British colonial officers  to describe Indian people as uncivilized Muslim League: Fought for a unified & inclusive India to gain  independence from the British  What is the country whose name translates into English: Land of  the Pure? Pakistan The civil war of Pakistan in 1971 resulted in which of the following: Kashmir ceased to be a Pakistan province.  Why is the conflict in Kashmir a complex matter that cannot be  easily resolved? Kashmir is predominantly Muslim but controlled  by a Hindu dominated India  Match the following to appropriate colonial powers: Cameroon,  Egypt, Palestine: Belgium  British immigrants to South Africa befriended the Dutch & the two  groups never fought against each other but united to displace the  Zulus: True These people settled in South Africa & adopted the name:  Afrikaners, which means White Africans  In the battle of Isandlwana: The British suffered defeat at the  hands of the Zulu army South Africa was unoccupied country until the Europeans arrived  there? False What does the word “Apartheid” means? The separation of races in South Africa The Black Consciousness Movement in South African advocated for each of these policies except: Return all white people back to  Europe  What role did music play in the anti-apartheid struggle? It  advocated the use of violence as a political tool  What was the South African congress turned to a policy of non violent civil disobedience in 1960’s? Shot unarmed demonstrators  resulting in the Sharpeville MassacreThis event singularly marked the end of the Cold War in 1991:  Collapse of the Soviet Union Why did the U.S. open diplomatic relations with communist China  in 1972? The tension among the Communist countries after the  death of Stalin made new approach possible In what ways did the world leaders correct the problems from the  Great Depression after WW11? Among other things, US stopped  fighting unnecessary wars  Perestroika & Glasnost were two programs by which Soviet leader? Mikhail Gorbachev  Where did the conference meet, that in 1944 established rules for  postwar globalization, including the creation of the World Bank &  the International Monetary Fund? Bretton woods, New Hampshire  The IMF & World Bank imposed the rules of globalization on poor  countries trying to borrow money: True  The first democratically elected president of South Africa was:  Nelson Mandela  Fundamentalism was first used in the US to describe which group  of people? Christians who rejected Darwinism & believed the bible  was the proper authority  Al Qaeda and the US were formerly allies in Afghanistan before  they became enemies on Sep. 11, 2001 Why did Osama Bin Laden and the other leaders of Al-Qaeda  declare war against the US? The presence of American soldiers in  Saudi Arabia after the Gulf War Religious fundamentalism is not found in which of the following  faiths? None of the above  The Herero & namaqua genocide was committed by: Germans in  the African nation now known as Namibia  The Rwanda conflict was based on the two dominant ethnic groups known as: Hutus & Tutsis  Why did some Turkish commit genocide against Christians?  Because the Armenians were Christian  What evidence do we have that human activities are affecting the  environment? The changes in the environment to meet the  demands of an ever increasing populationDeveloped countries set some standards to minimize their effects  on the environment by reducing greenhouse emissions on the:  Kyoto Protocol Some developing countries objected their inclusions in the  agreement to reduce human carbon footprints at the conference  in: Warsaw Zwarte Piet Is now considered racist by some and as tradition by  other sin which country? Netherlands  What are some of the lessons form two world wars of the 20th century? Some countries in Africa & Asia regained their  independence
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