Psych 10 Midterm Study guide
Psych 10 Midterm Study guide 10
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nishant Sehgal on Tuesday May 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 10 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Wong in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 107 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psych in Psychlogy at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 05/05/15
Pysch Study guide gtUUl 39 l I sign tracking pigeon and blue groumis fear conditioning little albert eye blinking bunny tastes aversion the rats and LiCl sign tracking is only applicable if the animal already responded to that like light or sound This is why the pigeon naturally will associate the light and the food rather than the sound Appetitive Excitatory conditioning positive consequence EX pigeon who gets food for pecking bue gromis gets a female when light comes on to more baby sh being produced This suggests that classical condition allowed the sh to anticipate mating and so it was able to prepare it self more than the sh that were just thrown into the tank and then a female appeared Aversive Excititory Conditions learning from negative experiences EX Fear little albert saw rat and heard noise lead to just seeing rat and having fear and then it was generalized for all furling moving animals Toxins when rats where given food with toxin they were less likely to eat it again Preexposure causes latent learning learning that doesn t become apparent until its useful taste adversion Stimulus Salience animals will preform a certain way depending on there environment Ex in a classroom will generally be quiet but more likely to yell at a sports game Motivation Process or variables that arise sustain and direct behavior towards a speci c goal reward process that energizes and maintains goal directed behavior motives the need and desire that the goal directed behavior tries to achieve Humans belief action goal Biopsychology of motivation effort to sustain homeostasis EX temp regulation eating body weight regulation drinking behavior seep sex breathing peepooping aversion to pain peasure seeking Perspectives on motivation instincts and evolution drives and incentives optimum level of arousal humanistic approach Maslow Instinct theory McDougall patterns of behavior are inherited and are triggered by speci c stimuli Species specific nesting and migration Fixed action patterns behavioral sequences happen the same way each time Ex Spider webs and facial expressions such as smiling and frowning Evolutionary theory motives are evolved mechanisms that have developed over time because they increase the survival of a species Ex Affiliation motive that human and animals seek others for comfort and safety Evolutionist think this has evolved for animal survival that s why there are wolf pack and other groups packs of animals Drive reduction theory Hull organisms learn to engage in behaviors that will reduce the effects of drives homeostasis a state of equilibrium Need A physiological de ciency that disrupts the homeostatic state of an individual It creates a state of disequilibrium Foodwater Drive a motivational state produced by a need A condition of arrosual or tension resulting from the activation of a need that motivates behavior to reduce that need tension Need Food Drive Hunger Drive Reducing behavior eating Incentive theory external objects or event motivates behavior The value of the incentive determines the degree of motivation has to deal with external stimuli known as a quotPullquot Ex Hungry To go to the dining hall or the vending machine It is more of an incentive to go to the dining hall toget a nice hot meal than it is to get a bag of chips from the vending machine Ex people in the work place will do better work if there is a big salary incentive but if there is no outlook to move up in a job then the people wont perform as well If motivations action are up to the animals how do we insure they are adavae the animal next action must take into account is it something that I need Optimum Level of arousal behavior is motivational by the need to sustain an optimum level of arousal arousua level of alertness activation and wakefulness Arousal and Performance High i i l cu 7 39 E Opt 39 quot1839 E motional E disturbance s overly aroused l nicreasiing E alertness o 13 Q E 3 Sleep E Disorganiizationi Frenzy Panic Low 7 7 W Low High Arousal invertedU function If we are above our optimum level then we try to distress and like wise if we are bored we try to entertain ourselves Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs Motivational forces in humans are distinct from those of other animals We have a need for hierarchy and de ciency needs need to be met before we can nd safety love belong esteem and self actualization Selfactualization needs Need to live up to one s fullest and unique potential Esteem needs Need for selfesteem achievement competence and independence need for recognition and respect from others Belongingness and love needs Need to love and be loved to belong and be accepted need to avoid loneliness and alienation Safety needs Need to feel that the world is organized and predictable heed to feel safe secure and stable Physiological needs Need to satisfy hunger and thirst Hunger one drive reduction is the stomach pangs so we feel hungry so we eat to reduce the pain and restore homeostasis However the stomach is not the only factore in hunger there is also Gucose eves Lipids Amino Acids The regulating of all of this systems comes from a higher order which is the hypothalamus hich release hormones to stimulate the break down storage of glucose Iipds and amino acids Also the pancease which recreates insulin from beta cells reducies the glucose in the blood stream which stimulates hunger and continues the cycle However if there is a defect in any of these systems your body will try to compensate however it can only do some much The hypothalamus Lateral controls and stimulates the rease of eating hormones if damaged causes anorexia Medial Control over eat makes you stop eating if damaged causes obesity Body weight set point some believe that your body has a set point in which it is at optimal weight and when you fall below that your body stimulates you to eat more and when you are above that it causes you to be less hungry It is thought with obese people that their set point is changed Instrumental Learning Operant Conditioning Goal directed in the control of the person animal not the experimenter TO adapt an animal needs both operant classical conditioning Cassica you get ques from the environment that help you maintain receive the important biological needs such as foodsex Operant you operate on the environment and do goal directed behavior in order to get something relevant Difference between operant and Classical conditioning Classical bioogicaly relevant autonomic response Controled by the environment experimenter strengthened by biologically revelence Operant desire based in the control of the animal strengthened if it is positive experience or by the get rid of something negative Operant conditioning type of learing where the behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by a punishment Learning is based on the consequences of ones behavior Terms Shaping process by which successive approximation of a desired behavior are reinforced Ex if you want a rat to lever press then you reward it for walking close to lever then for touching it then for pressing Ex if you are teaching your kid to hit a baseball you start of really close then progressively get further away Discriminative stimulus a stimulus that indicates how outcomes will be determined via an action Ex only get a treat if you bar press three times or if you press the right color bar Primary Reinforcer an immediately reinforcing stimulus such as food or water that strati es a biological need Secondary Conditioned Reinforcer a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforce Ex money tokens and praise Discrete trial process aow the presentation of discrete problems or choices to an animal Ex Thorndike s cat boxes which made the cat have to gure out how to get in a box n order to either be free or get the food waiting outside When you gure it out you do it repeatly to get the desired outcome Free Opera nt Procedure aow for the modeling of speci c foraging or economic situations and allow measurement of the rate of performance in these situation xed ratio Ex when given a resource such as food and then you deplete it Then it takes time for it to replenish its self then the experimenter wants to see if the animal learn that pattern orjust keeps bar pressing To see if this is happening an experimenter does interval schedule or ratio schedule 3 bar presses food Variable ratio The amount of bar presses it takes to get food changes every time Continuous reinforcement Bar press food Also interval or time based ones Continuous cause for the learning to also be fast etc Positive reinforcement Lever press food practice really hard get more playing time Negative reinforcement Mom Nags over and over again about trash take it out to stop the nagging The seat belt alarm beeps really obnoxiousy put seat belt on to get rid of noise Positive punishment Go 40 miles over the sped limit get a parking ticket draw all over the wals get a spanking Negative Punishment Drive Drunk get my license taken away Act like a brat mom takes my Barbie s away Thorndike s Law of Effect severa response for one action the one that results in a positive out come will be reinforced Ex you try opening a box with every thing in the kitchen and then nal open it with a knife then the next time you are more likely to use a knife Ex or putting money in a vending machine will result in you doing it more often if there is positive out come from it SR Reponse this is the idea that there is no cognitive thinking when you repond to something like you see a vending machine put money in something comes out so you are more likely to do It next time Rats in a maze Are said to make a cognitive map That is that they remember the maze in there mind Then latent learning is experienced when there is food placed at the end Latent learning the appearance of non association and then when prompted the animal shows learning
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