Final Study Guide
Final Study Guide ANTH 1002
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by firstname.lastname@example.org Notetaker on Tuesday May 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 1002 at George Washington University taught by Sarah Wagner in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 409 views. For similar materials see Social Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 05/05/15
Review Session FINAL Sacred vs profane O O O O 0 Things are not inheritably sacred or profane I It has to do with space context culture Profane means something that is not sacred I Opening a bottle of wine in the classroom There has to be a right instituted right to turn profane things into sacred things I Clothing can be sacred or profane There is a place belief and space Mary Douglas Dirt is matter out of place I Rituals make dirt into part of the scene I Dirt is anything that contaminates the scene anything that should not be there I You can either transform it in or remove it all together I Depending on the object and place objects can go from dirty to nondirty To things that are in place I What is in and out of place is culturally defined Depends in people s believes Malinowski Magic and religion Magic related to a system of beliefs that explain things that are not really explainable magic is more individual Instead of being part of the community rituals It is a systematizes belief and has an organized idea of what those systems are Magic is individual and religion is collective I If it is collective it is a religion Religion provides ideas of cosmology understanding where do people come from I Magic was sacred and science was profane because science is everyday things Science always try to explain the everyday mundane things religion object is the sacred science object is profane Religion doesn t care about science how to turn objects into something sacred Science is not a belief system is just pure facts profane It is empirical it is structured but a lot of people can prove it there is a point where you have to start believing it Belief system is what defines things as sacred rituals that is how you turn a house into a church being blessed it becomes sacred space Note El nahira was Shia faith Boggle threshold 0 That threshold is culturally defined by you culture and your own identification and anything that is not there will boggle you You become strange whatever was familiar to you becomes strange the leave above which the mind boggles when faced with some new fact or report or ideaquot9 definition What is faith What makes it real we all have these boggle lines Praying in an ancient language you don t understand is fine praying in tongues not a human language but thought to be a spiritual one anathema A god who has a human son whom he allows to be killed is natural a god with eight arms and a lusty sexual appetite is weirdquot Tanya Lurhmann IDP displaced person but does not cross any order because of difference in civil rights even though they were not forcedly displaced there was a cultural implication for displacement prejudiced One day in the life of Drenken O O Tells the story of a young man that joined the Serbian army to make some money to sustain his family Is forced to kill millions of innocent Muslims Felt like a machinequot He knew what he was doing was wrong and he took no pleasure in it he was never going to forget that dayquot the coffee was too sweet for him to tastequot 9 connects to matter out of place the coffee that is cultural and characteristically of the region was no longer tasteful for him signifies a change in reality He never felt more alone Coffee after cleansing O 0 After Bosnia and Herzengovina in the absence of national reconciliation peaceful coexistence in local everyday life was brought about by silencing sensitive political and moral questions related to warquot the minority return was forced to establish coexistence social relations that did not necessarily mean reconciliation but more of a peaceful coexistence Tito slogan of brotherhood and unityquot Communities were forced to reach a compromise to enable them to live together International interventionists have a distorted view about the peace building strategy after the ethnical cleansing and reestablishing stability political integrity economic aid Reconciliation 9 process that society moves from divided past to shared futuresquot Thick reconciliation empathy dialogue truth and justicequot Ethnic enclaves minority returns to isolated urban areas or in socially divided urban spacequot9 ethnoterritorial segregation Return has not yet resulted in reintegrationquot 0 old relationships were also affected after the con ict it is difficult to renew relations 0 it was necessary to maintain peaceful relations in a shared space 0 Banja Luka was controlled by Bosnian Serbs extremely dangerous to be a Muslim or a Croat during the period ofwar 0 After the con ict the main reason that led people to return was their previous relationship with the people in the area and the family ties sense of belonging associated with the area 0 Republica Srpska was their national homeland of the Bosnians but it was no longer true in the political sense 0 Shared economic interests led to peaceful interethnic socializing negative peace hides the unresolved structural con icts between the groups which hinders social stability It is too superficial I Bosnian rented out their homes to displaced Serbs hamal and other examples in the real estate market I Coffee visit to each other homes is example of peaceful coexistence o Bosnians felt culturally outsiders Serbs were marginalized because of poverty social problems and rural traditions 0 Topics such as politics are avoided in social gatherings otherwise it would lead to con ict Thus this means that because there is always the possibility to an outbreak in con ict the instability of the region remains and reconciliation is far from being accomplished o the wounds are never healedquot 0 Questions if there is a possibility of revenge Since the wounds are not being even discussed Resentment can lead to further con icts 0 Since most people belong to the older generation will this resentment die out together with them Or will the hatred be passed to later generations The Guest Sheik o Abayah the long black cloak worn traditionally by Iraqi women I Page 6 Since we were guests of the sheik he added it would make everything easier ifI wore the abayahquot I Purdah an Indian term generally meaning the seclusion of women in separate quarters Relationship between them the Abayah is a visual representation of the purdah The abayah is the portable version of purdah the manifestation of the purdah It can be enacted in manifestations when women have to leave the seclusion of their home 0 How does her orientation and sensibility shift with time Across the canal form the tribal settlement of the mubrick houses lay the village itself more mudbrick houses shops a small covered bazaar and a mosque distinguished by only a small mosaic There is no god but Allah nad Mohammed is his Porphetquot p49 0 How are systems of belief and social order tied to space How do beliefs systems shape understanding of social organization belongings I Abayah is worn by the women when they are outside yet when they are in between themselves in the Sheik s wives house they are very comfortable in showing their dominance as a housewife Islam world background information Conservative community within the minority Shia Muslisms make up some 1015 of the world s Muslim population 16 billion numbering fewer than 200 million Shias account for about 90 of Iranians some 70 of the people living in the Persian Gulf region and approximately 50 of those in the area from Lebanon to Pakistan Some 140 million people in total Approximately 95 of the Iraqi population total 35 million is Muslim 51 Shia and 42 Sunni Around 62 of the World s Muslims live in Asia with over 683 million followers Indonesia hosts the largest Muslim country by population home to 15 of the world s Muslims The hadith word and deeds of the prophet Muhammad exemplify how both reverent emulation and contention attach to the tradition in Islamic discourses A number of traditions hold that just before the prophet died he asked the community to hold fast onto two things the book of god and the family of the prophet Other traditions maintain that the two things were the book of god and the prophetic examples sunna as found in the hadithquot The different implications of these two sets of traditions constitute a long running argument between Sunnis and Shia in Islam since the seventh centuryquot Guests of the Sheik Caliph chief Muslim active and religious leader regarded as the successor of Muhammad While Meca is considered the holiest city in the Islamic faith and the destination of the hajj the annual pilgrimage a religious duty to be carried out at least once in their lifetime by every able bodied Muslim who can afford to do so Karbala is the hole sire of pilgrimage for the shia Muslims because its significance where Hussein and his army were slaughtered The 10th day of the Islamic month of the Muharram Ashura is the day of the mourning marking the martyrdom of Hussein at the battle of Karbala Caliphate the politicalreligious state comprising the Muslim community and the lands and peoples under its dominion in the centuries following the death of the Prophet Muhammad Fernea writes p 194 o It was during the Muharram in the 17th century that Hussein grandson of the prophet Mohammed and the imam or religious leader at that time went to Kufa city in Iraq with one of the earliest mosques in Islam to press his claim to the caliphate and was slain in battle on the plains of Karbala 0 Each year during Muharram the pious Shiite communities in Iraq and Iran and in India commemorate Imam Hussein s martyrdom through daily krayas religious readings and through mourning processions and passion plays which dramatize each important occasion in the last days of the martyrquot Taaziya mourning ceremony including a procession of young men who ritually agellate themselves during the Shiite commemoration of Ashur the tenth of Muharram the day when Hussein and Ali were slain 0 According to Durkheim what are the two basic categories that religious phenomena fall into I Representations of religion Falls within beliefs sacred and profane o What are some of those patterns and traditions I She will never truly feel the consequences of her arm being tarnished An excursion into the countryquot Douglas matter out of placequot 0 an excursion into the countryquot 0 The chapter begins harmlessly enough I p 257 Strange as it seems to me now I realized as we got out of the car and breathed deeply the country air how long it had been since I had had the chance to walk aimlessly for pleasure It was not the sort of thing that ladies in El Nahra did they were busy most of the day and in their leisure hours they hardly felt the need of more exercise Even in they had they were expected to stay indoors with their families and not wander about in public viewquot p257 0 What happened on the excursion I How did different people of El Nahra react I Recall Mary Douglas words to help analyze the incidentquot Danger lies in transitional states simply because transition is neither one state nor the next it is indefinable The person who must pass from one to another is himself in danger and emanates danger to othersquot p 119 Back to Baghdad recalling EvansPritchard on ethnographic research A final scene from back to badhdadquot Bob and Beeja join the sheik as his guests at a nightclub in Baghdad What happened there and what conclusions does Fernea draw How does Guests of the Sheik represent ethnography as both a research method and form of writing Being an observer plenty of times she is not a participant She is also a participant observers when her first puts her Abaya she is participating in a right becomes the participant observer Traces of ethnocentrism 0 Cannot entirely scape your culture How is this a different kind of ethnography she examines very closely how do people observe her life the bottom of ethnography There is a consideration of her own positionality as her own researcher 0 At the same time there is an attempt to understand the culture and putting it forward what is it
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