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NOTE USE THIS STUDY GUIDE BUT DEFINITELY GO OVER YOUR NOTES AND THE READINGS YOURSELF There39s a lot of information in the notes that isn t covered by this guide THIS IS JUST THE IDENTIFICATION ITEMS 1 Manifest Destiny a Phrase coined at height of American expansion in 18405 to explain that expansion i Manifest obvious ii Destiny bound to happen b Most Americans felt no need to justify only explain it c Several rationales i Sense of Mission 1 After American revolution many Americans believed the Americas had inherited the best English traditions the tradition of liberty which had been lost in England 2 So many believed that Americans had a special role to play preserving and extending liberty a sense of mission a quotThe last hopes of mankind rest with usquot 3 Americans believed that the US had to be a strong nation in order to extend liberty had to get larger get bigger 4 Expansion was part of America s mission part of God39s plan for the United States 5 Many early leaders were strong expansionists a Washington b Jefferson Louisiana Purchase the quotempire for Hbe yquot 6 Expansionism would provide more land for everybody Canada for the Northerners Florida for the Southerners Mexico for the Westerners quotsomething for everybodyquot 7 Mission had grown to include quota great continental empirequot one that would strengthen the nation by providing for its security spread the nation39s free institutions to other people 8 Supporters of expansionism the US had a right maybe even an obligation to spread liberty to others by means of territorial expansionism if necessary ii quotwhite man39s burdenquot 1 Idea that the United States had a duty to quotcivilizequot the people who surrounded obviously miserable primitive people a quotUnited States must be a haven for the oppressed annex Texas and make it an asylum for the oppressedquot 2 Uplift their neighbors even if the effort was not appreciated 3 Closely associated with sense of mission iii Lebensraum 1 Space required for growth 2 Americans thought expansion was essential that there would be enough land to take care of the natural growth of the nation a quotgo to the west and see a young man with his maid of eighteen and after a lapse of thirty years go to them again and instead of two you will nd twenty two this is what I call American multiplicationquot b Basically the country s population was destined to grow larger and larger so that there would be a need to guarantee new lands for generations 3 Louisiana Purchase seemed no longer enough iv There was assumption that the American expansion was not just causing or willing expansion was being caused by certain outside forces historical forces geographical forces cultural forces beyond human control v Manifest Destiny vi Geographical predestination 1 Persuasive explanation for expansion seemed to lie in quotobvious geographical factsquot 2 Seemed destined by geography to control America from quotsea ot shining seaquot 3 And parts of the southern continent as well 4 John Quincy Adams a quotThat from the time we became an independent people it was as much a law of nature that north America was ours as Mississippi should ow into the seaquot b Summed up many Americans39 way of thinking 5 A natural right to populate and control the new world geographical destiny d Here39s the point Americans thought nature and geography was on America s side i List of rationales endless organism theory expanding the natural boundaries etc e Man who coined phrase Manifest Destiny John L O39Sullivan i Envisioned a quotglorious futurequot but central to that future was further expansion ii For him served a special purpose expansion to central America would give an outlet to slaves should abolition ever take place 1 quotThe SpanishIndian American Population of Mexico south America and central America provide the only receptacle capable of absorbing that black race whenever we shall be prepared to slough it off necessary to remove it from the midst of our ownquot 2 The Mexican War a Context Annexation of Texas i A complicated issue mainly because Texas seemed more likely to be suitable for slave labor ii Nobody thought slave labor would be introduced into the Oregon territory but most thought or feared that slavery would be introduced into Texas iii Because of the strong opposition of northern senators to the admission of Texas Polk and his democratic supporters were not able to win senate approval for a treaty of annexation iv So instead of a treaty Polk and the Democrats brought Texas into the Union by means of a joint resolution both houses of Congress 1 Unlike a treaty a joint resolution requires only a majority approval in the house and the senate 2 Democrats had enough votes in the house and the senate to approve it v First time a joint resolution had ever been used to acquire new territory and provided no space for the approval of Mexico made Texas a state immediately rather than a territory Mexico was so furious with the USA it broke diplomatic relations and increased its army to ght the US to stop this annexation i But it happened anyway So Polk quotrequotannexed Texas but acquiring the other parts of northern Mexico turned out to be harder to acquire New Mexico and California preferred peaceful methods if possible via diplomacy and money 1 But ready to resort to war if necessary ii At this time Mexico was torn by internal strife thought by many to be an quoteasyquot opponent even Polk thought this but he tried money and diplomacy rst 1 Both failed 2 So concluded that the manifest destiny of US might only be achieved by war iii Chose his war carefully not with Britain over Oregon but over Texas with a quotweakquot Mexican government iv Sent troops into disputed area between US and Mexico roughly between Corpus Christi and Rio Grande 1 Ordered to move south of CC to the Rio Grande in 1846 Polk like the Texans believed this was US territory and US troops had a right to be there 2 But Mexico did not consider it to be US territory believed they de nitely did not have the right to do so 3 Considered the troops in this area to be an act of aggression 4 Polk looking for trouble but the Mexicans refused to react for nearly 4 months a Late April troops crossed Rio Grande and a skirmish broke out between the forces just north of the River b 11 Americans dead 5 wounded 50 captured 5 In Washington Polk had decided to ask Congress to declare war on Mexico without even hearing about this battle on the grounds that Mexico was not honoring its nancial obligations insulting the US by not dealing with the man Polk had sent to Mexico City When news arrived hastily modi ed message and presented to congress a quotThe cup forbearance had been exhausted even before the news but now Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States and shed American blood on American soilquot v Congress approved the war Whigs were less in favor but felt they had no choice but to support the president patriotism queonned c Contrast 1 New Mexico territory seized Zach Taylor began moving troops into Mexico 2 quotmanifest destiny gone to warquot Curry 3 War went so well Americans began to consider annexing all ofMeXico a quotWe believe that it is part of our destiny to civilize that beautiful country and enable its inhabitants to enjoy many of the blessings that we enjoyquot b Even Polk began to think it was a good idea State official sent to Mexico City to negotiate settlement short of war disregarded this idea a Early February 1848 negotiated a successful treaty with Mexico and settling most of the outstanding disputes b Treaty of GuadalupeHidalgo discussed later i Between Mexican War and 1812 ii 1812 no new territory Mexican War new territory combined with Texas 12 million square miles 1 40 larger than Louisiana Purchase d Most Americans regarded it as great American victory considered that the US had quotrealized its manifest destinyquot i But not everybody as war continued and casualties and costs rose opposition intensi ed ii Many mostly Whigs called it quotMr Polk39s Warquot Some defended it as a quotjust warquot but most Whigs attacked it as an expansionist quotdrive for territorial spoilsquot accused president of initiating war in violation of the Constitution Abraham Lincoln privately expressed fears over power of the president to lead country into war 1 Letter to law partner quotAllow the President to invade a neighboring nation whenever he shall deem it necessary to rebel an invasion and you allow him to do so whenever he may choose to say he deems it necessary for such purpose and you allow him to make war at pleasurequot 2 If you give the President the power to invade other countries if he thinks it is necessary he may use this as an excuse to invade v Also demanded that the President nd the quotexact spotquot that American blood had been spilled the quotSpot Resolutionquot 1 For his quotlack of patriotismquot lost much voter support vi Also opposed by many Northern abolitionists 1 Most saw the war as an effort to extend slavery strengthen proslavery South 2 More territory more states more states more slave states 3 Thoreau strongly opposed the war went to jail for refusing to pay taxes a Did not want his taxes going to an quotunjust warquot vii However opponents were in a distinct minority viii Although the new territory was part of manifest destiny also drew attention to the question of slavery 3 Treaty of GuadalupeHidalgo a By the terms i Secured Rio Grande as Texas border ii Obtained New Mexico and California iii Agreed to pay Mexico 15 million 4 Antislavery argument a The moral problem of slavery is the center of any explanation of the American Civil War i After 1830 became a morally divisive issue as it had not been before ii Why 1830 1 quotGood societyquot debates 2 Debates about slavery and the future of slavery in the United States 3 One side of the debate argued by those against slavery a America was God39s promised land with one exception slavery D But that wasn t ok So slavery had to end c And some even pushed for black integration into American society not just freedom but full social integration 5 Abolitionists a As early as colonial America some colonists questioned morality of slavery i the Quakers especially noticeable in this b Not until revolution did antislavery movement gain signi cant number of supporters a number of people in the revolutionary generation saw that slavery was incompatible with principles of freedom liberty etc i Cannot believe in inalienable rights while depriving slaves of theirs c So by the end of the Revolution slavery no longer existed in the north d But slavery in the south They did take some limited steps to end slavery 1 2 3 Outlawed slave trade passed laws making it easier for slaveowners to free their slaves Most southern leaders at the time of Revolution believed slavery would disappear on its own in the south Example northwest ordinance 1787 a Banned slavery from Northwest Territory b Supported by both northern and southern representatives e The abolitionist movement had national support both north and south By 1826 80 of the antislavery societies were in the southern states Most popular society American Colonization Society 1816 f 1 2 Chapters in every state but South Carolina Committed to two main goals a Gradual emancipation b Colonization i Freed slaves would not live in the US but sent off to live in colonies elsewhere usually Africa ii This was not a new idea Jefferson proposed quotreturningquot American slaves to Africa Good example of antislavery racists believed that blacks could not go on living with whites in America even after they were free In 1820 sent a shipload of 88 blacks to Africa a Where they almost immediately died 1822 Liberia was established to receive future freedmen Two things working against them a Seemed more interested in colonization than emancipation more interested in getting rid of freedmen than ending slavery More troubled by the blacks who were not slaves than the blacks who were slaves b Mathematically clear to most people even if the society was committed to ending slavery the solution was not possible i Revolutionary generation thought slavery was dying because it was not economically pro table ii But in 1793 the cotton gin was invented iii So using slave labor to grow cotton became economically pro table iv Increased demand for southern cotton caused cotton value to increase dramatically so plantation owners grew more cotton acquired more land and more slaves Increased demand for slaves produced increased price v So the increasing number and value of slaves in the south meant the ACS could not deal with these conditions Could not keep up vi Emancipated fewer blacks per year than were born in that year vii So while many Americans continued to support the ACS goals it was clear to most others by the early 1830s that gradual emancipation was not working ii So in the 1830s abolition came onto the scene 1 Sources a Church Clearly stimulated by the religious revivalism of the time encouraged a general reform movement across the nation Many abolitionists had associations with evangelical Protestantism many had practice in reform in other reform movements especially the temperance movement i Charles Grandison Finney great revival preachers urged them to quotaim at being useful in the highest degree possiblequot ii Started off working for temperance then public school education and then abolition b Abolition in Great Britain no slavery in England but there were many slaves in parts of the British Empire Parliament passed laws that abolished slavery throughout the British Empire and inspired Americans to oppose slavery borrowed arguments even brought over speakers to argue against slavery c Well the ACS wasn39t working Gradual emancipation and colonization No hope of succeeding Encouraged abolitionists to nd another way g Beginning of the abolitionist movement properly i Boston Liberator First issueJanuary 1 1831 dedicated entirely to abolition 1 Edited by William Lloyd Garrison a Became most famous if not most effective abolitionist in America b Wrote the preface to Fredrick Douglass39 book the one we read 2 The rst edition Garrison explained that the Liberator favored immediate emancipation of all slaves Promised to use the paper to agitate aggressively for quotthe immediate emancipation of our slave populationquot 3 Most subscribers free blacks living in northern cities 4 August 1 1831 a Nat Turner s revolt b Terri ed the South c Of cial explanation Nat Turner revolt was caused by quotoutside agitatorsquot Not that slaves were angry quotUndoubtedly designed and matured by unrestrained fanatics in some of the neighboring statesquot d Garrison blamed Backlash against Garrison and the Liberator made it famous i Note It had had no circulation in the south no evidence that Turner had ever seen a copy or ever heard of Garrison But hey remember perception versus reality ii Distinguishing characteristics of abolitionists 1 Called for an immediate emancipation of all slaves a Some confusion not all abolitionists meant the same thing b A few abolitionists like Garrison used immediate literally free slaves at once c Others meant to begin doing it immediately continue emancipation until all slaves were set free i quotImmediate emancipation gradually accomplishedquot 2 Focused on slavery entirely as a moral problem a Not as a social institution or economic institution b Angelina Grimk prominent feminist white female abolitionist run out of South Carolina for her attitude i To southern white women quotI appeal to you my friends as mothers are you willing to enslave your children You start back with horror and indignation at such a question But why if slavery is not wrong to those upon whom it is imposedquot ii A radical thought that blacks were human beings Wow So radical c James G Birney i Owned an Alabama plantation but freed all his slaves ii quotSlavery is a sin before Godquot iii quotIndividually or as political communities men have no more right to enact Slavery than they have to enact murder or blasphemy or incest or adulteryquot d In light of the revivalism movement this moralistic view is unsurprising e Consequences abolitionists concerned only with slavery as a sin made it dif cult to work politically since compromise was sin and not acceptable but politically compromise is sometimes essential i But how can one compromise with evil ii Declaration of National AntiSlavery Conven on1833 1 Slaveowners are quotMANSTEALERSquot 2 Slaves are to be instantly set free before God all laws admitting the right of slavery are null and void 3 quotGreat benevolent and holy causequot 3 Unlike earlier antislavery advocates were not optimistic a Not full of con dence often seemed bitter and frustrated good reason The institution they opposed seemed to get stronger every year despite their agitation against it 4 A diverse group of people but unlike other groups operated entirely outside the South a Earlier movement had been national in scope some southerners and former slaveowners joined the abolitionist movement but they had to leave the South i Slavery became so pro table in the South ii South developed a prosecution complex iii Blamed abolitionists for slave revolts b They gave up hope of working with slaveowners persuading southerners that slavery was wrong Turned to attacks on the South and the Southern slaveowners i Garrison editorial quotsooner trust the honor of the country and the liberties of the people in the hands of the inmates of our penitentiaries and prisons than in Southern hands for safe keeping they are the meanest of thieves and the worst of robbers We do not acknowledge them to be within the pale of Christianity of republicanism or of humanityquot c Namecalling and lack of compromise led to polarization 5 Originally a very few in number A quotprophetic minorityquot a Comprised less than 1 of the total population 6 At rst very unpopular even in the north a 1835 a reliable newspaper noted that most Northern and Westerners considered slavery to be a great moral and national evil and wished it were removed but also believed the national government had no right to interfere with slavery b Slavery was wrong but the government was not allowed to interfere with it C d Most people didn39t like it but didn39t want to hear about it either Said the abolitionists were dividing the country unpatriotic to criticize the government nothing could be done but ignore the situation and hope it would go away Sometimes resulted in violence Garrison mobbed several times i Riots against abolitionists in other cities ii One publisher of antislavery magazine in Illinois had press destroyed three times and then killed Signi cance of the abolitionists 1 Forced Americans to talk about slavery Demanded they do something about it even though most American did not want to hear about it talk about it etc a b Insisted on an immediate end to slavery Some abolitionists even demanded that freed slaves be fully integrated into American society This was a radical idea Upset many white northerners and southerners many whites who despised slavery aso despised blacks 2 A strong reaction from South the proslavery argument a Would this produce an irreconcilable con ict b De nitely caused a great mora gap hard to bridge short of violence 6 quotLet southern oppressors tremble I Will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice Tell a man whose house is on re to give a moderate alarm tell the mother to gradually extricate her babe from the re into which it has fallen I am in earnest I will not equivocate I will not excuse I will not retreat a single inch AND I WILL BE HEARDquot a First editorial in William Lloyd Garrison39s Boston Liberator b Liberator rst newspaper dedicated entirely to abolition ended up being the scapegoat for the South 7 Wendell Phillips a Born November 29 1811 b Lawyer c In 1835 saw a mob dragging Garrison down the street 39 Changed his attitude toward slavery December 8 meeting 1937 Meeting was to protest death of antislavery editor Elijah Lovejoy iv in Illinois Attorney General of Massachusetts condoned mob Phillips defended Lovejoy eloquently This made him immediately popular among abolitionists d Joined garrison Became one of New England39s most wellknown abolitionists ii quotThe true reformer must be prepared to sacri ce everything for his cause he is careless of numbers disregards popularity and deals only with ideas consciences and common sensequot iii Attacked quotproslaveryquot constitution demanded division of the Union if slavery was not immediately abolished e Reaction to the civil war i Criticized Lincoln39s reluctance to free the slaves 1 quotA rstrate secondrate manquot whose quotmilklivered administrationquot fought the war quotwith the purpose of saving slaveryquot ii Welcomed emancipation proclamation iii Opposed Lincoln39s reelection f Garrison attempted to destroy the American antislavery society in 1865 Phillips resisted these attempts i quotfreedom would not be achieved until African Americans possessed the ballot and full civil and social rightsquot ii Remained president of the society until 1870 8 Proslavery argument a The proslavery argument i A good society was an aristocratic one that slavery as it existed in the South was necessary foundation for such a society ii Slavery was a good thing a positive thing etc b Proslavery apologist sources i Aristotle justi ed Greek slavery on the grounds that it recognized the natural inequality of man ii History showed that free blacks could not manage their own affairs shiftless criminally disposed Cited the ruin ofJamaica after the emancipation of those slaves iii The Bible based on a literal interpretation quotsubmit yourself to every ordinance of man for the Lord s sake for so is the will of Godquot quotservants be subject to your masters with all fearquot quotlet all under the yoke of slavery regard your masters as worthy of all honorquot 1 That Blacks were the sons of Ham a mark of inferiority iv quotScientificquot theories one writer said different races were separate species that Blacks were at the lowest scale of human creation permanently inferior 9 quotSlavery is instead of an evil a good a positive goodquot a Quote byjohn C Calhoun b Response to antislavery petitions c Believed that the South should not apologize for slavery but rather be proud that slavery led to a better society for both whites and blacks 10john C Calhoun a Born in South Carolina relatively wealthy family owned twenty or more slaves i Father was a judge who served in the state legislature b Elected to South Carolina legislature in 1808 Elected to US House of Representatives in 1810 Strongly for slavery in 18305 attacked abolitionists an i Demanded publications be excluded from mails petitions not received by Congress ii Demanded that agitation against slavery be stopped in the North e Argued slavery was a necessary condition of democracy i quotThere has never yet existed a wealthy and civilized society in which one portion of the community did not live on the labors of anotherquot ii quotWe regard slavery as the most safe and stable basis for free institutions in the worldquot iii quotIn the present state of civilization where two races of different origin and distinguished by color and other physical differences as well as by intellectual are brought together the relation now existing in the sla vehoding States between the two is instead of an evil a good a positive good quot 11Popular sovereignty a Two main questions after the war39s end i Should slavery be allowed in the new territory Yes no ii And if yes how would it affect sectional power in national politics especially in Congress b Three main positions emerged i The Moderate Position no slavery in the territory acquired from Mexico 1 Wilmot Proviso 1846 2 quotNeither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist in any part of the territory except for crime wherein the party shall then be duly convictedquot 3 Did not represent the abolitionist positions did not emancipate all slaves only abolished slavery in the new territory 4 Widespread support outside the South but did not pass due to the South39s disapproval Never passed in the Senate ii ProSlavery Position slavery allowed in all newlyacquired territories 1 Southerners attempted to do three things a Defend property rights anywhere not just in the new territories b Assert moral position slavery is good if slavery banned suggests that slavery was not a good thing c Preserve power in Congress by adding proslavery Congressmen and Senators III 1 Pushed by Senator Steven A Douglas let people living in the territories decide the issue 2 Attractive for many reasons the national government didn39t have to make a stance the people would decide quotLet the people workquot 3 But based on an assumption that slavery was a local issue but turned out it was a bit bigger than that c Discussed more in KansasNebraska act 12Compromise of 1850 a 1850 i Northerners willing to compromise to save the Union ii Southerners willing to destroy the Union to save slavery 1 Slavery more important than a united country b Congress worked out Compromise of 1850 i Made of separate bills passed by Congress Included four important provisions ii For the North 1 California allowed into Union as a free state no slavery allowed a Calhoun opposed said it would 39destroy the sectional equilibrium and would make the South secede Argued that the North had to amend the Constitution to give the South equal power b Argued for 39a Concurrent Majority position Meant two presidents of the US one for the north one for the south c Basically argued that the minority should be given equal voice with the majority i But not to give the minority a voice to defend slavery 2 Slave trade but not slavery abolished in District of Cdumbm iii For the South 1 Rest of territory acquired from Mexico opened to slavery on popular sovereignty a Except California 2 Most controversial part new Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 Stronger much more strict which amended 1793 law 13Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 a Part of the Compromise of 1850 b Probably the most important part the way it was enforced increased public agitation over slavery i May have produced more antislavery sentiment in the North than the abolitionists had been able to previously ii Why so disruptive 1 Provisions of this law 2 Put all fugitive slave cases under federal jurisdiction 3 Allowed fed commissioners following a hearing to issue warrants for the arrest of fugitive slaves issue certi cates for return of those slaves 4 Allowed commissioners to accept a simple af davit from the owner as proof of ownership 5 Blacks claiming to be free denied the right of trial by jury Testimony not admitted as evidence in any hearing 6 If a commissioner did not grant certi cate of return he received 5 a But if he did grant certi cate he received 10 b So people paid more to return slaves 7 Commissioners could require bystanders to help catch fugitives a Those who refused suffered heavy penalties b Anyone who did not cooperate i Could be ned 1k ii Forced to pay owner for 1k for every slave he did not help catch iii Could be jailed for up to 6 months c Basically made everyone a slavecatcher or a criminal c Those who did not want to cooperate regarded it as a violation of their own civil rights d Resentment growing in the north those who might have been indifferent being dragged into the struggle due to this law e Ralph Waldo Emerson quotthis lthy enactment was made in the 19th century by people who could read and write I will not obey it by Godquot i Others agreed a moral crisis ii And the government could no longer ignore it f Note that this law did not unite the North overnight 10 years til the civil war and the parties still tried to avoid it in order to preserve national unity 14KansasNebraska Act a Background con ict over Nebraska Territory i Spring of 1854 organized Nebraska territory with eventual goal of admitting into the union as a state ii Bill sent to committee in congress chaired by Steven A Douglas Democrat from Illinois iii Champion of popular sovereignty this had been a key point of compromise of 1850 iv Issue of slavery in Nebraska Territory already settled in 1820 which stated that except for Missouri there would be no slavery north of the MasonDixon Line v Nebraska Territory part of the Louisiana Purchase vi Douglas39s solution popular sovereignty again Also a quotcompromiserquot viewed slavery as a practical issue not a moral problem 1 Wanted to run for president so had to keep Southern support 2 Wanted people to move into Nebraska territory for rail line 3 Figured popular sovereignty would not offend the South nor the North b Under the provisions of KansasNebraska act the Nebraska Territory would be divided into two parts Kansas and Nebraska i Then in those parts the settlers would decide the question of slavery ii But what about the Missouri Compromise 1 Douglas incorporated the following language into KN act a quotthe Missouri compromise being inconsistent with the principle of nonintervention by congress is hereby declared voidquot b So essentially repealed the compromise c The act was signed into law by President Pierce but had many negative consequences i Made slavery the central political issue of the day once again 1 quotThe Appeal of the Independent Democratsquot attacked KN act widely reprinted and sent to every clergymen in the north 2 quotWe arraign this bill as a gross violation of the sacred pledge as a critical betrayal of precious rights as part and parcel of an atrocious potwe warn you that the dearest interests of freedom in the Union are in peril We tell you that the union can only be maintained by the recognition of the just claims of freedom by manquot 3 Did not want new immigrants or constituents moving west to compete with saves for job free so for free men 4 In large part responsible for the organization of the Republican Party ii quotBleeding Kansasquot 1 Slavery continuously in public attention because of events in Kansas 2 Both Northern and Southern settlers turned territory into a battleground between proslavery and antisavery group wanted to get the most of its kind of settlers to move in so that popular sovereignty could be turned in their direction 3 Keep the most of the other kind out 4 Real battles between armed men fought widely reported nationally hard to ignore 5 quotBleeding Kansasquot almost a quotdress rehearsalquot for the Civil War 6 Exacerbated sectional tensions iii KN act demonstrated popular sovereignty would not work 1 Had been favored solution of compromisers but in Kansas the resulting turmoil proved it wouldn39t work 2 Issue of slavery too important to be settled by a few settlers 3 Slavery in the territories was a national issue iv Led to the formation of new political party republican party 15Freeport Doctrine a Response to Dred Scott decision b Stephen A Douglas quotSlavery cannot exist a day or an hour anywhere unless it is supported by local police regulationsquot c Basically no matter what the Supreme Court says local laws can prevent or allow slavery Popular sovereignty d Lost the political support of the South Southerners did not want anyone to prohibit slavery anywhere in the territories e Again viewed slavery only as a practical issue could not understand the moral issue of the issue 16Dred Scott vSanford a The case i Scott was a slave in Missouri ii Resided in Illinois free state part of Louisiana Territory where slavery was forbidden for ten years iii Returned to Missouri and sued in Missouri courts for his freedom arguing that his residence in free territory made him a free man iv Case reached the supreme court v Master argued that quotno pureblooded Negro of African descent and the descendant of slaves could be a citizenquot b The majority opinion i Scott was not a citizen of the US or of Missouri and thus not entitled to sue ii What was true was true of all slaves blacks whether slaves or free were not citizens quotBeings of an inferior orderquot with quotno rights that any white man was bound to respectquot iii Went on to say that Missouri Compromise of 1820 was unconstitutional that Congress could not deprive persons of their property without due process of law iv Ruled that Fifth Amendment prevented Congress from passing any law that banned slavery from the territories Only the second time in US history that SC declared a law unconstitutional c ReacUons i Southerners were delighted believed Supreme Court had settled forever the issue of slavery made South even less willing to compromise ii Northerners were outraged even mildly antislavery Northerners quotincensedquot by the language Believed Supreme Court had engaged in a conspiracy with southern slaveowners d Seemed to destroy the idea of popular sovereignty and crush the growing Republican Party many members of the growing party refused to accept the SC decision fell back on quothigher lawquot i Seward promised quotWe shall reorganize the courtquot ii Douglas did not want to offend anybody tried to nd a way to get around this decision 1 Freeport Doctrine quotSlavery cannot exist a day or an hour anywhere unless it is supported by local police regulationsquot 2 Basically no matter what the Supreme Court says local laws can prevent or allow slavery Popular sovereignty 3 Lost the political support of the South Southerners did not want anyone to prohibit slavery anywhere in the territories 4 Again viewed slavery only as a practical issue could not understand the moral issue of the issue e The decision lowered the SC prestige among northerners and widened the gap between sections of the country 17John Brown39s raid at Harpers Ferry a Harpers Ferry i 16th October 1859 ii John Brown white abolitionist led a raid on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry Virginia 1 Brown was 59yearold white man ardent abolitionist 2 Had participated in the Bloody Kansas battles iii 18 followers blacks amp whites set out to seize the arsenal iv Plan hostages negotiate an escape hold the town assumed slaves would rally to the cause and eventually withdraw into the mountains establish a base and eventually lead an army to destroy slavery v At rst seemed ok captured the arsenal took hostages when gun re woke the town news of a quotslave insurrectionquot spread horror of the Nat Turner revolt vi By next Monday the arsenal was under heavy re rst by farmers then by state militia Slave reinforcements never came vii By Tuesday US army reinforced the militia under command of Robert E Lee Marines stormed the arsenal captured or killed the rebel force 1 Two of Brown39s son killed Brown survived 2 Within 6 weeks tried convicted and hanged b Had Brown simply been killed he may have been seen as just a crazy abolitionist i But conducted himself as a gentleman wrote eloquent letters ii In the North became a martyr in the ght against slavery 1 Emerson declared Brown quota new saint who made the gallows gloriousquot iii In the South Brown was a sign of North39s hatred for South 1 Also saw him as quotthe typical abolitionistquot although most were paci sts 2 Sent horror through the south 3 People jumped to the conclusion that the Republican party was responsible that the South could expect more such actions in the future especially if Republican gained any control in the government c Signi cance quotno single event had as much in uence in convincing Southerners that the welfare of the South was not safe in the Unionquot i Convinced the South that it was no longer safe 18Southern Nationalism a Result of quotradicalquot southerners b Regarded secession as a quotpositive goodquot to be accomplished ASAP c Wanted to create a new nation a quotmore perfectquot union believed slavery their quotway of lifequot was no longer safe with a Republican president i quotA house divided against itself cannot standquot Evidence to the Southerners that Lincoln was committed to ending slavery ii The reeaters nationalists not always a majority in the South before 18505 seen as sort of a quotlunatic fringequot Often irrational sometimes paranoid 19Confederate States of America a 7 Southern states seceded from the Union after Lincoln39s election but before his inauguration South Carolina Georgia Florida Alabama Mississippi Louisiana Texas Arkansas did not secede at this time b 1st of February 1861 established Confederate States of America elected Jefferson Davis to be President i Four other slave states eventually joined Confederacy but not until after the Civil War began ii Seceded between April and May of 1861 iii Four other slave states did not secede c Why South seceded i Was it about statesrights or tariffs All controversial issues but no ii Secession resolutions made it clear seceded to preserve and protect 5a very 1 South Carolina declaration of quotcauses of secessionquot quotdenounced as sinful the institution of slavery they have permitted the open establishment of societies whose avowed object is to disturb the peace of and eloin the property of the citizens of other statesquot 2 Declared that Lincoln was quothostile to slaveryquot 3 So yup Pretty much about slavery iii Leading Texas secessionist wrote in his newspaper quotessential to the honor and safety of every poor white man to keep the negro in his positionquot d Political philosophy of Confederate State i Declaration of Independence offered philosophy of United States quotall men are created equal life liberty pursuit of happinessquot ii Speech made by VP of Confederacy to audience in Savannah lays out political philosophy quotOur government is founded upon the great truth that the Negro is not equal to the white man that slavery is his natural and moral condition This our new Government is the rst in the history of the world based upon this great physical philosophical and moral truthquot 1 STRAIGHT UP RACISM was a core philosophy of the Confederate states 2 Left the union to perpetuate slavery iii Talk of secession had been circulating for a long time but had never been enacted e How South justi ed secession i Not on right of revolution could have cited the declaration of independence justi ed revolution by asserting the consent of the governed that people could rebel against government and institute new government if they felt the current government was destructive 1 Slaves or poor whites may have rebelled using the same justi cation ii Justi ed with quotextreme state sovereigntyquot 1 Argued that each state when it entered the Union retained its complete sovereignty constitution was simply a compact between several states not the people 2 Federal union was a quotmere leaguequot from which any state might withdraw quotat its pleasurequot 3 Principle written into CSA constitution a quotWe the people of the Confederate States each state acting in its sovereign and independent characterquot iii Historically and logically unsound no mention of secession in any of the Constitutional documents or debates No quotright of secessionquot expressed or even implied in the constitution iv Although they had no right to secede they did it anyway Right or no right it happened 20President Abraham Lincoln a Elected primarily due to breaking parties i quota full slatequot of candidates each represented a different section of the US 1 Northern Dems Douglas 2 Southern Dems Breckinridge a Douglas unacceptable to the South because of the Freeport doctrine 3 Republicans Lincoln a Moderate former Whig congressman b quotthe normal condition of all the territories of the US is that of freedomquot c quotWe believe there should be no slavery anywhere in the territoriesquot d Effectively rejected popular sovereignty not willing to compromise 4 Constitutional Union party Bell a Made up of old Whigs and some KnowNothing parties b Decided it would ignore the issue of slavery ii No one candidate appealed to the entire country all sectional iii With the Democrats split into two parties divided between candidates Lincoln won a majority of the electoral votes but 40 of the popular vote No votes in the South b He was ALL ABOUT preserving the Union i Willing to compromise on the issue of slavery while he thought it would still keep the South in the Union 1 Unwilling to give into Southern demands but seemed willing to compromise in some way a First inaugural address essentially quotI don39t intend to interfere with slavery in the South because I don39t think I have the right nor do I have the inclinationquot Went further promised to support amendment that prohibits US government from ever interfering with slavery where it already existed Concluded quotin your hands and not in mine is the momentous issue of civil war The government will not assail youquot ii When it became clear that slavery was the dividing issue only then did he commit to emancipation iii Lincoln had hoped for peace but had risked war to send supplies to Sumter 1 To free the slaves N0 2 Willingy risked war to save the Union a July 4 1861 quotour popular government has often b been called an experiment two points in it our people have already settled the successful establishment and the successful administration One still remains the successful maintenance in the face of a formidable attempt to overthrow itquot To Horace Greeley who urged Lincoln to make emancipation the primary objective of the war quotmy paramount objective in this struggle is to save the Union and is to not either to save or destroy slavery If I can save the union without freeing any slave I would do soquot As an addendum quotl have here stated my purpose according to my view of of cial duty and I intend no modi cation of my oft expressed personal wish that all men everywhere could be freequot c His method of presidency also increased the power of the executive office d MOST IMPORTANT EFFECT Ended slavery everywhere in America i Before the civil war everyone but abolitionists agreed that slavery could continue where it already existed ii But during the war Lincoln realized that the Confederacy had to be defeated and slavery was the cornerstone of the Confederacy 1 So slavery had to be destroyed 2 At rst reluctant to do so but seemed to change his mind 3 The Emancipation Proclamation hey that s up next 21Emancipation Proclamation a Jan 1 1863 b Did it actually free the slaves c Applied only to the Confederate states that had not been captured at the time So only in those states were slaves freed d In effect freed no slaves because the states it applied to were states that were not under federal control And speci cally exempted all regions under federal military occupation e According to Prof Curry should be viewed as an important compromise A quothalfway measurequot but nonetheless important i Written to win political support of abolitionists and to win the moral support of public opinion in Europe 1 To PREVENT European nation from giving recognition to Confederate states of America ii Also not to alienate the border states the slave states that had notseceded iii Challenged the institution of slavery in the South also set the stage for the Thirteenth Amendment 22Lincoln39s Gettysburg Address a Venerated democracy above all else i quotWe here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that government of the people by the people for the people shall not perish from the earthquot b Proclaimed the civil war as a quotstruggle for the preservation of the Unionquot that it would bring true equality to all its citizens c Delivered at dedication of the Soldiers39 National Cemetery in Gettysburg Pennsylvania 2313th Amendment a Outlawed slavery or quotinvoluntary servitudequot within the United States and places under its rule also gave Congress the power to enforce the amendment by quotappropriate legislationquot b Adopted in 1865 24Presidential Reconstruction a Restore Union with little or no political economic social change in the South i The most conservative reconstruction plan shared by diverse people including Lincoln 1 Had fought to save the Union so obviously the Union was his primary concern ii Status of the freedmen would be worked out by white Southerners who had controlled the South before the war basically the southern white planter class would shape the postwar society just as it had prewar iii With exception of highest leaders the oldplanter aristocracy would continue to run the south iv Lincoln39s plan for reconstruction at time of his assassination 1 General amnesty to all in the South who would pledge future loyalty to the US 2 Prohibited only the highest CSA leaders from taking this oath and getting amnesty 3 States could reenter union as soon as 10 had pledged loyalty 4 Unsurprising that he supported a reconstruction plan that emphasized the restoration of the Union 5 Maintained the idea that racial harmony was impossible 25The Black Codes a Essentially control devices i Laws enacted by southern legislature to replace the institution of slavery create a laborcontrol and socialcontrol system ii Varied from state to state but general characteristics 1 Gave freedmen basic rights right to own property to marry enter contracts et cetera 2 Also subjected blacks to special restrictions could not testify against whites could not own rearms could not serve on juries could not make quotinsulting gesturesquot blacks without steady occupation could be arrested ned and hired out to private employers to satisfy the ne if penniless Basically another form of indentured servitude iii In Mississippi made mixed marriages a felony punishable by life imprisonment iv ln SC said blacks could only work as farmers or domestic servants V In the South seen as necessary and realistic in response to the new society 1 Made sure that there would be a suf cient labor supply 2 Made it clear that the new status of freedmen would be inferiority Former slaves blacks in general inferior to whites always vi In the North seen as intolerable Looked like slavery by another name 1 Convinced many that the South had not quotlearned the lessonquot that they had lost 2 Southerners seemed to be doing it with arrogance amp vHeness a Reported that some planters were holding former slaves on their plantation by force that armed men drove blacks to work 3 PresidentJohnson unwilling or unable to work with Congress b Result of the quotmoderatequot plan i Restore Union but shift power to poorer whites in South away from the quotplanter classquot 1 Favored by PresidentJohnson 2 Still generous to most white southerners 3 New south would be similar to antebellum south but political power taken away from the planter class amp given to yeomanfarmers Status of the freedmen still determined by whites poor whites rather than planter class Still little to no outside interference Unsurprising that Johnson favored this answer 91 a Politically and personally represented poor whites and yeomanfarmers 6 Similar to Lincoln39s but contained important differences a Exconfederate states had to repudiate war debts b Majority of states had to pledge future loyalty to US before reentry c Exconfederate members worth 20k or more could not participate would not be able to participate in government d In theory would have shifted political power to the white southern yeomen quotfrom one white pair of hands to anotherquot 26Radical Reconstruction a Plan to restore Union with extensive political economic social change in South i Often called the Congressional or Radical phase ii Not as generous to the south most radical answer called for the most change in the South Favored by radical republicans iii Wanted to make the south as much like the rest of the country as possible 1 Politically made power distributed among white and black citizens planter aristocracy broken Democratic attitudes increased signi cantly 2 Economically wanted to stimulate industry distribute wealth more evenly among white and black citizens 3 Socially hoped to move the blacks towards rstclass citizenship American democracy black as well as white Jeffersonian principles of equality natural rights responsible government all these to apply in the South to all people iv At rst radicals were a very unpopular minority in Republican party by 1867 had risen to the top by forming alliance with moderate Republicans v Congress created the quotFreedmen39s Bureauquot to aid and protect freed slaves occasionally aided distressed whites Sort of a welfare agency more in the textbook vi The 14th Amendment discussed later vii The next phase of radical reconstruction the Reconstruction Acts in 1867 1 No former confederate state could be readmitted to the Union unless it rati ed 14th amendment a To get back in the Union they had to do what only a state in the Union could do b Now that39s a headache 2 Created 5 military districts in the South and imposed ma blbw a Told to register all male voters white and black b Each voter had to take loyalty oath to the federal government once they had passed could elect voters to constitutional convention to write new state constitutions i These constitutions HAD to provide blacks the right to vote 3 The old political force lost power to new coalition a Minority of southern whites labeled scaawags b Some northerners who came to the south or remained there postwar called carpetbaggers c And newly enfranchised blacks 2714th Amendment a Perhaps the most important single addition to the Constitution since the Bill of Rights i Most crucial part of the Radical plan ii De ned citizenship for the rst time in country39s history clearly and unequivocally granted citizenship to black Americans 1 Repealed the Dred Scott decision iii Protecting citizens from violations of their rights by state governments 1 Remember 5th amendment protected civil rights against federal government 2 14quot amendment extended these protections to the state government iv In many of the Southern states the amendment was feared Sought a way to block it or prevent it from being rati ed 1 The number needed to ratify the amendment was 28 a total of 37 states 2 So number needed to deny rati cation 10 11 states had been former confederate states 3 And so in 1866 the South blocked the rati cation of 14th amendment Only Tennessee rati ed the amendment 4 Congress dominated by Radical Republicans reacted against the Southquotremains the home of treasonquot 2815th Amendment a Established the right to vote for all citizens regardless of race color or previous condition of servitude b Did not grant suffrage to women c Adopted in 1870
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