POSC107 Introduction to International Relations
Exam III Review Sheet
Exam questions are based on CLASS LECTURES, the TEXT and the READER. You should study all three of these sources to do well on the exam. The list provided below is a general indication of the important concepts, ideas, and theories we have covered thus far in class. It is not exhaustive – things that are not included on this review sheet can appear on the exam.
Main Ideas and Concepts
Mercantilism: The focus is on national interest therefore key economic actor is State (government). Looks at economy as zerosum game meaning one states gain is other’s loss. A state must protect the national interest through economic policy. It says politics before Economics Don't forget about the age old question of What is the sociological perspective?
Liberalism: The key economic actor are firms (corporations) and consumers. It is an international political economy theory. It includes free market exchange (state shouldn’t interfere) : efficiency, productivity and morally desirable. It looks at the Economy as an positive sum game
We also discuss several other topics like How tributary-based societies differ from kinship-based societies?
Marxism: The key actors are classes within and among states and multinational corporations It says that Capitalism is inherently exploitive. Vladimir Lenin argued that capitalism is the root cause of Imperialism
Bretton Woods Institutions (GATT/IBRD/IMF):
o Purpose of each:
IMF: Stabilize currency values, lend poor countries to economic
stabilization, lend middle income and developed countries to stem tide of financial crisis. Each country’s IMF quota determines how much it
contributes, how many votes it has and how much it can borrow
World Bank: International Bank for reconstruction and development
GATT: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, a multilateral agreement regulating international trade.
Don't forget about the age old question of What is used to synthesize heroin?
World Trade Organization: The organization has 162 member – states. It administers world trade agreements, provide forum for negotiations and handles trade disputes, monitors national trade policy, provides cooperation with other international organizations.
WTO is accused of widening gap between rich and poor countries. Poor countries don’t have as much resource and power to exert its influence.
Criticisms of globalization: The rules favor developed nations, material values are held over other values, the sovereignty of developing countries are impeded and US has too much of an influence in terms of economy and culture.
World System Theory
o Interaction between core/periphery/semiperiphery
UN MDGs: United Nation’s Millennium Development Goal
o Overall goal: It is focused on things like reducing child mortality rate, eradicating poverty/extreme hunger, promotion of environmental sustainability, combat of disease like HIV and improve of maternal health. If you want to learn more check out How do you find the mean with an even amount of numbers?
o Examples: UN Sustainable Development Goals If you want to learn more check out What gets paired with a neutral stimulus during conditioning?
o Differences between Global North & South
Global North countries are countries on the North countries primarily on part of the Northern Hemisphere. It is home to 4 of 5 p5 countries except for China. It is known for its democracy abundant of resource, food shelter and education. Global South countries are on the Southern Hemisphere exception apply to Australia, they are the exporter of raw materials to Global North Only 5% of its population has access to food, shelter and other resources although 75% of world’s population live here. We also discuss several other topics like Which account appears on the income statement column of the worksheet?
o Strategies for development (and criticisms)
∙ Strategies/focus: The focus is on the economy, and trades modeled by tell and transfer. The developing countries tell what to do first
then give money. Loans to governments and structural adjustment
programs, free trade agreements, open market and privatization
∙ Criticisms: Too much debt for developing countries to bear. Are
the gains of global economy distributed evenly ? Global south
Dependency Theory: Developed by Latin America economist. It is critique of Modernization Theory says its dependency is rooted in imperialism, exploitation and global economics structure that does not allow for
development of global south.
∙ Strategies/focus: The focus is on the national economics and
interferes, selfreliance and break of dependence on the global
north. The strategies is to restructure the international economic
organizations so that everyone has equal vote, and that everyone
has a fair shot.
∙ NIEO: (New International Economic Order) At UN Conference on Trade and Development Group of less developed states called for
economic reforms to restructure the Bretton woods institutions,
make trade more favorable to everyone , stabilization of
commodity pricing and more financial aid
Developmental State: Models used by East Asian to achieve economic growth. The states play an important role in guiding economic
development and using the resources of the country to meet the needs of
∙ Strategies/focus: strong states led economy with emphasize in
export led growth example China
PostWashington Consensus: Developing nations has insight in human security and human development. Income/Health and Education are needs and means of development
∙ Strategies/focus: Human development things like Health,
o Endogenous development working closely with developing
o Debt relief
o Propor policies
o World bank shifting focus toward human development
measures and strategies.
Other Ideas and Concepts you should understand
Microcredit: lending of small amounts of money at low interest to new business in the developing world. Instead of lending to states, this time it lends to individuals
Protectionism: Restriction of free trades, tariffs. The restrictions are primarily because of workers right, jobs and regulations
UNDP Human Development Index: Measure of human development launched by UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) It looks at factor such as
o Health: Long healthy life, environmental sustainability, health participation in community
o Education: How knowledgeable are the citizens?
o Income: Decent standard of living which would be $1 a day as set by the UN standard 3
Kyoto Protocol: intentional treaty adopted by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change that commits state to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. U.S. signed but never ratified
Tragedy of the commons: economic theory that says unrestricted access to a resource will inevitably lead to its ruin because individuals act on selfinterest and behave contrary to the common good of all users thereby depleting the common resource. With this tragedy we could see challenge in cooperation, free rider problem Example in today’s context would be the Climate Change, and states don’t act toward it because they do not want to get left behind.
Paris Accord: Landmark global cooperation to stop manmade climate change. This was signed by both China and USA two main culprit of greenhouse gas emissions. It commits to stop global rise in temperature
Trail Smelter/polluter pays principle
Earth Summit: It sought to raise profile of environmental issues, the UN held conference on development issues that are contributing to the destruction of natural resource and pollute the planet. This summit sought to find alternative source of energy
Monetary vs. fiscal policy
Sustainable development: The Brundtland Commission is responsible for concept of sustainable development, it first attempted to address environmental concerns of developed countries and development concerns of poorer countries. The main idea is to find a solution to development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
Polarity and stability: The idea that there needs to be a hegemon to balance the power among the states. This polarity strength of state from economic, military and education balances the anarchic international system
Conditionality: The use of conditions attached to the provision of benefits such as loan, debt and other kinds of aid given to a state by developed state.
Neocolonialism: the use of economical power to exert influence on other countries Fixed vs. floating exchange rates: Fixed exchange rate is a firm monetary authority in foreign currency, Whereas floating exchange rate is fluctuation and unbalanced currency value.
Supraterritoriality: social, economic cultural and political connections that transcend beyond territorial geography. The borders don’t have the same measuring they once did, economic activity is dependent on transborder transactions
Link between climate change and infectious disease: As temperature is increasing so does the risk of infectious disease. Nearly 500,000 deaths annually from Malaria it is considered one of the most prevalent infectious disease on earth. The cases of other diseases are growing
in areas that aren’t even seen problem before Example Zika Virus (Increase in climate has allowed more favorable environment for mosquitos to live)