Final Study Guide
Final Study Guide GEO3120
Popular in World Regional Geography
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amaris Mae on Tuesday May 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEO3120 at George Washington University taught by Dymond in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 212 views. For similar materials see World Regional Geography in Geography at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 05/05/15
World Regional Geography Exam Ill Study Guide Africa Physical Geography Land mass is the second largest To Asia Just under a quarter of the worlds land area Northern area is dominated by the Sahara Geography is diverse Climate Right through the middle is the equatorial zone Moisture is available all year round Heart of the tropics Northern area is where the rainy seasons start get shorter Steppe D desert D Sahara and other desert Biomes large scale ecosystems D parallel the different climates on the climate map Desert on south western Namib Desert D very cold water off the coast so the air is cold and cannot cool off more to create precipitation Congo is second longest river in Africa 2718 miles long Not navigable even though it has the second greatest volume of water in the world Amazon has the greatest Tons of rapids and breaks not uniform depth Broken up by too many rapids Opposite of Europe Most of the rivers there are navigable and don39t rapidly change relief Niger Third longest river in Africa 2600 miles Large ships can travel about 250 miles in to Lakota Lot of local and regional transport Major river delta one of the signi cant oil and gas regions in the continent Lots of con ict From resources as well Freshwater for human livestock and agriculture Nile River 4160 miles longs Orange River Flows east to west through South Africa and becomes the border of South Africa and Namibia before emptying in the Atlantic Zambezi Very broken up by rapids Not a transport river Tourism Tons of national parks One of the best white water rapids destinations in the world Okavango River Flows into the Kalahari Desert Inland delta in a desert and then evaporates During the rainier seasons there is a good volume of desert Unique amount of biodiversity Joe39s favorite 1200 miles originates north in Eastern Angola and ows south African plate Arabian Peninsula and Africa Drifting apart A rift divides into two arcs in the eastern African plate and causes a deep valley in the region Both the Blue and White lie originate in this plate in this rift Great Rift Valley 3000 miles long From Syria to Mozambique Below sea level where the Dead Sea is Well above sea level in eastern Africa Some areas are at 6000 ft Active volcanoes very nutrient rich soil Conditions for agriculture in this area are extremely good Tanzania Slightly larger than California 508 million People North of the country is primary national parks Arusha economics and politics UN is located in this area Dar Salem Moshi Big tourism locations in order to climb Kilimanjaro Must get government approval and have to get a local guide in order to climb the mountain In order to get the locals involved and then you must employ the locals In order to get the locals involved and then you must employ the locals in order to climb Must do this over the course of 67 days Not technically dif cult to climb Every climate zone as you climb up the mountain In the tropics very equatorial Typical warm coastal tropic zone As you go west you have higher and higher elevation Tropical temperate regime modi es with elevation Savannah steppe climate Rift valley dominates the western half so there is active Kilimanjaro Tourism and water Produces its own climate zone otherwise it would be a dry part of Tanzania Species unique to this are due to unique set up Coal iron tin tanzanite oil Extremely prominent season rains amp create its own Climate enhances seasonal rains amp create its own rainweather Dry season Jan and b And juneoctober Rainiest season MarchMay Secondary rainy season Nov and Dec Masai tribe Circumcision at the age of 14 or so Rite of passage Masai live in hut like thatched structures Multiple structures on a property Often multiple family subunits within the family From multiple wives Traditional form of dress is a red garment National Parks Big money makers Mostly in the north Lived in Crater Angora Gorro Within the crater you have different climate zones Ethiopia Oldest independent country in Africa One of the world39s oldest countries Not truly colonized Italy tried Not as great of an in uence Signi cant Christian communities Government is run by Christian Leading culture groups are Christian Amhara Conservative Signi cant Muslim communities Very conservative Borders Somalia Refugee Porous volatile border Border Eritrea Eritrean war of independence 1998 to 2000 Both countries spent hundreds of millions on the war Although both poor Northeast and east are very dry West is very green Agriculture is alive Capital is Addis Abba Physical Origin of the Blue Nile So precipitation is available In the highlands you have precipitation run off Seasonal Lakes Lake Tana Bahir Dar City on the lake By Blue Nile Falls Resort city Lake Tana is the source of the Blue Nile White Nile comes from Lake Victoria Blue Nile and White Nile converge in Khartoum Tropic rain climate west At least summer rain Great Rift Valley comes right up in the Djibouti area Population is in the West Only 17 urban 959 million Live in Ethiopia Larger than Egypt the DRC or South Africa Nigeria has the largest population at 177 million Ethnicity Ormo 345 Amhara 269 Somali 62 Language Oromo of cial working language in the State of Oromiya Amharic of cial national language Somali of cial working language of the State of Sumale Jewish concentrations in northern Ethiopia Religion Ethiopian Orthodox 435 Muslim 339 Protestant 189 Rastifarism begins in Ethiopia Finds a second holy land in Ethiopia Believed in Jamaica Awra Amba Settlement Based on equality No religion Se ousrenegades Female male equality Experiment in a town Agriculture Coffee Oil sees Sugarcane Vegetables Grainscereals Countries are buying Ethiopian land Agrolmperialism Countries that are wealthy but without resources are cultivating the land in Ethiopia Saudi Arabia is a major developer of agriculture in Ethiopia Population is growing in Saudi Arabia And has to import its food Needs more agricultureland D Ethiopia IDPS Floriculture Energy Hydroelectric Forestry Manufacturing and Textiles Retail Financial Services Tourism Attempting to promote this Want to Australia New Zealand Antarctica thsical Geooraphv Australia Very dry in the outback Desert in central Australia And central west Steppe climate to the east Tasmania is more temperate oceanic temperate climate All the people live peripherally on the coast Ports Best living conditions with climate Huge empty interior spaces the further north you go south of the equator the warmer you get the further south you go south of the equator the colder it gets Technically there is no true tropical rain forest in Australia Yet there are forests Very similar to rain forests But not quotrain forestsquot because they are elevated Mountain rainforests OROGRAPHIC LIFT Storms are only on the coast Not much whether within New Zealand Further south More elevated Cooler climate Oceanic temperate climate And oceanic boreal climate in south island Antarctica Permafrost in the tundra Permafrost frozen ground for 2 years It39s a lot like Australia in the fact it is a desert Just a frozen desert Very little precipitation Australia is in the middle of the Indian plate Moving north towards the Philippines plate the Eurasian plate and the paci c plate Australia does not have earthquakes or volcanic activity Antarctica is also situated in the middle of the Antarctic plate Far from the periphery Not much geologic activity New Zealand on the other hand has a plate boundary coming right through it Most people live in North Island The alpine fault Somewhat transform boundary in the middle of New Zealand Active volcanoes Frequent earthquakes Although it is a more developed country it has had some signi cant losses in the recent years Earthquakes in 2010 and 2011 71 In 2010 Canterbury 63 In 2011 Christchurch Natural Resources Australia Iron ore and many other metallic ores Coal Farm products wheat and beef East Asian markets South and south east Also a growing wined industry Exported to East Asia Europe and North America MOST EXPORTS GO TO EAST ASIA Darling River On the western slope of the Great Dividing Range mountain range The longest river 1702 miles long Flows from east to west And then south Joins the Murray River And ows out just east of Adelaide as the Murray River Huge irrigated agriculture zone because little precipitation where the verruns River is being overused Population Irrigated agriculture 5 Taking more water from the system than nature is putting in Drought prone area This part of Australia is getting less rain over time the tropics northern edge are getting more rain over time New Zealand Love the outdoors and want to exploit their natural resources wisely Timber Waterhydro power Wool lamb deer and dairy products Sheep outnumber people 12 to 1 Sols39 largest deer farming country No agricultural subsidies Ended in mid 19805 OECD reports that NZ is least agricultural subsidies industrializes country in the world NZ farmers don39t want subsidies Antarctica Oil and natural gas we think Under the continental shelf Marine life sh resources in surrounding oceans Coal and minerals interior NO ONE is exploiting this Actually Russia and the US decline any claim to Antarctica Historical Geography Aborigines 50000 years ago Brits were the rst who wanted to incorporate Australia James Cook Marginalized and degraded the aborigines quotWhitequot only policies 18005 19605 British did not integrate Australia into SEA or regional market systems James Cook claimed Australia in the late 17005 British penal colonies The early inhabitants were a farming economy Australia is a Common Wealth country Independence in Jan 1901 But still a common wealth Queen is the quotHead of Statequot Last time the Queen intervened in Australia was the 19705 Begrudgingly did so was encouraged to by Australians Maori New Zealand Indigenous Brits began farming settlements after 1840 Similar structure to Australia regarding sovereignty Was not integrated into regional trade Been a better road for them than the Aborigine in Australia Antarctica Late 18005 and early 19005 Euro and Russian exploration First to reach the South Pole was General Amundsen in 1911 Establishment of research stations and early international territorial claims 1961 Antarctic Treaty First 6 signed Now 52 countries signed Anarchic Treaty System is the defector governing body of Antarctica Under this system no individual country39s sovereignty is recognized Under this system you are forbidden to exploit resources For research only Population Austria 235 million And increasing Everyone is along the coast 89 urban Now Zealand 43 million And decreasing Most on North Island 86 urban Contemporary Issus Australia Resource exportation and trade Greatest trade pattern are with china and Japan West Paci c Concern that economic imperialism is going on here Some of the resource extraction has become so powerful that Austria is acquiescing to foreign trade Environmental organizations are unhappy Aborigines are quite dissatis ed 0 It occurs on what they consider is quottheir landquot Immigration mono to multicultural It has been diversifying Population has changed pretty dramatically in the last 25 years East Asia South East Asia quotNot as European as it used to bequot Can Australia has restrictive immigrating but still hold on to trade Many European Australians wanted to restrict immigration And not allow in refugees from South East Asia Laws about prejudice in the last 10 years But still want better integration Or full integration Great Barrier Reef Huge resource as far as tourism The largest continuous reef in the world Climate change is affecting the reef How to mitigate the impact Fresh Water Critical The biggest river system is the Darling And it is being overused It is polluted Frightening climate change patterns with rainfall New Zealand Emigration issue Educated youth are leaving Or who want to be educated Getting educated in Australia Or moving their postgraduation to be in the excitement of Australia Natural Resources Incredibly outdoors minded populations Want to nd sustainable ways to use their resources Development How to develop a diverse economy Want to have an economy that attracts smart youth to stay Tourism You can pretty much do anything in New Zealand quotOutdoor adventure capital of the worldquot However it is quite far Cities yachting rolling hills mountains bungee jumping TV and motion picture production Lord of the Rings And the Hobbit too PeterJackson built a lm industry there The Americas thsical Geooraphv Canada and US Mountains in the West of US and Canada Much higher that Appalachians Appalachians are older Paci c Rim Geology Very active Even some volcanic activity in northern Mexico Yellowstone is the one are that is still extremely active Not on the plate boundary We do not have large faults on the east coast but we do have intrapate earthquakes off of smaller faults Latin America and South America Amazon Basin covers the largest area Two massive plates North America plate and Paci c plate Colliding with each other on the West Coast Where they collide is where the Paci c Ring of Fire occurs Plates are not moving perfectly into each other Coco39s Plate and Caribbean Plate Migrating West to East Coco39s is moving faster D fastest moving plate in the world Nazca plate is being sub ducted under the South America plate m Big Island is still growing Volcanically active Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa two major mountains volcanoes on Hawaii Kilauea is the most active volcano in all of the Hawaii Used to be thought to be part of Mauna loan but is now thought to be its own separate entity Farther south new Farther north older Trade winds blow east to west North east sides get hammered and on the side there are the wettest areas Rainbow capital of the world because there is always rain clouds and sun Western part of North America is in the Eastern Rim Extremely geologically active Volcanoes to frequent earthquakes Volcanic lsland Lava very sharp Practically dried glass Lava glows at night Boiling lava in little pockets Mexico City 1985 Very signi cant earthquake Most signi cant of recent record Very soft soil Which liquefy during an earthquake Buildings sink and crash into one another 0 Lots of people missing The West Coast of South America The West Coast of North America through Central America is very geologically active earthquake prone San Francisco OaHand 1989 71 earthquake Double layer high way top collapse on the lower passage Also affected the marina Weather Canada and Alaska Boreal and tundra climates in the north Canada High latitude Very long season of frost And freezing temperatures Very short limited growing system Alaska Tundra At the very north of Canada On the coast Towards Greenland Permafrost No agriculture Ground is permanently frozen Oceanic Boreal on the West coast of the north US Contented Temperate climate dominates The eastern half of the US or Eastern 23 gets moisture From the Gulf of Mexico Any moisture coming from the Paci c has to get over the Rocky Mountain ranges Less likely in the east For a storm to be powerful in the east it has to draw from the Gulf of Mexico In the east we owe the moisture from the gulf of Mexico Eastern 23 is more humid Western 13 is much drier Differences in climate based on elevation and where you are in relation not the mountain ranges South West is the driest area Our true desert South Western Coast is a Mediterranean climate Gets rain in the winter months Northern Mexico Like South Western US Very dry Southern Mexico Moisture available throughout most of the year More tropical climate Heavier rain fall the further south you go South America Tropical Rainforest In the middle of Brazil To southern Venezuela Most of FrenchGuyana Much of Colombia Eastern Peru Amazon Basin Seasonal Rain Rainy season dry season Lower Brazil Heavy rainfall across the Amazon basin Gentle uplift as it moves west Up towards the Andes Mountains BUT on the other side of the Andes Mountains is dry desert RAIN SHADOW Brazilian Highlands Coastal side is heavy rain Rain shadow effect Temperate latitudes higher altitudes Wind is coming from the west Moistures is coming from the Paci c From Central Chile on to the bottom is very rain y Then when it is lifted over the Andes towards Argentina it dries Wind and Rain move east to West in the northern South America Wind and Rain move west to East in the southern half of South America Hawaii The further northwest you go the older the island Most of the islands are very mountains Trade winds Move from east to west North sat face slopes endure high rainfall But rain shadow in extreme on the other side Can drive an hour between tropical and desert Rivers on the North and East side Water Amazon 4000 miles long The Nile the longest is 4160 Some would argue that the tributary actually makes the amazon the longest river in the world 1 in the world in terms of watershed 1 in the world in number of tributaries The largest ocean going vessels can go to Manaus Slightly smaller vessels can get to Iquitos Peru 2300 miles inland Amazon is navigable my ocean going vessels more than any other river in the world Water in the Amazon comes largely from the circulation pattern Water from the Atlantic Uplifted and raining Mouth of the Amazon on the east coast Orinoco In northern South America Key River in Venezuela Starts in the Highlands On the ColombiaVenezuela bored r Feeds into a delta in the Atlantic Ocean 1590 miles long Navigable for ocean going vessels 260 miles inland To Ciudad Bolivar Ciudad Bolivar and Caudal Guyana are the top industrial cities Drains in to Colombia And Venezuela Mississippi Most signi cant river in North America 2340 miles long Longest river in North America Largest drainage system in North America Greatest volume of water in North America Upper and Lower Upper originates in northern Minnesota Flows south joined by a larger tribute in Missouri Flow south where it joins with the Ohio That all ows to New Orleans delta The Missouri is the more signi cant tributary Would have made the Miscopy upwards of 3000 miles long Misnamed 230 miles of navigable water from the Gulf of Mexico To Baton Rouge Huey Long built a bridge So that would have to be the largest inland port So now other ships cannot travel further Colorado River 1450 miles long Originates in the Rocky Mountains in Western Colorado Flows throughborders 7 southwestern states Ultimately into Mexico Signed a law to allow some water to Mexico Haven t exactly honored that agreement We use it for the arid southwest Hoover Dam On Lake Mead Tropical Rain Forests VegSoilsWater Extremely important to our health Up to 90 of the area39s nutrition is held in the plants not in the soil It39s the opposite in temperate forests like in central Canada or the US Rapid decomposition and the nutrients are processed by the soil and healthy plants very quickly Majority of the water is held in the plants not in the soil 34 or more of the moisture can be held in the vegetation Biodiversity Some of the highest biodiversity ora and fauna and species Highly localized Ex 2030 acre area Change over short space Medicine Healthcare and pharmaceuticals Generate billions in annual revenue globally Carbon Sink Area that naturally absorbs carbon Pulls carbon out of the lower atmosphere Exoceans Ex vegetation As we are increasing the amount of carbon we are decreasing the vegetation Too dif cult for the vegetation to try to take carbon out of the atmosphere Gets rid of the carbon reduction mechanism Evapotranspiration In the intense heat in this biome it causes moisture to evaporate off of the vegetation Goes up into the lower atmosphere Cools off Quickly condenses and rains Rainforests create a lot of their own rain Sweden Slash and burn Soils don39t have a lot of nutrients in them So indigenous communities cut down areas of forests and burned it Because that ash is nutrient rich The rain would come And the ash would enrich the soil You could produce agriculture for a few year Fallow resting period After some time you would use up all the ash nutrients Need a resting time of 58 years Finding variation in what grows back over time However Brazil has been turning fallow areas into ranges So not growing back Commercial Agriculture and Development The largest threat to the Amazon Brazil suffered phenomenal debts from the 705 to the 805 Trying to create a diverse economy Developing their resources Using their natural resources for their economy and own good Panama Canal Port of Colon To Panama City Atlantic Ocean to Paci c Ocean quotGeography is Destinyquot Narrow isthmus 30100 miles wide Geology Major plates around All interact with one another r The smaller plates in between the big plates to not react or feel as much Transform boundary is exactly where the nail is The fault line caused the valley to form Globalization Colonial to present Panama was part of Colombia Then America wanted to quothelpquot And casually build a canal on the side Narrowest place between the massive signi cant ocean basins Crossroad between north and South America Does not get a lot of hurricanes Human Geography Country population 39 million mid 2014 Panama City gt800000 metro area Metro area 13 of population Colon gt50000 75 urban 50 live in belt along call from Colon to Panama City People Creation of canal stems from migration from Jamaica Barbados and other Caribbean locations Southern Europe Asia Canal administration and contemporary business development Migration streams US Cmombm Europe Taiwan rst investors Middle Earth Composition Mestizo ND Mulatto 70 African Heritage 14 European Heritage 10 Indigenous 6 Progressive rights for indigenous people they have a lot of pore over their localized destinies GeographicSpatial Dichotomy Canal Zone urbanservice oriented economy Higher literacy Low infant mortality Higher wages Outside of Canal Zone Rural Agrarian Lower socialdemographic indicators Much less connected and integrates Those connected to Puerto Rico is much better than those in the East Agriculture Coffee palm oil rice bananas sugar 25 of population is agitation 10 economic production Many subsistence they only grow enough to survive West of Canal Zone Upland coffee Coastal palm oil and rice East of Canal Zone Da en Extremely dense vegetation PanAmerican Highway does not pass Drugs go through the Darien This wants meant to be a barrier buffer zone to keep things like drugs out Business and Fair Trade Panama City Banking and nance Decades of US investment and in uent Canal related admin and services Water Telecommunication Big business one of the biggest shopping centers in the world Free press Relatively Administration generally changes hands Tourism growth very signi cant potential source of foreign revenue Real estate investment Lots of retires Great healthcare Cheaper homes Security and stability Maritime services Largest merchant marine register in the world quotFlags of conveniencequot Lower regulation and lower taxes Shipping rms from other countries prefer to register as quotPanamanianquot Low fees Less regulation n Access to maritime services Colon Free Trade Zone Taiwanese investors Northern Caribbean city of Colon 2nCI largest free trade zone in the world after Hong Kong gt1600 business generated gt 11 billion in sales annually gt14000 jobs Continues to expand to add facilities and services Center for bold purchasing if you won jeweler store you come here to buy 500 atheist at a time Clothing furniture watchesjeweler school supplies toy and bicycles lndependence1903 Grand Colombia other countries broke away and it was just Colombia and Panama until US eloped to break it away Canal Completion 1914 CanalZone Administered by the US 19041979 A country in a country not until singed a treat y and AOS until we pulled out form the zone Roughly 5 miles on either side of the canal Zone quotgovernorquot appointed by US army Ranking water in panama and Canal Zone is better than the US 19791999 small canal are under US control Panama Canal Treaties Carter and Tories 1977 Gradual quotturnoverquot of control Completed 12311999 US military was completely withdrawn from Panama Stipulation on the Carter and Tories treaty if we think the canal is threatened we can ace it over 1989 US military action to take our Panamanian leader Canal Water moves from higher to lower Rains a lot in the mountains and either travel to Caribbean or paci c Lake Gatun Created when the canal was constructed Chagres Rives created by heavy rain in the mountains Important River in the rainforest Created a lake in the middle of the rainforest Took existing river valleys and concoct them Free trade zone in the Caribbean port area Gatun locks Atlantic Ocean by the ColonCaribbean side Pedro Miguel locks directly after Gatun Lake Mira Flores Locks Paci c Ocean 86 feet above sea level The highest a ship is lifted Average travel time is 812 hours Panamax vessels Largest size ship that can t through the locks Postpanamax too large Expansion Demand was too high 86 done Original allowed two ships to go at once Expansion was going to be paid for by tolls transit fees Building new wide channels for postpanamax ships New gutan locks One new lock distance of two old locks NOTHING IS BEING REPLACES Existing locks are still in use 2010 average transit fee of 75000 Or 104000 Canal employs gt10000 people Climate Change Not expected to change the water amount in the canal Because it comes from rain However climate change will open up the market By opening up the artic routes However open tract is very seasonal As Vegas Nevada 7580 of Nevada is US government territory Sp ngs Green patches some irrigation Located in the Mojavi dessert Key Mountain on all sides Westnorthwest Spring Mountains Highest peak mount Charleston 11918 feet Snow on mountain tops Every 510 years a little snow can make it to the valley oor 45 inches of rain fall In the winter only No storm drains So they get ash oods very easily 110 of how much rainfall DC gets 105 degrees in summer Dry heat 5050 degrees in winter History Natives As the US moved westward we create key routes to the West Coast through this area Railroad in 1905 Freemont explorer 19305 Became a place for easy divorce Started tourism Also when we built the hoover dam Dammed up the Colorado River To the east of Las Vegas Created Lake Mead 19405 Gambling Run by organized crime Mobs Howard Hughes reversed the organized crime trend 1952 City is built around one intersection Route 52 And then Fremont Street which is not for Las Vegas gambling The strip is not in the downtown area still not In Clark County Nevada People 2470000 people The majority of the Nevada population is in Clark County Otherwise by Reno But majority of the state is not populated The 2013 estimate for the city of Las Vegas 6 3488 people 62 white 11 Black 7 indigenous 61 quotAsianquot 315 Hispanic Biggest source are of migrants is California Biggest supplier of people into Las Vegas Las Vegas was the fastest growing metropolitan area for 15 years Growth halted in the 0708 recession Las Vegas realestate bubble was larger than anyone39s Business Don39t want you to leave Even though kids can39t gamble they can walk through with their parents Malls attached Biggest hotels here In 2014 more than 20 million tourists visited the area MASSIVE RESOURCE STRAIN Draining water from Lake Mead Industry Tourism Government Neis airbase Manufacturing in the metropolitan area Water Reservoirs For capturing water for people Colorado River Dam and Hoover Dam Colorado River comes from the Colorado Mountains Lake Mead Greatest strain is metropolitan Las Vegas 2011 it was at half the full levels it should have Water is receding leaving a huge Iine deposits In places 3050 feet high
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